%0 Journal Article %J Cell Reports %D 2017 %T Axl Mediates ZIKA Virus Entry in Human Glial Cells and Modulates Innate Immune Responses %A Meertens, L %A Labeau, A %A Dejarnac, O %A Cipriani, S %A Sinigaglia, L %A Bonnet-Madin, L %A Le Charpentier, T %A Lamine Hafirassou, M %A Zamborlini, A %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %A Coulpier, M %A Missé, D %A Jouvenet, N %A Tabibiazar, R %A Gressens, P %A Schwartz, O %A Amara %V In press %8 2017 %0 Journal Article %J Neurotox Res %D 2017 %T Cytotoxic effects of environmental toxins on human glial cells %A D'Mello, F %A Braidy, N %A Marçal, H %A Guillemin, G %A Rossi, F %A Chinain, m %A Laurent, D %A Teo, C %A Neilan, B A %N 2 %P 245-258 %V 31 %X

Toxins produced by cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates have increasingly become a public health concern due to their degenerative effects on mammalian tissue and cells. In particular, emerging evidence has called attention to the neurodegenerative effects of the cyanobacterial toxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). Other toxins such as the neurotoxins saxitoxin and ciguatoxin, as well as the hepatotoxic microcystin, have been previously shown to have a range of effects upon the nervous system. However, the capacity of these toxins to cause neurodegeneration in human cells has not, to our knowledge, been previously investigated. This study aimed to examine the cytotoxic effects of BMAA, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), saxitoxin (STX) and ciguatoxin (CTX-1B) on primary adult human astrocytes. We also demonstrated that α-lipoate attenuated MC-LR toxicity in primary astrocytes and characterised changes in gene expression which could potentially be caused by these toxins in primary astrocytes. Herein, we are the first to show that all of these toxins are capable of causing physiological changes consistent with neurodegeneration in glial cells, via oxidative stress and excitotoxicity, leading to a reduction in cell proliferation culminating in cell death. In addition, MC-LR toxicity was reduced significantly in astrocytes-treated α-lipoic acid. While there were no significant changes in gene expression, many of the probes that were altered were associated with neurodegenerative disease pathogenesis. Overall, this is important in advancing our current understanding of the mechanism of toxicity of MC-LR on human brain function in vitro, particularly in the context of neurodegeneration.

%8 2017 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet Infectious Diseases %D 2017 %T Emergence of Zika virus: where does it come from and where is it going to? %A Musso, D %A Lanteri, M %N 3 %P 255 %V 17 %8 2017 %0 Journal Article %J Oceanography %D 2017 %T Harmful algal blooms in benthic systems: Recent progress and future research %A Berdalet, E %A Tester, P A %A Chinain, M %A Fraga, S %A Lemee, R %A Litaker, R W %A Penna, A %A Usup, G %A Vila, M %A Zingone, A %N 1 %P 36-45 %V 30 %X

Shallow, well-illuminated coastal waters from tropical to temperate latitudes are attractive environments for humans. Beaches and coral reefs have provided lodging and food to coastal communities for centuries. Unfortunately, tropical regions traditionally have been threatened by outbreaks of the toxic benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus, which is associated with ciguatera fish poisoning. The ciguatoxins produced by Gambierdiscus bioaccumulate in reef fishes and are responsible for the most common algal toxin-related illnesses, globally affecting the greatest number of victims and often with significant long-term health effects. Recently, Gambierdiscus has been documented in subtropical and temperate latitudes. Blooms of another benthic and toxic dinoflagellate, Ostreopsis, have become more frequent and intense, especially in temperate waters. Ostreopsis produces palytoxins and analogues, and some outbreaks have been associated with massive benthic faunal damage and respiratory irritations in humans exposed to aerosols. The increased frequency of harmful events and the biogeographic extension of benthic microalgae incentivized the launch of the Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (GEOHAB) Core Research Project on “Benthic Harmful Algal Blooms” in 2010. This article summarizes the main scientific advances and gaps in related knowledge as well as advances the project has made toward managing and mitigating the impacts of benthic HABs on human illnesses and marine resource losses.

%8 2017 %0 Journal Article %J Eurosurveillance %D 2017 %T High risk of dengue type 2 outbreak in French Polynesia, 2017 %A Aubry, M %A Teissier, Y %A Mapotoeke, M %A Teissier, A %A Giard, M %A Musso, D %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %N 14 %V 22 %X In French Polynesia, the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1 to -4) have caused 14 epidemics since the mid-1940s. From the end of 2016, an increasing number of Pacific Island Countries and Territories have reported DENV-2 outbreaks and in February 2017, DENV-2 infection was detected in French Polynesia in three travellers from Vanuatu. As DENV-2 has not been circulating in French Polynesia since December 2000, there is high risk for an outbreak to occur. %8 2017 %0 Journal Article %J Transfusion %D 2017 %T Inactivation of Zika virus in platelet components using amotosalen and ultraviolet A illumination. %A Santa Maria, F %A Lanteri, M %A Aubry, M %A Musso, D %A Stassinopoulos, A %V Accept %8 2017 %0 Journal Article %J Int J Infect Dis %D 2017 %T New evidence for endemic circulation of Ross River Virus in the Pacific Islands and potential for emergence %A Lau, C %A Aubry, M %A Musso, D %A Teissier, A %A Paulous, S %A Despr %V Accept %8 2017 %0 Journal Article %J Am J Epidemiol %D 2017 %T Real-time assessment of healthcare requirements during the Zika virus epidemic in Martinique. %A Andronico, A %A Dorléans, F %A Fergé, J L %A Salje, H %A Ghawche, F %A Signate, A %A Daudens-Vaysse, E %A Baudouin, L %A Dub, T %A Aubry, M %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %A Ledrans, M %A Noel, H %A Mallet, H P %A Fontanet, A %A Cabie, A %A Cauchemez, S %V In press %8 2017 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet %D 2017 %T Zika rash and increased risk of congenital brain abnormalities. %A Gerardin, P %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %A Musso, D %A Despr %N 10065 %P 151-2 %V 389 %8 2017 %0 Journal Article %J Emerg Infect Dis %D 2017 %T Zika seroprevalence, French Polynesia, 2014-2015 %A Aubry, M %A Teissier, A %A Huart, M %A Merceron, S %A Vanhomwegen, J %A Roche, C %A Vial, A L %A Teururai, S %A Sicard, S %A Paulous, S %A Despr %N 4 %V 23 %X

During 2013-2014, French Polynesia experienced an outbreak of Zika virus infection. Serosurveys conducted at the end of the outbreak and 18 months later showed lower than expected disease prevalence rates (49%) and asymptomatic:symptomatic case ratios (1:1) in the general population but significantly different prevalence rates (66%) and asymptomatic:symptomatic ratios (1:2) in schoolchildren.

%8 2017 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet %D 2017 %T Zika virus infection: an update %A Baud, D %A Gubler, D %A Schaub, B %A Lanteri, M %A Musso, D %V Accept %8 2017 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet Infectious Diseases %D 2017 %T Zika virus in Singapore: unanswered questions. %A Musso, D %A Lanteri, M %V Accept %8 2017 %0 Journal Article %J Transfusion %D 2017 %T Amustaline (S-303) Treatment Inactivates High Levels of Zika Virus in Red Blood Cell Components %A Laughhunn, A %A Santa Maria, F %A Broult, J %A Lanteri, M %A Stassinopoulos, A %A Musso, D %A Aubry, M %V Accept %X

The potential for Zika virus (ZIKV) transfusion-transmission (TT) has been demonstrated in French Polynesia and Brazil. Pathogen inactivation (PI) of blood products is a proactive strategy to inactivate TT pathogens including arboviruses. Inactivation of West Nile, dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses was previously demonstrated by photochemical treatment with amotosalen and ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination. In this study, we evaluated ZIKV inactivation in red blood cell (RBC) components by a chemical approach that uses amustaline (S-303) and glutathione (GSH).
STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS:
RBC components were spiked with a high titer of ZIKV. Viral titers (infectivity) and ZIKV RNA loads (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) were measured in spiked RBCs before and after S-303 and GSH treatment and confirmed using repetitive passages in cell culture. A mock-treated arm validated the approach by demonstrating stability of the virus (infectivity and RNA load) during the process.
RESULTS:
The mean ZIKV infectivity titer and RNA load in RBCs were 5.99 ± 0.2 log 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 )/mL and 7.75 ± 0.16 log genomic equivalents/mL before inactivation. No infectivity was detected immediately after S-303 and GSH treatment and after five serial passages in cell culture.
CONCLUSION:
Complete ZIKV inactivation of more than 5.99 log TCID50 /mL in RBCs was achieved using S-303 and GSH at levels higher than those found in asymptomatic ZIKV-infected blood donors. Therefore, the S-303 and GSH PI system is promising for mitigating the risk of ZIKV TT.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Sci Rep %D 2017 %T Mycobacterium massilipolynesiensis sp. nov., a rapidly-growing mycobacterium of medical interest related to Mycobacterium phlei. Scientific report. %A Phelippeau, M %A Asmar, S %A Osman, D A %A Sassi, M %A Robert, C %A Musso, Drancourt %N 40443 %V 7 %X

In French Polynesia, respiratory tract clinical isolate M26, displayed unusual phenotype and contradictory phylogenetic affiliations, suggesting a hitherto unidentified rapidly-growing Mycobacterium species. The phenotype of strain M26 was further characterized and its genome sequenced. Strain M26 genome consists in a 5,732,017-bp circular chromosome with a G + C% of 67.54%, comprising 5,500 protein-coding genes and 52 RNA genes (including two copies of the 16 S rRNA gene). One region coding for a putative prophage was also predicted. An intriguing characteristic of strain M26's genome is the large number of genes encoding polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthases. Phylogenomic analysis showed that strain M26's genome is closest to the Mycobacterium phlei genome with a 76.6% average nucleotide identity. Comparative genomics of 33 Mycobacterium genomes yielded 361 genes unique to M26 strain which functional annotation revealed 84.21% of unknown function and 3.88% encoding lipid transport and metabolism; while 48.87% of genes absent in M26 strain have unknown function, 9.5% are implicated in transcription and 19% are implicated in transport and metabolism. Strain M26's unique phenotypic and genomic characteristics indicate it is representative of a new species named "Mycobacterium massilipolynesiensis". Looking for mycobacteria in remote areas allows for the discovery of new Mycobacterium species.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Transfusion %D 2017 %T Relative analytical sensitivity of donor nucleic acid amplification technology screening and diagnostic real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for detection of Zika virus RNA %A Stone, M %A Lanteri, M %A Bakkour, S %A Deng, X %A Galel, S %A Linnen, J %A Munoz-Jordan, J %A Lanciotti, R %A Rios, M %A Gallian, P %A Musso, D %A Levi, J %A Bush, M %P doi. 10.1111/trf.14031 %X

Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread rapidly in the Pacific and throughout the Americas and is associated with severe congenital and adult neurologic outcomes. Nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) assays were developed for diagnostic applications and for blood donor screening on high-throughput NAT systems. We distributed blinded panels to compare the analytical performance of blood screening relative to diagnostic NAT assays.
STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS:
A 25-member, coded panel (11 half-log dilutions of a 2013 French Polynesia ZIKV isolate and 2015 Brazilian donor plasma implicated in transfusion transmission, and 3 negative controls) was sent to 11 laboratories that performed 17 assays with 2 to 12 replicates per panel member. Results were analyzed for the percentage reactivity at each dilution and by probit analysis to estimate the 50% and 95% limits of detection (LOD50 and LOD95 , respectively).
RESULTS:
Donor-screening NAT assays that process approximately 500 µL of plasma into amplification reactions were comparable in sensitivity (LOD50 and LOD95 , 2.5 and 15-18 copies/mL) and were approximately 10-fold to 100-fold more sensitive than research laboratory-developed and diagnostic reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction tests that process from 10 to 30 µL of plasma per amplification. Increasing sample input volume assayed with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays increased the LODs by 10-fold to 30-fold.
CONCLUSIONS:
Blood donor-screening ZIKV NAT assays demonstrate similar excellent sensitivities to assays currently used for screening for transfusion-transmitted viruses and are substantially more sensitive than most other laboratory-developed and diagnostic ZIKV reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays. Enhancing sensitivities of laboratory-developed and diagnostic assays may be achievable by increasing sample input.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J American Journal of Reproductive Immunology %D 2017 %T Zika virus: a new threat to human reproduction %A Baud, D %A Musso, D %A Vouga, M %A Alves, M P %A Vulliemoz, N %N 2 %P doi: 10.1111/aji.12614 %V 77 %X

Zika virus (ZIKV) was first isolated in 1947 in a rhesus monkey from the Zika forest of Uganda. Until 2007, only 14 human cases were reported. The first large human outbreak occurred in 2007 (Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia, Pacific) followed by French Polynesia in 2013 and Brazil in 2015. The virus is mainly transmitted through Aedes mosquito bites, but sexual and post-transfusion transmissions have been reported. Symptoms include low-grade fever, maculopapular rash, conjunctivitis, myalgia, arthralgia, and asthenia. During the recent outbreaks in French Polynesia and Brazil, ZIKV infection has been associated with two major complications: microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Since fetal infection includes other birth defects, congenital Zika syndrome has been used to define in utero infection. The majority of sexual transmission occurred from a symptomatic male to a female, but female-to-male and male-to-male transmission have been reported. Asymptomatic male-to-female transmission has also been described. Importantly, ZIKV RNA can persist at least 6 months in semen. The male urogenital tract may therefore act as a reservoir for the virus. ZIKV RNA was detected in a cervical swab of a patient 3 days after presenting the classic symptoms suggesting a potential tropism for the female genital tract. Long-lasting presence of ZIKV RNA might not indicate that the individual is infectious but makes recommendation for couples potentially exposed to the virus and willing to conceive difficult. It will also be important to determine whether genital ZIKV infection might have a deleterious effect on male and female fertility.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet %D 2017 %T Zika virus: are we going too far ? %A Vouga, M %A Musso, D %A Shaub, B %A Panchaud, A %A Baud, D %N 10065 %P 151 %V 389 %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Transfusion %D 2017 %T Zika virus and blood transfusion, the experience of French Polynesia %A Bierlaire, D %A Maugion, S %A Broult, J %A Musso, D %P doi: 10.1111/trf.14028 %X

BACKGROUND:
Between October 2013 and March 2014, French Polynesia experienced the largest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak ever described before the emergence of ZIKV in the Americas in 2015. As arbovirus transfusion-transmitted (TT) infections have been previously reported, we hypothesized that transfusion of blood products could also transmit ZIKV.
STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS:
Mitigation strategies to prevent ZIKV-TT infections included nonspecific measures and the implementation of a laboratory developed ZIKV-specific nucleic acid testing (NAT) assay. Donor sera were tested in pools of 3 and constitutive sera of ZIKV-reactive pools were tested individually. Donor sera were tested prospectively and retrospectively. A posttransfusion follow-up of a patient transfused with ZIKV RNA-reactive blood products was implemented.
RESULTS:
NAT detected 42 blood donor sera as ZIKV RNA reactive of 1505 tested (2.8%). Thirty ZIKV RNA-reactive blood products collected before the implementation of NAT were transfused to 26 recipients. Posttransfusion investigations were conducted by the hemovigilance unit and data were available for 12 recipients. Symptomatic ZIKV-TT infections were not reported.
CONCLUSION:
Predonation screening of blood donors, postdonation information, products discard, and quarantine of blood products were not effective enough to prevent transfusion of ZIKV RNA-reactive blood products. ZIKV NAT was an effective measure once implemented to prevent transfusion of ZIKV RNA-reactive blood products but it is difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of this measure to prevent ZIKV-TT infection, which is a rare event.

%Z

Medium Designator: Bierlaire D, Last

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Tick and tick-borne diseases %D 2016 %T Absence of Serological Evidence of Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp.and Coxiella burnetii Infections in American Samoa. %A Lau, C %A Musso, D %A Fournier, P E %A Parola, P %A Weinstein, P %N 5 %P 703-5 %V 7 %X

Little is known about the epidemiology of zoonotic diseases in American Samoa (Pacific). A review of literature did not identify any published information on human Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp. or Coxiella burnetii infections in this country. To determine the presence of these diseases, we conducted a serosurvey of American Samoans. The presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia conorii, C. burnetii, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay in sera from 197 American Samoan adults. None of the samples had antibodies at a significant level against Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp. or C. burnetii (seroprevalence 0%; one-tailed 95% CI 0-1.86%). We cannot conclude that these pathogens are absent in American Samoa but, if present, their prevalence is probably very low. Q fever has been reported worldwide except in New Zealand and French Polynesia; these new data suggest that the prevalence of Q fever is likely to be very low in the Pacific Islands.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Tick and tick-borne diseases %D 2016 %T A novel Ehrlichial agent detected in tick in French Polynesia %A Laroche, M %A Marie, J %A Mediannikov, O %A Almeras, L %A Berenger, J M %A Musso, D %A Parola, P %N 6 %P 1203-8 %V 7 %X

Ticks are hematophageous arthropods that are known to host and transmit miscellaneous pathogens including zoonotic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of tick-associated microorganisms in Tahiti, French Polynesia with molecular tools. A total of 658 ticks from two species including Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. and Rh. annulatus were collected with forceps on dogs and cattle respectively, or with a flag on pasture in several locations of Tahiti in 2013. Two Rickettsia belonging to the spotted fever group different from R. conorii and R. massiliae were detected by qPCR in two Rh. sanguineus s.l. ticks, but sequencing failed. A Rh. annulatus tick was found positive for a new ehrlichial agent characterized by amplification and sequencing of fragments of the Anaplasmataceae 23S and Ehrlichia 16S genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 23S and 16S sequences reveals that this bacterium is a new genotype, genetically close to Ehrlichia minasensis, a recently described Ehrlichia sp. close to Ehrlichia canis.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet Infectious Diseases %D 2016 %T An international registry for women exposed to Zika virus during pregnancy: time for answers %A Panchaud, A %A Vouga, M %A Musso, D %A Baudemail, D %N 9 %P 995-6 %V 16 %X Barreto and colleagues1 proposed in their Comment in The Lancet a strategic plan of action, at the government level, to manage the present Zika virus epidemic and to increase knowledge about the infection. However, an international collaboration is needed because of the magnitude of situation. Since first suspicion in 2015, evidence suggests that Zika virus should be considered as a teratogenic agent, similarly to the toxoplasmosis, others (syphilis, varicella zoster), rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex (TORCH) agents, until proven otherwise. %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Tick and tick-borne diseases %D 2016 %T Absence of Serological Evidence of Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp.and Coxiella burnetii nfections in American Samoa. %A Lau, C %A Musso, D %A Fournier, P E %A Parola, P %A Weinstein, P %N 5 %P 703-5 %V 7 %X Little is known about the epidemiology of zoonotic diseases in American Samoa (Pacific). A review of literature did not identify any published information on human Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp. or Coxiella burnetii infections in this country. To determine the presence of these diseases, we conducted a serosurvey of American Samoans. The presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia conorii, C. burnetii, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay in sera from 197 American Samoan adults. None of the samples had antibodies at a significant level against Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp. or C. burnetii (seroprevalence 0%; one-tailed 95% CI 0-1.86%). We cannot conclude that these pathogens are absent in American Samoa but, if present, their prevalence is probably very low. Q fever has been reported worldwide except in New Zealand and French Polynesia; these new data suggest that the prevalence of Q fever is likely to be very low in the Pacific Islands. %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Tick and tick-borne diseases %D 2016 %T A novel Ehrlichial agent detected in tick in French Polynesia %A Laroche, M %A Marie, J %A Mediannikov, O %A Almeras, L %A Berenger, J M %A Musso, D %A Parola, P %V Accept %X Ticks are hematophageous arthropods that are known to host and transmit miscellaneous pathogens including zoonotic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of tick-associated microorganisms in Tahiti, French Polynesia with molecular tools. A total of 658 ticks from two species including Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. and Rh. annulatus were collected with forceps on dogs and cattle respectively, or with a flag on pasture in several locations of Tahiti in 2013. Two Rickettsia belonging to the spotted fever group different from R. conorii and R. massiliae were detected by qPCR in two Rh. sanguineus s.l. ticks, but sequencing failed. A Rh. annulatus tick was found positive for a new ehrlichial agent characterized by amplification and sequencing of fragments of the Anaplasmataceae 23S and Ehrlichia 16S genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 23S and 16S sequences reveals that this bacterium is a new genotype, genetically close to Ehrlichia minasensis, a recently described Ehrlichia sp. close to Ehrlichia canis. %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J BEH %D 2016 %T Bilan de l’épidémie à virus Zika survenue en Polynésie française entre octobre 2013 et mars 2014 %A Mallet, H P %A Vial, A L %A Musso, D %N 20-21 %P 367-73 %X

Dans le contexte actuel d'émergence globale du virus Zika, nous rapportons les données épidémio-cliniques de l'épidémie survenue en Polynésie française (région Pacifique) entre octobre 2013 et mars 2014. Les données de surveillance sentinelle syndromique, utilisant une définition de cas originale, couplées au diagnostic par biologie moléculaire ont permis la surveillance de l'épidémie et la description des cas cliniques confirmés. Les premiers clusters de « syndromes éruptifs » ont été détectés début octobre 2013 et l'identification du virus Zika a été faite par l'Institut Louis Malardé le 30 octobre 2013. Durant les six mois d'épidémie, il a été estimé qu'un total de 32 000 cas suspects avait consulté (11,5% de la population), avec un pic atteint dès la 8e semaine. Les signes cliniques les plus fréquemment rapportés pour les 297 cas confirmés et investigués étaient : éruption maculo-papuleuse (93%), asthénie (78%), fièvre ressentie (72%), arthralgies (65%), hyperhémie conjonctivale (63%). La durée moyenne de l'épisode aigu était de six jours. Des complications neurologiques ou auto-immunes suspectées d'être liées à l'infection par le virus Zika ont été observées pendant l'épidémie. En particulier, 42 cas de syndromes de Guillain-Barré ont été décrits, pour lesquels le lien de causalité a été prouvé a posteriori. Cette épidémie a été la première épidémie de Zika d'importance décrite de manière exhaustive et à l'origine de formes sévères. La souche de virus Zika qui a émergé en Polynésie française a gagné en 2014 le reste du Pacifique et est probablement celle qui circule dans les Amériques depuis 2015.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet %D 2016 %T CDC guidelines for pregnant women during the Zika virus outbreak. %A Vouga, M %A Musso, D %A Mieghem, T V %A Baud, D %N 10021 %P 843-4 %V 387 %X

Zika virus is attracting worldwide attention and everyone fears its potential dramatic effects on the fetal brain. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have recently published interim guidelines on management of pregnant women exposed to Zika virus.1 We do, however, have some comments on these recommendations.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Journal of clinical case reports %D 2016 %T Chikungunya Virus Uveitis during French Polynesia Outbreak, 2014-2015 %A Nhan, T %A Fallevoz, T %A De Pina, J J %A Richard, V %A Musso, D %N 1 %V 6 %X Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) of the genus Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae. CHIKV is transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes; materno-foetal transmission and transmission via corneal graft have been reported. During the poast decade, the status of chikungunya has changed, from a relatively uncommon and poorly documented disease, to an emerging disease, and now to a global public health concern. CHIKV now circulates in all inhabited continents. From 2011, CHIKV merged in the Pacific region and was responsible for a massive outbreak in French Polynesia in 2014-2015 affecting about 25% of the population in a context of co-circulation with dengue virus (DENV). CHIKV mainly causes acute fever and severe and persistent polyarthralgia. Ocular involvement has been described during chikungunya fever but few were well-documented. We herein report a laboratory-confirmed case of CHIKV-associated uveitis during the French Polynesia outbreak. %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet Infectious Diseases %D 2016 %T Clinical management of pregnant women exposed to Zika virus: an update %A Vouga, M %A Musso, D %A Panchaud, A %A Baud, D %N 7 %P 773 %V 16 %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet %D 2016 %T CDC guidelines for pregnant womenduring the Zika virus outbreak %A Vouga, M %A Musso, D %A Mieghem, T V %A Baud, D %N 10021 %P 843-4 %V 387 %X Zika virus is attracting worldwide attention and everyone fears its potential dramatic effects on the fetal brain. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have recently published interim guidelines on management of pregnant women exposed to Zika virus.1 We do, however, have some comments on these recommendations. %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Journal of clinical case reports %D 2016 %T Chikungunya Virus Uveitis during French Polynesia Outbreak, 2014-2015 %A Nhan, T %A Fallevoz, T %A De Pina, J J %A Richard, V %A Musso, D %N 1 %V 6 %X Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) of the genus Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae. CHIKV is transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes; materno-foetal transmission and transmission via corneal graft have been reported. During the poast decade, the status of chikungunya has changed, from a relatively uncommon and poorly documented disease, to an emerging disease, and now to a global public health concern. CHIKV now circulates in all inhabited continents. From 2011, CHIKV merged in the Pacific region and was responsible for a massive outbreak in French Polynesia in 2014-2015 affecting about 25% of the population in a context of co-circulation with dengue virus (DENV). CHIKV mainly causes acute fever and severe and persistent polyarthralgia. Ocular involvement has been described during chikungunya fever but few were well-documented. We herein report a laboratory-confirmed case of CHIKV-associated uveitis during the French Polynesia outbreak. %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet Infectious Diseases %D 2016 %T Clinical management of pregnant women exposed to Zika virus. %A Baud, D %A Mieghem, T V %A Musso, D %A Truttmann, A C %A Panchaud, A %A Vouga, M %N 5 %P 523 %V 16 %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet Infectious Diseases %D 2016 %T Clinical management of pregnant women exposed to Zika virus: an update %A Vouga, M %A Musso, D %A Baud, D %N 7 %P 773 %V 16 %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Nature Microbiol %D 2016 %T Culture of previously uncultured members of the human gut microbiota by culturomics %A Lagier J. C. Ma, Khelaifia Tidjani Ndongo Dione Hugon Caputo Cadoret Traore Seck Dubourg Durand Mourembou Guilhot Togo Bellali Bachar Cassir Bittar Delerce %V 1:16203 %X

Metagenomics revolutionized the understanding of the relations among the human microbiome, health and diseases, but generated a countless number of sequences that have not been assigned to a known microorganism1. The pure culture of prokaryotes, neglected in recent decades, remains essential to elucidating the role of these organisms2. We recently introduced microbial culturomics, a culturing approach that uses multiple culture conditions and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight and 16S rRNA for identification2. Here, we have selected the best culture conditions to increase the number of studied samples and have applied new protocols (fresh-sample inoculation; detection of microcolonies and specific cultures of Proteobacteria and microaerophilic and halophilic prokaryotes) to address the weaknesses of the previous studies3-5. We identified 1,057 prokaryotic species, thereby adding 531 species to the human gut repertoire: 146 bacteria known in humans but not in the gut, 187 bacteria and 1 archaea not previously isolated in humans, and 197 potentially new species. Genome sequencing was performed on the new species. By comparing the results of the metagenomic and culturomic analyses, we show that the use of culturomics allows the culture of organisms corresponding to sequences previously not assigned. Altogether, culturomics doubles the number of species isolated at least once from the human gut.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J BMJ %D 2016 %T Congenital Zika syndrome: time to harness shared data centralized in an international registry %A Baud, D %A Gerardin, P %A Merriam, A %A Alves, M P %A Musso, D %A Genton, B %A Panchaud, A %P doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i4721 (Published 13 September 2016) %V 354 %X

Objectives To provide contemporary estimates of the prevalence of microcephaly in Europe, determine if the diagnosis of microcephaly is consistent across Europe, and evaluate whether changes in prevalence would be detected using the current European surveillance performed by EUROCAT (the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies).

Design Questionnaire and population based observational study.

Setting 24 EUROCAT registries covering 570 000 births annually in 15 countries.

Participants Cases of microcephaly not associated with a genetic condition among live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks’ gestation, and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly at any gestation.

Main outcome measures Prevalence of microcephaly (1 Jan 2003-31 Dec 2012) analysed with random effects Poisson regression models to account for heterogeneity across registries.

Results 16 registries responded to the questionnaire, of which 44% (7/16) used the EUROCAT definition of microcephaly (a reduction in the size of the brain with a skull circumference more than 3 SD below the mean for sex, age, and ethnic origin), 19% (3/16) used a 2 SD cut off, 31% (5/16) were reliant on the criteria used by individual clinicians, and one changed criteria between 2003 and 2012. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe was 1.53 (95% confidence interval 1.16 to 1.96) per 10 000 births, with registries varying from 0.4 (0.2 to 0.7) to 4.3 (3.6 to 5.0) per 10 000 (χ2=338, df=23, I2=93%). Registries with a 3 SD cut off reported a prevalence of 1.74 per 10 000 (0.86 to 2.93) compared with those with the less stringent 2 SD cut off of 1.21 per 10 000 (0.21 to 2.93). The prevalence of microcephaly would need to increase in one year by over 35% in Europe or by over 300% in a single registry to reach statistical significance (P<0.01).

Conclusions EUROCAT could detect increases in the prevalence of microcephaly from the Zika virus of a similar magnitude to those observed in Brazil. Because of the rarity of microcephaly and discrepant diagnostic criteria, however, the smaller increases expected in Europe would probably not be detected. Clear diagnostic criteria for microcephaly must be adopted across Europe.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Harmful algae %D 2016 %T Ciguatera fish poisoning: Incidence, health costs and risk perception on Moorea Island (Society archipelago, French Polynesia) %A Morin, E %A Gatti, C %A Bambridge, T %A Chinain, M %P 1-10 %V 60 %X Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is a non-bacterial seafood poisoning well characterized in the remote archipelagos of French Polynesia, yet poorly documented in the Society archipelago, most notably on Moorea, the second most populated island in French Polynesia, which counts a high proportion of fishermen fishing on a regular basis. To address this knowledge gap, a holistic study of the ciguatera issue was conducted on Moorea. First, ciguatera risk was analysed in terms of incidence rate, fish species most commonly involved and risk stratification in Moorea lagoon based on 2007 %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Virology Journal %D 2016 %T Detection of chikungunya virus in saliva and urine %A Musso, D %A Teissier, A %A Rouault, E %A Teururai, S %A De Pina, J J %A Nhan, T %V 13:102 %X

Background
Saliva and urine have been used for arthropod-borne viruses molecular detection but not yet for chikungunya virus (CHIKV). We investigated the use of saliva and urine for molecular detection of CHIKV during the French Polynesian outbreak.
Methods
During the French Polynesian chikungunya outbreak (2014–2015), we collected the same day blood and saliva samples from 60 patients with probable chikungunya (47 during the 1st week post symptoms onset and 13 after), urine was available for 39 of them. All samples were tested using a CHIKV reverse-transcription PCR.
Results
Forty eight patients had confirmed chikungunya. For confirmed chikungunya presenting during the 1st week post symptoms onset, CHIKV RNA was detected from 86.1 % (31/36) of blood, 58.3 % (21/36) of saliva and 8.3 % (2/24) of urine. Detection rate of CHIKV RNA was significantly higher in blood compared to saliva. For confirmed chikungunya presenting after the 1st week post symptoms onset, CHIKV RNA was detected from 8.3 % (1/12) of blood, 8.3 % (1/12) of saliva and 0 % (0/8) of urine.
Conclusions
In contrast to Zika virus (ZIKV), saliva did not increased the detection rate of CHIKV RNA during the 1st week post symptoms onset. In contrast to ZIKV, dengue virus and West Nile virus, urine did not enlarged the window of detection of CHIKV RNA after the 1st week post symptoms onset. Saliva can be used for molecular detection of CHIKV during the 1st week post symptoms onset only if blood is impossible to collect but with a lower sensitivity compared to blood.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Nature Immunology %D 2016 %T Dengue virus sero-cross-reactivity drives antibody-dependent enhancement of infection with zika virus %A Dejnirattisai, D %A Supasa, P %A Wongwiwat, W %A Rouvinski, A %A Barba-Spaeth, G %A Duangchinda, T %A Sakuntabhai, A %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %A Malasit, P %A Rey, F A %A Mongkolsapaya, J %A Screaton, G R %V doi:10.103 %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Transfusion %D 2016 %T Documentation of transfusion-transmitted arbovirus infections in endemic areas %A Musso, D %A Gould, E %A Lanteri, M %N 12 %P 3143-3144 %V 56 %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Nature Immunology %D 2016 %T Dengue virus sero-cross-reactivity drives antibody-dependent enhancement of infection with zika virus %A Dejnirattisai, D %A Supasa, P %A Wongwiwat, W %A Rouvinski, A %A Barba-Spaeth, G %A Duangchinda, T %A Sakuntabhai, A %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %A Malasit, P %A Rey, F A %A Mongkolsapaya, J %A Screaton, G R %V doi:10.103 %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Virologie %D 2016 %T Emergence du virus Zika: ne pas confondre détection d'anticorps lors d'études anciennes et circulation actuelle. %A Musso, D %N 3 %P 145-6 %V 20 %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Harmful algae %D 2016 %T Evidence of the bioaccumulation of ciguatoxins in giant clams (Tridacna maxima) exposed to Gambierdiscus spp. cells. %A Roué M M., Darius Picot Ung Viallon Gaertner-Mazouni Sibat Amzil Chinain %P 78-87 %V 57 %X

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is a foodborne disease classically related to the consumption of tropical coral reef fishes contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs), neurotoxins produced by dinoflagellates of the Gambierdiscus genus. Severe atypical ciguatera-like incidents involving giant clams, a marine resource highly consumed in the South Pacific, are also frequently reported in many Pacific Islands Countries and Territories. The present study was designed to assess the ability of giant clams to accumulate CTXs in their tissues and highlight the potential health risks associated with their consumption. Since giant clams are likely to be exposed to both free-swimming Gambierdiscus cells and dissolved CTXs in natural environment, ex situ contamination experiments were conducted as follows: giant clams were exposed to live or lyzed cells of TB92, a highly toxic strain of G. polynesiensis containing 5.83 ± 0.85 pg P-CTX-3C equiv. cell-1vs. HIT0, a weakly toxic strain of G. toxicus containing only (2.05 ± 1.16) × 10-3 pg P-CTX-3C equiv. cell-1, administered over a 48 h period at a concentration of 150 cells mL-1. The presence of CTXs in giant clams tissues was further assessed using the mouse neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a). Results showed that giant clams exposed to either lyzed or live cells of TB92 were able to bioaccumulate CTXs at concentrations well above the safety limit recommended for human consumption, i.e. 3.28 ± 1.37 and 2.92 ± 1.03 ng P-CTX-3C equiv. g-1 flesh (wet weight), respectively, which represented approximately 3% of the total toxin load administered to the animals. In contrast, giant clams exposed to live or lyzed cells of HIT0 were found to be free of toxins, suggesting that in the nature, the risk of contamination of these bivalves is established only in the presence of highly toxic blooms of Gambierdiscus. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) analyses confirmed CBA-N2a results and also revealed that P-CTX-3B was the major CTX congener retained in the tissues of giant clams fed with TB92 cells. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to provide evidence of the bioaccumulation of Gambierdiscus CTXs in giant clams and confirms that these bivalve molluscs can actually constitute another pathway in ciguatera poisonings. While most monitoring programs currently focus on fish toxicity, these findings stress the importance of a concomitant surveillance of these marine invertebrates in applicable locations for an accurate assessment of ciguatera risk.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Virologie %D 2016 %T Emergence du virus Zika: ne pas confondre détection d'anticorps lors d'études anciennes et circulation actuelle. %A Musso, D %N 5 %P 225-35 %V 19 %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J PlosOne %D 2016 %T Fluorescent receptor binding assay for detecting ciguatoxins in fish %A Hardison, D R %A Holland, W C %A McCall, J R %A Bourdelais, A J %A Baden, D G %A Darius, H T %A Chinain, M %A Tester, P A %A Shea, D %A Flores Quintana, H A %A Morris Jr, J A %A Litaker, R W %N 4 %P e0153348. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153348 %V 11 %X

Ciguatera fish poisoning is an illness suffered by > 50,000 people yearly after consumption of fish containing ciguatoxins (CTXs). One of the current methodologies to detect ciguatoxins in fish is a radiolabeled receptor binding assay (RBA(R)). However, the license requirements and regulations pertaining to radioisotope utilization can limit the applicability of the RBA(R) in certain labs. A fluorescence based receptor binding assay (RBA(F)) was developed to provide an alternative method of screening fish samples for CTXs in facilities not certified to use radioisotopes. The new assay is based on competition binding between CTXs and fluorescently labeled brevetoxin-2 (BODIPY®- PbTx-2) for voltage-gated sodium channel receptors at site 5 instead of a radiolabeled brevetoxin. Responses were linear in fish tissues spiked from 0.1 to 1.0 ppb with Pacific ciguatoxin-3C (P-CTX-3C) with a detection limit of 0.075 ppb. Carribean ciguatoxins were confirmed in Caribbean fish by LC-MS/MS analysis of the regional biomarker (C-CTX-1). Fish (N = 61) of six different species were screened using the RBA(F). Results for corresponding samples analyzed using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a) correlated well (R2 = 0.71) with those of the RBA(F), given the low levels of CTX present in positive fish. Data analyses also showed the resulting toxicity levels of P-CTX-3C equivalents determined by CBA-N2a were consistently lower than the RBA(F) affinities expressed as % binding equivalents, indicating that a given amount of toxin bound to the site 5 receptors translates into corresponding lower cytotoxicity. Consequently, the RBA(F), which takes approximately two hours to perform, provides a generous estimate relative to the widely used CBA-N2a which requires 2.5 days to complete. Other RBA(F) advantages include the long-term (> 5 years) stability of the BODIPY®- PbTx-2 and having similar results as the commonly used RBA(R). The RBA(F) is cost-effective, allows high sample throughput, and is well-suited for routine CTX monitoring programs.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J IDCases %D 2016 %T Fatal leptospirosis and chikungunya co-infection: do not forget leptospirosis during chinkungunya outbreaks. %A Nhan, T %A Bonnieux, E %A Rovery, C %A De Pina, J J %A Musso, D %P 12-4 %V 5 %X

In endemic areas, leptospirosis can be missed by erroneous clinical or laboratory diagnosis of arboviroses or co-infections with arboviruses and an increase in mortality due to leptospirosis has already been reported during arboviruses outbreaks. During the French Polynesian chikungunya virus outbreak in 2014-2015, two leptospirosis and chikungunya co-infections were reported, one of which was fatal. Diagnosis of leptospiroses was delayed in the context of chikungunya outbreak. In the context of arbovirus outbreak, the risk of misdiagnosis of leptospirosis is maximum and clinicians should initiate early antibiotic therapy if leptospirosis is suspected. A delayed diagnosis of leptospirosis can be responsible for fatal outcome. Leptospirosis should be considered even if dengue or chikungunya virus infections are confirmed by reference molecular testing.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Plos Neg Trop Dis %D 2016 %T Genetic Diversity and Phylogeny of Aedes aegypti, the Main Arbovirus Vector in the Pacific %A Calvez, E %A Guillaumot, L %A Millet, L %A Marie, J %A Bossin, H %A Rama, V %A Faamoe, A %A Kilama, S %A Teurlai, M %A Mathieu-Daud %N 1 %P e0004374 %V 10 %X

The Pacific region is an area unique in the world, composed of thousands of islands with differing climates and environments. The spreading and establishment of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in these islands might be linked to human migration. Ae. aegypti is the major vector of arboviruses (dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses) in the region. The intense circulation of these viruses in the Pacific during the last decade led to an increase of vector control measures by local health authorities. The aim of this study is to analyze the genetic relationships among Ae. aegypti populations in this region.Methodology/Principal Finding We studied the genetic variability and population genetics of 270 Ae. aegypti, sampled from 9 locations in New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga and French Polynesia by analyzing nine microsatellites and two mitochondrial DNA regions (CO1 and ND4). Microsatellite markers revealed heterogeneity in the genetic structure between the western, central and eastern Pacific island countries. The microsatellite markers indicate a statistically moderate differentiation (FST = 0.136; P < = 0.001) in relation to island isolation. A high degree of mixed ancestry can be observed in the most important towns (e.g. Noumea, Suva and Papeete) compared with the most isolated islands (e.g. Ouvea and Vaitahu). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most of samples are related to Asian and American specimens. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest a link between human migrations in the Pacific region and the origin of Ae. aegypti populations. The genetic pattern observed might be linked to the island isolation and to the different environmental conditions or ecosystems. Author Summary Aedes aegypti is the major arbovirus vector in the Pacific region. The spread of this mosquito in the different islands seems to be linked to human activities at the beginning of the twentieth century. Since 2010, occurrence of arbovirus outbreaks increased in this region, with the co-circulation of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. The lack of vaccines and treatments for these pathogens led the health authorities to implement vector control measures. In this study, we present the genetic structure and the phylogenetic data obtained from the analysis of 270 Ae. aegypti collected in the Pacific region. The infestation of the islands seems to have American and Asian origins. The genetic structure of the vector populations indicates a differentiation of the mosquitoes between the western, central and eastern Pacific island countries and the specific island isolation context. This differentiation could be related to the different environmental conditions in each island country.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet %D 2016 %T Guillain-Barré Syndrome outbreak associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case-control study %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %A Blake, V M %A Mons, S %A Lastere, S %A Roche, C %A Vanhomwegen, J %A Dub, T %A Baudouin, L %A Teissier, A %A Larre, P %A Vial, A L %A Decam, C %A Choumet, V %A Halstead, S K %A Willison, H J %A Musset, L %A Manuguerra, J C %A Despres, P %A Fournie %N 10027 %P 1531-9 %V 387 %X

Background
Between October, 2013, and April, 2014, French Polynesia experienced the largest Zika virus outbreak ever described at that time. During the same period, an increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome was reported, suggesting a possible association between Zika virus and Guillain-Barré syndrome. We aimed to assess the role of Zika virus and dengue virus infection in developing Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Methods
In this case-control study, cases were patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome diagnosed at the Centre Hospitalier de Polynésie Française (Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia) during the outbreak period. Controls were age-matched, sex-matched, and residence-matched patients who presented at the hospital with a non-febrile illness (control group 1; n=98) and age-matched patients with acute Zika virus disease and no neurological symptoms (control group 2; n=70). Virological investigations included RT-PCR for Zika virus, and both microsphere immunofluorescent and seroneutralisation assays for Zika virus and dengue virus. Anti-glycolipid reactivity was studied in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome using both ELISA and combinatorial microarrays.
Findings
42 patients were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome during the study period. 41 (98%) patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had anti-Zika virus IgM or IgG, and all (100%) had neutralising antibodies against Zika virus compared with 54 (56%) of 98 in control group 1 (p<0·0001). 39 (93%) patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had Zika virus IgM and 37 (88%) had experienced a transient illness in a median of 6 days (IQR 4–10) before the onset of neurological symptoms, suggesting recent Zika virus infection. Patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had electrophysiological findings compatible with acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) type, and had rapid evolution of disease (median duration of the installation and plateau phases was 6 [IQR 4–9] and 4 days [3–10], respectively). 12 (29%) patients required respiratory assistance. No patients died. Anti-glycolipid antibody activity was found in 13 (31%) patients, and notably against GA1 in eight (19%) patients, by ELISA and 19 (46%) of 41 by glycoarray at admission. The typical AMAN-associated anti-ganglioside antibodies were rarely present. Past dengue virus history did not differ significantly between patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and those in the two control groups (95%, 89%, and 83%, respectively).
Interpretation
This is the first study providing evidence for Zika virus infection causing Guillain-Barré syndrome. Because Zika virus is spreading rapidly across the Americas, at risk countries need to prepare for adequate intensive care beds capacity to manage patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Funding
Labex Integrative Biology of Emerging Infectious Diseases, EU 7th framework program PREDEMICS. and Wellcome Trust.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J New Microbes and New Infections %D 2016 %T Genome sequence and description of Actinomyces polynesiensis str. MS2 sp. nov. isolated from the human gut. %A Cimmino, T %A Metidji, S %A Labas, N %A Le Page, S %A Musso, D %A Raoult, D %P 1-5 %V 12 %X

Actinomyces polynesiensis strain MS2 gen. nov., sp. nov. is a newly proposed genus within the family Actinomycetaceae, isolated from the stools of a healthy individual in Raiatea Island (French Polynesia, South Pacific). Actinomyces massiliensis is an anaerobic, Gram-positive organism. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation-2 943 271 bp with a 70.80% G+C content, assembled into 15 scaffolds and containing 2080 genes.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Genome announcement %D 2016 %T Genome sequence of a candidate World Health Organization reference strain for Zika virus for nucleic acid testing. %A Trosemeier, J H %A Musso, D %A Bluemel, J %A Thézé, J %A Pybus, O %A Baylis, S %N 5 %P pii: e00917-16 %V 4 %X

We report here the sequence of a candidate reference strain of Zika virus (ZIKV) developed on behalf of the World Health Organization (WHO). The ZIKV reference strain is intended for use in nucleic acid amplification (NAT)-based assays for the detection and quantification of ZIKV RNA.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet %D 2016 %T Guillain-Barré Syndrome outbreak associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case-control study %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %A Blake, V M %A Mons, S %A Lastere, S %A Roche, C %A Vanhomwegen, J %A Dub, T %A Baudouin, L %A Teissier, A %A Larre, P %A Vial, A L %A Decam, C %A Choumet, V %A Halstead, S K %A Willison, H J %A Musset, L %A Manuguerra, J C %A Despres, P %A Fournie %N 10027 %P 1531-9 %V 387 %X

Background
Between October, 2013, and April, 2014, French Polynesia experienced the largest Zika virus outbreak ever described at that time. During the same period, an increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome was reported, suggesting a possible association between Zika virus and Guillain-Barré syndrome. We aimed to assess the role of Zika virus and dengue virus infection in developing Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Methods
In this case-control study, cases were patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome diagnosed at the Centre Hospitalier de Polynésie Française (Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia) during the outbreak period. Controls were age-matched, sex-matched, and residence-matched patients who presented at the hospital with a non-febrile illness (control group 1; n=98) and age-matched patients with acute Zika virus disease and no neurological symptoms (control group 2; n=70). Virological investigations included RT-PCR for Zika virus, and both microsphere immunofluorescent and seroneutralisation assays for Zika virus and dengue virus. Anti-glycolipid reactivity was studied in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome using both ELISA and combinatorial microarrays.
Findings
42 patients were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome during the study period. 41 (98%) patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had anti-Zika virus IgM or IgG, and all (100%) had neutralising antibodies against Zika virus compared with 54 (56%) of 98 in control group 1 (p<0·0001). 39 (93%) patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had Zika virus IgM and 37 (88%) had experienced a transient illness in a median of 6 days (IQR 4–10) before the onset of neurological symptoms, suggesting recent Zika virus infection. Patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had electrophysiological findings compatible with acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) type, and had rapid evolution of disease (median duration of the installation and plateau phases was 6 [IQR 4–9] and 4 days [3–10], respectively). 12 (29%) patients required respiratory assistance. No patients died. Anti-glycolipid antibody activity was found in 13 (31%) patients, and notably against GA1 in eight (19%) patients, by ELISA and 19 (46%) of 41 by glycoarray at admission. The typical AMAN-associated anti-ganglioside antibodies were rarely present. Past dengue virus history did not differ significantly between patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and those in the two control groups (95%, 89%, and 83%, respectively).
Interpretation
This is the first study providing evidence for Zika virus infection causing Guillain-Barré syndrome. Because Zika virus is spreading rapidly across the Americas, at risk countries need to prepare for adequate intensive care beds capacity to manage patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Funding
Labex Integrative Biology of Emerging Infectious Diseases, EU 7th framework program PREDEMICS. and Wellcome Trust.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J International congress for tropical medicine and malaria 2016. 18-22 September Brisbane, Australia. %D 2016 %T Human and animal leptospirosis in Tahiti, French Polynesia: an overview %A Guernier, V %A Richard, V %A Nhan, T %A Rouault, E %A Teissier, A %A Musso, D %V Accept %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J mBio %D 2016 %T How did Zika virus emerge in the Pacific islands and Latin America? %A Pettersson, J H %A Eldholm, V %A Seligman, S J %A Lundvist, A %A Falconar, A K %A Gaunt, M W %A Musso, D %A Nougairede, A %A Charel, R %A Gould, E A %A De Lamballerie, X %N 5 %P pii. e01239-16 %V 7 %X

The unexpected emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Pacific Islands and Latin America and its association with congenital Zika virus syndrome (CZVS) (which includes microcephaly) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) have stimulated wide-ranging research. High densities of susceptible Aedes spp., immunologically naive human populations, global population growth with increased urbanization, and escalation of global transportation of humans and commercial goods carrying vectors and ZIKV undoubtedly enhanced the emergence of ZIKV. However, flavivirus mutations accumulate with time, increasing the likelihood that genetic viral differences are determinants of change in viral phenotype. Based on comparative ZIKV complete genome phylogenetic analyses and temporal estimates, we identify amino acid substitutions that may be associated with increased viral epidemicity, CZVS, and GBS. Reverse genetics, vector competence, and seroepidemiological studies will test our hypothesis that these amino acid substitutions are determinants of epidemic and neurotropic ZIKV emergence.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J International congress for tropical medicine and malaria 2016. 18-22 September Brisbane, Australia. %D 2016 %T Human and animal leptospirosis in Tahiti, French Polynesia: an overview %A Guernier, V %A Richard, V %A Nhan, T %A Rouault, E %A Teissier, A %A Musso, D %V Accept %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J mBio %D 2016 %T How did Zika virus emerge in the Pacific islands and Latin America? %A Pettersson, J H %A Eldholm, V %A Seligman, S J %A Lundvist, A %A Falconar, A K %A Gaunt, M W %A Musso, D %A Nougairede, A %A Charel, R %A Gould, E A %A De Lamballerie, X %P e01239-16 %V 7(5) %X

The unexpected emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Pacific Islands and Latin America and its association with congenital Zika virus syndrome (CZVS) (which includes microcephaly) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) have stimulated wide-ranging research. High densities of susceptible Aedes spp., immunologically naive human populations, global population growth with increased urbanization, and escalation of global transportation of humans and commercial goods carrying vectors and ZIKV undoubtedly enhanced the emergence of ZIKV. However, flavivirus mutations accumulate with time, increasing the likelihood that genetic viral differences are determinants of change in viral phenotype. Based on comparative ZIKV complete genome phylogenetic analyses and temporal estimates, we identify amino acid substitutions that may be associated with increased viral epidemicity, CZVS, and GBS. Reverse genetics, vector competence, and seroepidemiological studies will test our hypothesis that these amino acid substitutions are determinants of epidemic and neurotropic ZIKV emergence.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Transfusion %D 2016 %T Inactivation and removal of Zika virus during manufacture of plasma derived medicinal products %A Blumel, J %A Musso, D %A Miyabayashi, T %A Boller, K %A Schnierle, B S %A Baylis, S A %P doi: 10.1111/trf.13873 %X

BACKGROUND:
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne Flavivirus of major public health concern. The potential for ZIKV transmission by blood transfusion has been demonstrated; however, inactivation or removal of ZIKV during the manufacture of plasma-derived medicinal products has not been specifically investigated.
STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS:
Inactivation of ZIKV by pasteurization and solvent/detergent (S/D) treatment was investigated by spiking high-titer ZIKV stocks into human serum albumin and applying either heat or adding different mixtures of S/D reagents and assaying for infectious virus particles. Removal of ZIKV was evaluated using filters of differing pore sizes (75, 40, 35, and 19 nm), assaying for infectious virus and RNA. Electron microscopy was performed to determine the size of ZIKV particles. Neutralization of virus infectivity by immunoglobulins was investigated.
RESULTS:
ZIKV was effectively and rapidly inactivated by liquid heat treatment as well as by various mixtures of S/D reagents with reduction factors more than 4 log, in each case. Effective reduction of ZIKV infectivity was demonstrated for virus filtration for filters with average pore sizes of not more than 40 nm, although a significant proportion of virus RNA was detected in the 40- to 35-nm filtrates likely due to the presence of subviral particles observed by electron microscopy. None of the immunoglobulin preparations investigated neutralized ZIKV infectivity.
CONCLUSIONS:
Pasteurization and S/D treatment very rapidly inactivated ZIKV and filters with a pore size of not more than 40 nm removed all infectious ZIKV, demonstrating the effectiveness of these virus reduction strategies used during the manufacture of plasma-derived medicinal products.
 

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Transfusion %D 2016 %T Inactivation and removal of Zika virus during manufacture of plasma derived medicinal products %A Blumel, J %A Musso, D %A Miyabayashi, T %A Boller, K %A Schnierle, B S %A Baylis, S A %8 2016 %0 Book Section %B Neglected Tropical Diseases - Oceania %D 2016 %T Lymphatic filariasis in Oceania %A Graves, P %A Woods, P %A Bossin, H C %V Springer %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet Infectious Diseases %D 2016 %T Materno-fetal specialists's guidelines for clinical management of pregnant women exposedto Zika virus %A Baud, D %A Mieghem, T V %A Musso, D %A Truttmann, A C %A Panchaud, A %A Vouga, M %V Accept %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Virol %D 2016 %T Molecular detection of Zika virus in blood and RNA load determination during the French Polynesian outbreak. %A Musso, D %A Rouault, E %A Teissier, A %A Lanteri, M %A Zisou, K %A Broult, J %A Grange, E %A Nhan, T %A Aubry, M %P doi: 10.1002/jmv.24735 %X

BACKGROUND:
Zika virus (ZIKV) viremia is reported as low and transient, however, these estimates rely on limited data. We report RNA loads in sera collected from symptomatic patients during the 2013-2014 French Polynesian ZIKV outbreak.
METHODS:
We performed molecular detection of ZIKV RNA in sera from 747 patients presenting with suspected acute phase ZIKV infection. Among patients with confirmed infection, we analyzed the duration of viremia, assessed viral RNA loads and recorded the main clinical symptoms.
RESULTS:
A total of 210/747 (28.1%) sera tested positive using a ZIKV-specific RT-PCR. Viral RNA loads in symptomatic patients that ranged from 5 to 3.7 × 106 copies/mL (mean 9.9 × 104 copies/mL) were not related to a particular clinical presentation, and were significantly lower than those previously obtained from asymptomatic ZIKV infected blood donors.
CONCLUSIONS:
The rate of detection of ZIKV RNA in sera from suspected cases of acute phase ZIKV infection was low. ZIKV RNA loads were lower in symptomatic patients compared to asymptomatic blood donors and were lower than RNA loads usually reported in dengue infections. As there is no abrupt onset of symptoms in ZIKV infections, we suggest that infected patients sought for medical attention when viremia was already decreasing or had resolved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J ISBT science series %D 2016 %T Prevention of transfusion-transmitted Zika virus in French Polynesia, nucleic acid testing versus pathogen inactivation %A Musso, D %A Broult, J %A Bierlaire, D %A Lanteri, M %A Aubry, M %V Accept %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet Infectious Diseases %D 2016 %T Rickettsia felis: the next mosquito-borne outbreak ? %A Parola, P %A Musso, D %A Raoult, D %N 10 %P 111 %V 16 %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Nature %D 2016 %T Structural basis of potent Zika–dengue virus antibody cross-neutralization %A Barba-Spaeth F.A., Dejnirattisai Rouvinski Vaney Medits Sharma Simon-Lorière Sakuntabhai Cao-Lormeau Haouz England Stiasny Mongkolsapaya Heinz Screaton Rey %N 7614 %P 48-53 %V 536 %X

Zika virus is a member of the Flavivirus genus that had not been associated with severe disease in humans until the recent outbreaks, when it was linked to microcephaly in newborns in Brazil and to Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults in French Polynesia. Zika virus is related to dengue virus, and here we report that a subset of antibodies targeting a conformational epitope isolated from patients with dengue virus also potently neutralize Zika virus. The crystal structure of two of these antibodies in complex with the envelope protein of Zika virus reveals the details of a conserved epitope, which is also the site of interaction of the envelope protein dimer with the precursor membrane (prM) protein during virus maturation. Comparison of the Zika and dengue virus immunocomplexes provides a lead for rational, epitope-focused design of a universal vaccine capable of eliciting potent cross-neutralizing antibodies to protect simultaneously against both Zika and dengue virus infections.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet %D 2016 %T Should testing of donors be restricted to active Zika virus areas? %A Musso, D %A Baud, D %A Freedmann, D %N 10 %P 1108-9 %V 16 %X

Jean Michel Mansuy and colleagues1 report the detection of Zika virus in the semen of a patient returning from a non-epidemic area, even while usual recommendations limit testing to only those returning from epidemic areas.1 However, categorisation of Zika-virus-affected countries by WHO, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), and others differ and are often discordant and their update cycles for recommendations for those exposed in endemic and epidemic areas vary in timeliness (appendix).

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J GigaSciences %D 2016 %T Simulating social-ecological systems: the Island Digital Ecosystem Avatars (IDEA) consortium %A Davies, Field %A Gavaghan, D %A Holbrook, S J %A Planes, S %A Troyer, M %A Bonsall, M %A Claudet, J %A Roderick, G %A Schmitt, R J %A Zettler, L A %A Berteaux, V %A Bossin, H C %A Cabasse, C %A Collin, A %A Deck, J %A Dell, T %A Dunne, J %A Gates, R %A Harfoot, M %A %P 1-4 %V 5 %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Nature %D 2016 %T Structural basis of potent Zika %A Barba-Spaeth, G %A Dejnirattisai, W %A Rouvinski, A %A Vaney, M C %A Medits, I %A Sharma, A %A Simon-Lori %N 7614 %P 48-53 %V 536 %X Zika virus is a member of the Flavivirus genus that had not been associated with severe disease in humans until the recent outbreaks, when it was linked to microcephaly in newborns in Brazil and to Guillain-Barr %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet %D 2016 %T Should testing of donors of substances of human origin be restricted to area with active Zika virus circulation? %A Musso, D %A Baud, D %A Fredmann, D %V Accept %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Phycologia %D 2016 %T Studies on the benthic genus Sinophysis (Dinophysales, Dinophyceae) II. S. canaliculata from Rapa Island (French Polynesia) %A Chomerat, N %A Gatti, C %A Nezan, E %A Chinain, M %N 2 %P 193-203 %V 56 %X

The poorly known dinoflagellate Sinophysis canaliculata, which was originally described from the Indian Ocean, was abundant in a collection from 2015 from Rapa Iti, a small, remote island of French Polynesia. Since the taxonomic description of this species was incomplete, a detailed morphological study was carried out. The theca was studied with epifluorescence microscopy using Solophenyl Flavine 7GFE500, a fluorescent dye specific to cellulose. This fluorophore was used successfully for the first time with a thecate dinoflagellate. It has the advantage of using blue excitation light and avoids the fading of fluorescence encountered with other dyes with long excitation time. Using this technique and high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy, the thecal plate pattern was clarified, and the epitheca had six major plates, 4E and 2A. A conspicuous apical pore was present on the left side of the epitheca. A smaller pore was located on the ventral left side of the apical pore. The apical plates A1 and A2 formed prominent projections which encircled and partly covered the pores. This thecal pattern agreed with the recent emended description of the genus. Two additional platelets, visible only from inside the cell, were possibly present in contact with the pores. In addition, the ‘canal' cut on the left hypothecal plate H2 had a slit at its base. Seen from the inside, the slit was actually a sieve-like area comprising several small pores with a diameter of 80–100 nm. We hypothesise that this novel structure functions in the extrusion of mucus threads.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Emerg Infect Dis %D 2016 %T Tropical Islands as New Hubs for Emerging Arboviruses. %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %N 5 %P 913-5 %V 22 %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Current Infectious Diseases reports %D 2016 %T Thoughts around the Zika virus crisis. %A Musso, D %A Lanteri, M %N 12 %P 46 %V 18 %X

As a lot of reviews are available on Zika virus (ZIKV), in this short commentary, we will focus on the recent advances and gaps in knowledge regarding our understanding of ZIKV infections and on the reaction to the "ZIKV crisis."

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet %D 2016 %T Uncommon presentation of Zika fever or co-infection? %A Musso, D %A De Pina, J J %A Nhan, T %A Deparis, X %N 10030 %P 1812-3 %V 387 %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J PLoS Negl Trop Dis %D 2016 %T Vector Competence of French Polynesian Aedes aegypti and Aedes polynesiensis for Zika Virus %A Richard, V %A Paoaafaite, T %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %N 5 %P e0004694 %V 10 %X

Background

In 2013-2014, French Polynesia experienced for the first time a Zika outbreak. Two Aedes mosquitoes may have contributed to Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission in French Polynesia: the worldwide distributed Ae. aegypti and the Polynesian islands-endemic Ae. polynesiensis mosquito.

Methodology/Principal Findings

To evaluate their vector competence for ZIKV, mosquitoes were infected per os at viral titers of 7 logs tissue culture infectious dose 50%. At several days post-infection (dpi), saliva was collected from each mosquito and inoculated onto C6/36 mosquito cells to check for the presence of ZIKV infectious particles. Legs and body of each mosquito were also collected and submitted separately to RNA extraction and ZIKV RT-PCR. In Ae. aegypti the infection rate was high as early as 6 dpi and the dissemination efficiency get substantial from 9 dpi while the both rates remained quite low in Ae. polynesiensis. The transmission efficiency was poor in Ae. aegypti until 14 dpi and no infectious saliva was found in Ae. polynesiensis at the time points studied.

Conclusions/Significance

In our experimental conditions, the late ability of the French Polynesian Ae. aegypti to transmit ZIKV added by the poor competence of Ae. polynesiensis for this virus suggest the possible contribution of another vector for the propagation of ZIKV during the outbreak, in particular in remote islands where Ae. polynesiensis is predominating.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Revue Medicale Suisse %D 2016 %T Virus Zika: de la recherche au vaccin %A Vouga, M %A Alves, M P %A Eperon, I %A Eperon, G %A Rochat, L %A Sahli, R %A Musso, D %A Baud, D %P 1-4 %V 12 %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet Infectious Diseases %D 2016 %T Zika virus: time to move from case reports to case control. %A Musso, D %A Baud, D %N 6 %P 620-1 %V 16 %X

Until the French Polynesian outbreak in 2013

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Blood Transfusion %D 2016 %T Zika virus: new emergencies, potential for severe complications, and prevention of transfusion-transmitted Zika fever in the context of arboviruses co-circulation. %A Musso, D %A Aubry, M %A Broult, J %A Stassinopoulos, A %A Green, J %P doi: 10.2450/2016.0003-16 %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Clin Microbiol Reviews %D 2016 %T Zika virus %A Musso, D %A Gubler, D %N 3 %P 487-524 %V 29 %X

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the genus Flavivirus and the family Flaviviridae. ZIKV was first isolated from a nonhuman primate in 1947 and from mosquitoes in 1948 in Africa, and ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic for half a century before emerging in the Pacific and the Americas. ZIKV is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The clinical presentation of Zika fever is nonspecific and can be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, especially those due to arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. ZIKV infection was associated with only mild illness prior to the large French Polynesian outbreak in 2013 and 2014, when severe neurological complications were reported, and the emergence in Brazil of a dramatic increase in severe congenital malformations (microcephaly) suspected to be associated with ZIKV. Laboratory diagnosis of Zika fever relies on virus isolation or detection of ZIKV-specific RNA. Serological diagnosis is complicated by cross-reactivity among members of the Flavivirus genus. The adaptation of ZIKV to an urban cycle involving humans and domestic mosquito vectors in tropical areas where dengue is endemic suggests that the incidence of ZIKV infections may be underestimated. There is a high potential for ZIKV emergence in urban centers in the tropics that are infested with competent mosquito vectors such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Clin Microbiol Infect %D 2016 %T Zika virus, what do we know. %A Musso, D %A Baud, D %A Gubler, D %N 16 %P 30050-7 %V S1198-743X %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet %D 2016 %T Zika virus, a new challenge in for blood transfusion. %A Musso, D %A Stramer, S L %A Bush, M P %N (10032) %P 1993-4 %V 387 %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Int J Infect Dis %D 2016 %T Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya Co-Infection in a Pregnant Woman from Colombia. %A Castellanos, J E %A Villamil-Gomez, W E %A Rodr %P DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2016.07.017 %V In press %X

We describe the clinical findings of a pregnant woman from Colombia with triple co-infection caused by dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Weekly obstetric ultrasounds from 14.6 until 29 weeks of gestation were normal. She remains under follow-up and management according standard guidelines for management of ZIKV infected pregnant women.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Transfusion %D 2016 %T Zika virus: A new threat to the safety of the blood supply with worldwide impact and implications. %A Lanteri, M %A Kleinlan, S %A Glynn, S %A Musso, D %A Hoots, K %A Custer, B %A Sabino, E %A Bush, M %N 7 %P 1907-14 %V 56 %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Vox Sanguinis %D 2016 %T Zika virus and blood transfusion, experiences from French Polynesia %A Musso, D %A Broult, J %A Aubry, M %N Suppl 1 %P 306-322 %V 111 %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet Infectious Diseases %D 2016 %T Zika virus: time to move from case reports to case control. %A Musso, D %A Baud, D %N 6 %P 620-1 %V 16 %X Until the French Polynesian outbreak in 2013 %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Clin Microbiol Reviews %D 2016 %T Zika virus %A Musso, D %A Gubler, D %N 3 %P 487-524 %V 29 %X Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the genus Flavivirus and the family Flaviviridae. ZIKV was first isolated from a nonhuman primate in 1947 and from mosquitoes in 1948 in Africa, and ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic for half a century before emerging in the Pacific and the Americas. ZIKV is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The clinical presentation of Zika fever is nonspecific and can be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, especially those due to arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. ZIKV infection was associated with only mild illness prior to the large French Polynesian outbreak in 2013 and 2014, when severe neurological complications were reported, and the emergence in Brazil of a dramatic increase in severe congenital malformations (microcephaly) suspected to be associated with ZIKV. Laboratory diagnosis of Zika fever relies on virus isolation or detection of ZIKV-specific RNA. Serological diagnosis is complicated by cross-reactivity among members of the Flavivirus genus. The adaptation of ZIKV to an urban cycle involving humans and domestic mosquito vectors in tropical areas where dengue is endemic suggests that the incidence of ZIKV infections may be underestimated. There is a high potential for ZIKV emergence in urban centers in the tropics that are infested with competent mosquito vectors such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Blood Transfusion %D 2016 %T Zika virus: new emergencies, potential for severe complications, and prevention of transfusion-transmitted Zika fever in the context of arboviruses co-circulation. %A Musso, D %A Aubry, M %A Broult, J %A Stassinopoulos, A %A Green, J %V doi: 10.24 %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Clin Microbiol Infect %D 2016 %T Zika virus, what do we know. %A Musso, D %A Baud, D %A Gubler, D %N 16 %P 30050-7 %V S1198-743X %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet %D 2016 %T Zika virus, a new challenge in for blood transfusion. %A Musso, D %A Stramer, S L %A Bush, M P %N 10032 %P 1993-4 %V 387 %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Int J Infect Dis %D 2016 %T Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya Co-Infection in a Pregnant Woman from Colombia. %A Villamil-Gomez, W E %A Rodríguez-Morales, A J %A Uribe-Garcia, A M %A Gonzalez-Arismendy, E %A Castellanos, J E %A Calvo, E P %A Alvarez-Mon, M %A Musso, D %P 135-8 %V 51 %X

We describe the clinical findings of a pregnant woman from Colombia with triple co-infection caused by dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Weekly obstetric ultrasounds from 14.6 until 29 weeks of gestation were normal. She remains under follow-up and management according standard guidelines for management of ZIKV infected pregnant women.

%8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Transfusion %D 2016 %T Zika virus: A new threat to the safety of the blood supply with worldwide impact and implications. %A Lanteri, M %A Kleinlan, S %A Glynn, S %A Musso, D %A Hoots, K %A Custer, B %A Sabino, E %A Bush, M %N 7 %P 1907-14 %V 56 %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Vox Sanguinis %D 2016 %T Zika virus and blood transfusion, experiences from French Polynesia %A Musso, D %A Broult, J %A Aubry, M %N Suppl 1 %P 306-322 %V 111 %8 2016 %0 Journal Article %J Vox Sanguinis %D 2015 %T Amotosalen ans ultraviolet a light inactivate Zika virus in plasma %A Aubry, M %A Richard, V %A Green, J %A Broult, J %A Musso, D %N S1 %P 309-10 %V 109 %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Vox Sanguinis %D 2015 %T Amotosalen ans ultraviolet a light inactivate Zika virus in plasma %A Aubry, M %A Richard, V %A Green, J %A Broult, J %A Musso, D %N S1 %P 309-10 %V 109 %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J J Virol Meth %D 2015 %T Biology of Zika virus infection in human skin cells %A Hamel, R %A Dejarnac, O %A Wichit, S %A Ekchariyawat, P %A Neyret, A %A Natthanej, L %A Perera-Lecoin, M %A Surasombatpattana, P %A Talignani, L %A Thomas, F %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %A Choumet, V %A Briant, L %A Despr %N 17 %P 8880-96 %V 89 %X Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, that causes a mosquito-borne disease transmitted by the Aedes genus, with recent outbreaks in the South Pacific. Here we examine the importance of human skin in the entry of ZIKV and its contribution to the induction of antiviral immune responses. We show that human dermal fibroblasts, epidermal keratinocytes, and immature dendritic cells are permissive to the most recent ZIKV isolate, responsible for the epidemic in French Polynesia. Several entry and/or adhesion factors, including DC-SIGN, AXL, Tyro3, and, to a lesser extent, TIM-1, permitted ZIKV entry, with a major role for the TAM receptor AXL. The ZIKV permissiveness of human skin fibroblasts was confirmed by the use of a neutralizing antibody and specific RNA silencing. ZIKV induced the transcription of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), RIG-I, and MDA5, as well as several interferon-stimulated genes, including OAS2, ISG15, and MX1, characterized by strongly enhanced beta interferon gene expression. ZIKV was found to be sensitive to the antiviral effects of both type I and type II interferons. Finally, infection of skin fibroblasts resulted in the formation of autophagosomes, whose presence was associated with enhanced viral replication, as shown by the use of Torin 1, a chemical inducer of autophagy, and the specific autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. The results presented herein permit us to gain further insight into the biology of ZIKV and to devise strategies aiming to interfere with the pathology caused by this emerging flavivirus.IMPORTANCE: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. Vector-mediated transmission of ZIKV is initiated when a blood-feeding female Aedes mosquito injects the virus into the skin of its mammalian host, followed by infection of permissive cells via specific receptors. Indeed, skin immune cells, including dermal fibroblasts, epidermal keratinocytes, and immature dendritic cells, were all found to be permissive to ZIKV infection. The results also show a major role for the phosphatidylserine receptor AXL as a ZIKV entry receptor and for cellular autophagy in enhancing ZIKV replication in permissive cells. ZIKV replication leads to activation of an antiviral innate immune response and the production of type I interferons in infected cells. Taken together, these results provide the first general insights into the interaction between ZIKV and its mammalian host. %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J J Virol Meth %D 2015 %T Biology of Zika virus infection in human skin cells %A Hamel, R %A Dejarnac, O %A Wichit, S %A Ekchariyawat, P %A Neyret, A %A Natthanej, L %A Perera-Lecoin, M %A Surasombatpattana, P %A Talignani, L %A Thomas, F %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %A Choumet, V %A Briant, L %A Despr %N 17 %P 8880-96 %V 89 %X Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, that causes a mosquito-borne disease transmitted by the Aedes genus, with recent outbreaks in the South Pacific. Here we examine the importance of human skin in the entry of ZIKV and its contribution to the induction of antiviral immune responses. We show that human dermal fibroblasts, epidermal keratinocytes, and immature dendritic cells are permissive to the most recent ZIKV isolate, responsible for the epidemic in French Polynesia. Several entry and/or adhesion factors, including DC-SIGN, AXL, Tyro3, and, to a lesser extent, TIM-1, permitted ZIKV entry, with a major role for the TAM receptor AXL. The ZIKV permissiveness of human skin fibroblasts was confirmed by the use of a neutralizing antibody and specific RNA silencing. ZIKV induced the transcription of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), RIG-I, and MDA5, as well as several interferon-stimulated genes, including OAS2, ISG15, and MX1, characterized by strongly enhanced beta interferon gene expression. ZIKV was found to be sensitive to the antiviral effects of both type I and type II interferons. Finally, infection of skin fibroblasts resulted in the formation of autophagosomes, whose presence was associated with enhanced viral replication, as shown by the use of Torin 1, a chemical inducer of autophagy, and the specific autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. The results presented herein permit us to gain further insight into the biology of ZIKV and to devise strategies aiming to interfere with the pathology caused by this emerging flavivirus.IMPORTANCE: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. Vector-mediated transmission of ZIKV is initiated when a blood-feeding female Aedes mosquito injects the virus into the skin of its mammalian host, followed by infection of permissive cells via specific receptors. Indeed, skin immune cells, including dermal fibroblasts, epidermal keratinocytes, and immature dendritic cells, were all found to be permissive to ZIKV infection. The results also show a major role for the phosphatidylserine receptor AXL as a ZIKV entry receptor and for cellular autophagy in enhancing ZIKV replication in permissive cells. ZIKV replication leads to activation of an antiviral innate immune response and the production of type I interferons in infected cells. Taken together, these results provide the first general insights into the interaction between ZIKV and its mammalian host. %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Emerg Infect Dis %D 2015 %T Chikungunya outbreak, French Polynesia, 2014. %A Aubry, M %A Teissier, A %A Roche, C %A Richard, V %A Shan Yan, A %A Zisou, K %A Rouault, E %A Maria, V %A Last %N 4 %P 724-6 %V 21 %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Anaerobe %D 2015 %T Clostridium polynesiense sp. nov., a new member of the human gut microbiota in French Polynesia. %A Metidji, S %A Lagier, J C %A Khelaifia, S %A Labas, N %A Musso, D %A Raoult, D %A Sankar, S A %A Fournier, P E %V Accept %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Emerg Infect Dis %D 2015 %T Chikungunya outbreak, French Polynesia, 2014. %A Aubry, M %A Teissier, A %A Roche, C %A Richard, V %A Shan Yan, A %A Zisou, K %A Rouault, E %A Maria, V %A Last %N 4 %V 21 %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Anaerobe %D 2015 %T Clostridium polynesiense sp. nov., a new member of the human gut microbiota in French Polynesia. %A Metidji, S %A Lagier, J C %A Khelaifia, S %A Labas, N %A Musso, D %A Raoult, D %A Sankar, S A %A Fournier, P E %V Accept %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Acta Trop %D 2015 %T Distribution of rickettsioses in Oceania: past patterns and implications for the future %A Dernie, B %A Weinstein, P %A Musso, D %A Lau, C %P 121-33 %V 143C %X Rickettsioses present a threat to human health worldwide, but relatively little is known on their epidemiology and ecology in Oceania. These bacteria are the cause of potentially fatal febrile illnesses in humans (categorized into scrub typhus, typhus group and spotted fever group rickettsioses). They are transmitted by arthropod vectors such as ticks, mites, fleas and lice, which are associated with vertebrate host animals including rodents and companion animals. We conducted a search in the scientific and grey literature of Rickettsia spp. and Orientia tsutsugamushi within the Oceania region. Human case reports, human serosurveys and PCR-based testing of vectors and host animals reviewed here highlight the widespread distribution of these pathogens in the region, with the majority of human serological and vector surveys reporting positive results. These findings suggest that rickettsioses may have a significantly higher burden of disease in Oceania than is currently appreciated due to diagnostic challenges. Furthermore, consideration of the ecology and risk factors for rickettsioses reported for Oceania suggests that their importance as a cause of undifferentiated acute febrile illness may grow in the future: environmental and social changes driven by predicted climate change and population growth have the potential to lead to the emergence of rickettsioses as a significant public health problem in Oceania. %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J J Microbiol Immunol Infect %D 2015 %T Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages in French Polynesia. %A Osman, D A %A Phelippeau, M %A Drancourt, M %A Musso, D %V Ahead of p %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Genome announcement %D 2015 %T Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strain MT43, a Representative of the Manu2 Genotype. %A Osman, D A %A Phelippeau, M %A Musso, D %A Robert, C %A Michelle, C %A Croce, O %A Drancourt, M %N 3 %V 3 %X We announce the draft genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain MT43, isolated from a pulmonary form of tuberculosis in French Polynesia. Analyzing its 4,145,007-bp, 65.17% G+C chromosome confirmed a fully antibiotic-susceptible Manu2 spoligotype. %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J J Clin Virol %D 2015 %T Detection of Zika virus in saliva. %A Musso, D %A Roche, C %A Nhan, T %A Robin, E %A Teissier, A %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %P 53-5 %V 68 %X BACKGROUND:During the largest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak ever reported that occurred from October 2013 to March 2014 in French Polynesia, we observed that several patients presenting the symptoms of acute phase Zika fever were tested negative in blood by ZIKV real-time PCR (RT-PCR). OBJECTIVES: As we have previously detected ZIKV RNA in the saliva of a young child, we investigated the use of saliva as an alternative sample for routine ZIKV RNA detection. STUDY DESIGN: Over a 6 month period, 1,067 samples collected from 855 patients presenting symptoms of Zika fever (saliva only, blood only or both samples) were tested using a specific ZIKV RT-PCR. A medical questionnaire was available for most of the patients. RESULTS: ZIKV was more frequently detected in saliva compared to blood. For the 182 patients with both samples collected, tests were positive for 35 (19.2%) in saliva while negative in blood and tests were positive for 16 (8.8%) in blood while negative in saliva; the difference in mean days after symptoms onset and the percentage of the main symptoms of Zika fever for patients only positive in saliva or in blood was not significant. CONCLUSION: The use of saliva sample increased the rate of molecular detection of ZIKV at the acute phase of the disease but did not enlarge the window of detection of ZIKV RNA. Saliva was of particular interest when blood was difficult to collect (children and neonates especially). %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Genome announcement %D 2015 %T Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain MT11 representative of a new lineage %A Osman, D A %A Phelippeau, M %A Musso, D %A Robert, C %A Michelle, C %A Croce, O %A Drancourt, M %N 3 %P pii: e00573-15 %V 3 %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Acta Trop %D 2015 %T Distribution of rickettsioses in Oceania: past patterns and implications for the future %A Dernie, B %A Weinstein, P %A Musso, D %A Lau, C %P 121-33 %V 143C %X Rickettsioses present a threat to human health worldwide, but relatively little is known on their epidemiology and ecology in Oceania. These bacteria are the cause of potentially fatal febrile illnesses in humans (categorized into scrub typhus, typhus group and spotted fever group rickettsioses). They are transmitted by arthropod vectors such as ticks, mites, fleas and lice, which are associated with vertebrate host animals including rodents and companion animals. We conducted a search in the scientific and grey literature of Rickettsia spp. and Orientia tsutsugamushi within the Oceania region. Human case reports, human serosurveys and PCR-based testing of vectors and host animals reviewed here highlight the widespread distribution of these pathogens in the region, with the majority of human serological and vector surveys reporting positive results. These findings suggest that rickettsioses may have a significantly higher burden of disease in Oceania than is currently appreciated due to diagnostic challenges. Furthermore, consideration of the ecology and risk factors for rickettsioses reported for Oceania suggests that their importance as a cause of undifferentiated acute febrile illness may grow in the future: environmental and social changes driven by predicted climate change and population growth have the potential to lead to the emergence of rickettsioses as a significant public health problem in Oceania. %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J J Microbiol Immunol Infect %D 2015 %T Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages in French Polynesia. %A Osman, D A %A Phelippeau, M %A Drancourt, M %A Musso, D %V Ahead of p %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Genome announcement %D 2015 %T Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strain MT43, a Representative of the Manu2 Genotype. %A Osman, D A %A Phelippeau, M %A Musso, D %A Robert, C %A Michelle, C %A Croce, O %A Drancourt, M %N 3 %V 3 %X We announce the draft genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain MT43, isolated from a pulmonary form of tuberculosis in French Polynesia. Analyzing its 4,145,007-bp, 65.17% G+C chromosome confirmed a fully antibiotic-susceptible Manu2 spoligotype. %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J J Clin Virol %D 2015 %T Detection of Zika virus in saliva. %A Musso, D %A Roche, C %A Nhan, T %A Robin, E %A Teissier, A %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %P 53-5 %V 68 %X BACKGROUND:During the largest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak ever reported that occurred from October 2013 to March 2014 in French Polynesia, we observed that several patients presenting the symptoms of acute phase Zika fever were tested negative in blood by ZIKV real-time PCR (RT-PCR). OBJECTIVES: As we have previously detected ZIKV RNA in the saliva of a young child, we investigated the use of saliva as an alternative sample for routine ZIKV RNA detection. STUDY DESIGN: Over a 6 month period, 1,067 samples collected from 855 patients presenting symptoms of Zika fever (saliva only, blood only or both samples) were tested using a specific ZIKV RT-PCR. A medical questionnaire was available for most of the patients. RESULTS: ZIKV was more frequently detected in saliva compared to blood. For the 182 patients with both samples collected, tests were positive for 35 (19.2%) in saliva while negative in blood and tests were positive for 16 (8.8%) in blood while negative in saliva; the difference in mean days after symptoms onset and the percentage of the main symptoms of Zika fever for patients only positive in saliva or in blood was not significant. CONCLUSION: The use of saliva sample increased the rate of molecular detection of ZIKV at the acute phase of the disease but did not enlarge the window of detection of ZIKV RNA. Saliva was of particular interest when blood was difficult to collect (children and neonates especially). %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Genome announcement %D 2015 %T Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain MT11 representative of a new lineage %A Osman, D A %A Phelippeau, M %A Musso, D %A Robert, C %A Michelle, C %A Croce, O %A Drancourt, M %N 3 %P pii: e00573-15 %V 3 %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Clin Microbiol %D 2015 %T Emergence of Zika virus. %A Musso, D %A Nhan, T %N 5 %V 4 %X

Zika virus was first described in the 1940s. During more than all of a century, less than 20 human infections have been reported. Emergence of Zika started with a first outbreak in the Pacific area in 2007 (Federated States of Micronesia), a second large outbreak occurred in the Pacific in 2013/2014 (French Polynesia) and subsequently the virus spread in other Pacific Islands. Zika virus emerged in the Americas (Brazil) in 2015. Emergence of Zika virus in the Pacific was associated with the description of severe neurological complications.

%8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Virologie %D 2015 %T Emergence du virus ZIka %A Nhan, T %A Musso, D %N 5 %P 225-35 %V 19 %X

Le virus Zika (ZIKV) est un arbovirus du genre Flavivirus, famille des Flaviviridae, transmis par les piqûres de moustiques infectés. Initialement isolé chez un macaque rhésus en 1947 en Afrique, le ZIKV a été impliqué dans des cas humains sporadiques pendant un demi siècle. La première épidémie a été décrite dans le Pacifique en 2007. Le ZIKV se propage dans la région Pacifique depuis 2013 et émerge au Brésil en 2015. De présentation clinique non spécifique, la fièvre Zika peut être confondue avec d'autres maladies infectieuses, en particulier les arboviroses comme la dengue et le chikungunya. La fièvre Zika était considérée comme une maladie bénigne jusqu'en 2013-2014 où des complications neurologioques graves ont été décrites durant l'épidémie qui a touché la Polynésie française. Le diagnostic biologique des infections à ZIKV repose principalement sur la détection de l'ARN viral du ZIKV par biologie moléculaire. Le diagnostic sérologique est peu fiable dans les régions endémiques pour flaviviroses. L'adaptation de ZIKV à un cycle urbain impliquant un réservoir humain et des moustiques ayant une très large distribution, tels que Aedes aegypti et Ae. albopictus, souligne le fort potentiel d'émergence de ZIKV dans les régions tropicales, inter tropicales mais aussi tempérées.

%8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J J Clin Microbiol %D 2015 %T Epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria in French Polynesia. %A Phelippeau, M %A A.O., Djaltou %A Musso, D %A Drancourt, M %V Ahead of p %X As few data are available in the Pacific countries and territories of the Oceania region regarding nontuberculous mycobacteria, we retrospectively identified 87 such isolates from French Polynesia from 2008 to 2013 by hybridization using DNA strip, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and partial rpoB gene sequencing. Partial rpoB gene sequencing classified 42/87 (48.3%) isolates inthe Mycobacterium fortuitum complex, 28 (32.2%) in the Mycobacterium abscessus complex, 8 (9.2%) in the Mycobacterium mucogenicum complex and 5 (5.7%) in the Mycobacterium avium complex. Two isolates were identified as Mycobacterium acapulcensis and Mycobacterium cosmeticum by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. One isolate, unidentified by MALDI-TOF-MS and yielding less than 92% and 96% sequence similarity with rpoB and hsp65 reference sequences respectively, was regarded as a potentially new species. Three patients exhibiting ? two Mycobacterium porcinum isolates and one patient with emphysema and a lung abscess exhibiting two Mycobacterium senegalense isolates, fulfilled the American Thoracic Society microbiological criteria for nontuberculosis mycobacterial lung infection. Remote geographic areas such as French Polynesia are potential sources for the discovery of new mycobacteria species. %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Parasites & vectors %D 2015 %T Evaluation of traps and lures for mosquito vectors and xenomonitoring of Wuchereria bancrofti in a high prevalence Samoan village %A Hapairai, L %A Plichart, C %A Naseri, T %A Silva, U %A Tesimale, L %A Pemita, P %A Bossin, H C %A Burkot, T R %A Ritchie, S A %A Graves, P %A Melrose, W %A Joseph, H %P 287 %V 8 %X

Background

Elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Samoa continues to be challenging despite multiple annual mass drug campaigns aimed at stopping transmission by reducing the prevalence and density of microfilaraemia. The persistence of transmission may be partly related to the highly efficient Aedes vectors. The assessment of pathogen transmission by mosquito vectors and of vector control relies on the ability to capture mosquitoes efficiently. The aims of this study are to compare trapping methods to capture LF-infected mosquitoes and determine the role in transmission of the species of Aedes mosquitoes in the area.
Methods

Fasitoo-Tai village was the chosen site because of persistent transmission despite annual mass drug administration. Sampling methods included BioGents Sentinel (BGS) trap, human-baited collections (HBC) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) trap. BGS and CDC traps were baited with BG-lure, CO2, and/or octenol. Individual trap locations were geo-located and efficiency of sampling methods was evaluated using a randomized Latin-square design in two locations. Number of mosquitoes collected (male and female), as well as species for each trapping method were determined. Additionally, Ae. polynesiensis and Ae. (Finlaya) spp. females were pooled by trap method and analysed for filarial DNA. Infection prevalence was estimated using the PoolScreen software.
Results

The BGS trap with any type of bait collected more mosquitoes compared to both the CDC trap and the HBC. The BGS trap baited with BG-lure collected more mosquitoes than with CO2 and octenol. There were no significant differences between trapping methods in terms of proportions of infected females collected. The prevalence of filarial infection in Ae. polynesiensis and Ae. (Finlaya) spp. was estimated at 4.7 % and 0.67 % respectively.
Conclusions

This study supports the use of the BGS trap for research on and surveillance of the mosquito vectors of LF in Samoa. The BGS trap is a suitable and safer alternative to HBC for sampling Ae. polynesiensis and Ae. (Finlaya) spp., which continue to be the predominant vectors of LF. Of concern was the high prevalence of LF in mosquitoes despite a recent mass drug administration programme. This highlights the urgency for updated policies concerning filariasis elimination in Samoa.

%8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Entomol %D 2015 %T Establishment of the Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) and Infestation of its Egg Sacs by a Parasitoid, Philolema latrodecti (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), in French Polynesia and the Cook Islands. %A Marie, J %A Vetter, R S %N 6 %P 1291-8 %V 52 %X This paper presents two newly established species for French Polynesia: the invasive brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, and its potential biocontrol agent, the parasitoid wasp, Philolema latrodecti (Fullaway). The brown widow spider was recorded from the island of Moorea in 2006 and, since that discovery, the occurrence of this species has expanded to two of the five archipelagos of French Polynesia including the main island of Tahiti and four of the Cook Islands. Although the tropical climate contributes to the establishment of L. geometricus, a biotic factor, P. latrodecti, may restrain population from demographic explosion. This eurytomid wasp is present in French Polynesia and is a parasitoid that has been used in biological control of the southern black widow Latrodectus mactans (F.) in Hawaii. This wasp could become a significant limiting factor for L. geometricus distribution on these islands, as it was found in 31% of the Tahitian brown widow spider egg sacs that were dissected. However, thus far, the wasp was only found on Tahiti in association with the brown widow spider. Although the brown widow is generally considered to be less toxic than its black widow relatives, it remains of medical concern in French Polynesia because reactions to its bites can, at times, be severe. The spider remains of public concern because it is a novel species; it has the word widow in its name and dark morphs are mistaken as black widows. %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Clin Microbiol %D 2015 %T Emergence of Zika virus. %A Musso, D %A Nhan, T %N 5 %V 4 %X Zika virus was first described in the 1940s. During more than all of a century, less than 20 human infections have been reported. Emergence of Zika started with a first outbreak in the Pacific area in 2007 (Federated States of Micronesia), a second large outbreak occurred in the Pacific in 2013/2014 (French Polynesia) and subsequently the virus spread in other Pacific Islands. Zika virus emerged in the Americas (Brazil) in 2015. Emergence of Zika virus in the Pacific was associated with the description of severe neurological complications. %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Virologie %D 2015 %T Emergence du virus ZIka %A Nhan, T %A Musso, D %N 5 %P 225-35 %V 19 %X Le virus Zika (ZIKV) est un arbovirus du genre Flavivirus, famille des Flaviviridae, transmis par les piq %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J J Clin Microbiol %D 2015 %T Epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria in French Polynesia. %A Phelippeau, M %A A.O., Djaltou %A Musso, D %A Drancourt, M %N 12 %P 3798-3804 %V 23 %X As few data are available in the Pacific countries and territories of the Oceania region regarding nontuberculous mycobacteria, we retrospectively identified 87 such isolates from French Polynesia from 2008 to 2013 by hybridization using DNA strip, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and partial rpoB gene sequencing. Partial rpoB gene sequencing classified 42/87 (48.3%) isolates inthe Mycobacterium fortuitum complex, 28 (32.2%) in the Mycobacterium abscessus complex, 8 (9.2%) in the Mycobacterium mucogenicum complex and 5 (5.7%) in the Mycobacterium avium complex. Two isolates were identified as Mycobacterium acapulcensis and Mycobacterium cosmeticum by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. One isolate, unidentified by MALDI-TOF-MS and yielding less than 92% and 96% sequence similarity with rpoB and hsp65 reference sequences respectively, was regarded as a potentially new species. Three patients exhibiting ? two Mycobacterium porcinum isolates and one patient with emphysema and a lung abscess exhibiting two Mycobacterium senegalense isolates, fulfilled the American Thoracic Society microbiological criteria for nontuberculosis mycobacterial lung infection. Remote geographic areas such as French Polynesia are potential sources for the discovery of new mycobacteria species. %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Parasites & vectors %D 2015 %T Filariasis serosurvey, New Caledonia, South Pacific, 2013 %A Daures, M %A Champagnat, J %A Pfannstiel, A %A Ringuenoire, F %A Grangeon, J P %A Musso, D %N 1 %P 102 %V 8 %X BACKGROUND:Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a major public health problem in the Pacific. As the global prevalence of infection was not known in New Caledonia (NC), a serosurvey study was conducted by determining the prevalence of circulating filarial antigens, as recommended by the World Health Organization. FINDINGS: A cross sectional study on a 2 degree stratified sample was carried out from June to November 2013. Inclusion criteria were: individuals aged 2 to 80 y/o, who had been hospitalized or sought medical care for a non-infectious cause and who had been living in NC for more than 6 months. LF antigenic detection was performed using the immunocromatographic BinaxNOW filariasis card test (ICT). Among the 1,035 individuals tested, 7 were antigenic. The overall LF antigenic prevalence was 0.62% (CI 95% [0.60-0.63]). All patients were unrelated to each other; none of them presented clinical symptoms of LF. Four of the 7 ICT positive patients reported having travelled to LF endemic areas, 2 patients had never traveled outside NC and the last one had only traveled in non-endemic areas. For the 7 ICT positive patients, the research of microfilariae in blood smears and filarial DNA by PCR was negative. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of filarial antigenemia in NC is less than 1%, the threshold that defines the filarial endemic areas for WHO. Nevertheless, as two patients who had never travelled outside NC and one who had only travelled to non-endemic areas were antigenic, we cannot conclude that NC is totally free of LF. %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J IOC newsletter on Toxic Algae and Algal Blooms %D 2015 %T First report of a mass-poisoning outbreak following the consumption of Tectus niloticus (Gastropod) in French Polynesia : a novel pathway of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning ? %A Gatti, C %A Darius, H T %A Chinain, M %A Lonati, D %P 19-20 %V 50 %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Entomol %D 2015 %T How Important is Vertical Transmission of Dengue Viruses by Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)? %A Grunnill, M %A Boots, M %X Vertical transmission of dengue viruses by mosquitoes was discovered at the end of the late 1970s and has been suggested to be a means by which these viruses persist. However, it is unclear how widespread it is in nature, and its importance in the epidemiology of this disease is still debated. Here, we review the literature on vertical transmission and discuss its role in dengue's epidemiology and control. We conclude that given the number of studies that failed to find evidence of vertical transmission, as well as mathematical models and its mechanistic basis, it is unlikely that vertical transmission is important for the epidemiological persistence of dengue viruses. A combination of asymptomatic infection in humans and movement of people are likely to be more important determinants of dengue's persistence. We argue, however, that there may be some need for further research into the prevalence of dengue viruses in desiccated, as well as diapausing, eggs and the role of horizontal transmission through larval cannibalism. %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Transfusion %D 2015 %T Inactivation of Zika virus in plasma with amotosalen and ultraviolet A illumination %A Aubry, M %A Richard, V %A Green, J %A Broult, J %A Musso, D %V Ahead of p %X BACKGROUND(ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by mosquitoes. The potential for ZIKV transmission through blood transfusion was demonstrated during the ZIKV outbreak that occurred in French Polynesia from October 2013 to April 2014. Pathogen inactivation of blood products is a proactive strategy that provides the potential to reduce transfusion-transmitted diseases. Inactivation of arboviruses by amotosalen and ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination was previously demonstrated for chikungunya, West Nile, and dengue viruses. We report here the efficiency of this process for ZIKV inactivation of human plasma. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Plasma units were spiked with ZIKV. Viral titers and RNA loads were measured in plasma before and after amotosalen and UVA photochemical treatment. RESULTS: The mean ZIKV titers and RNA loads in plasma before inactivation were respectively 6.57 log TCID50 /mL and 10.25 log copies/mL. After inactivation, the mean ZIKV RNA loads was 9.51 log copies/mL, but cell cultures inoculated with inactivated plasma did not result in infected cells and did not produce any replicative virus after one passage, nor detectable viral RNA from the second passage. CONCLUSION: In this study we demonstrate that amotosalen combined with UVA light inactivates ZIKV in fresh-frozen plasma. This inactivation process is of particular interest to prevent plasma transfusion-transmitted ZIKV infections in areas such as French Polynesia, where several arboviruses are cocirculating. %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Transfusion %D 2015 %T Inactivation of Zika virus in plasma with amotosalen and ultraviolet A illumination %A Aubry, M %A Richard, V %A Green, J %A Broult, J %A Musso, D %V Ahead of p %X BACKGROUND(ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by mosquitoes. The potential for ZIKV transmission through blood transfusion was demonstrated during the ZIKV outbreak that occurred in French Polynesia from October 2013 to April 2014. Pathogen inactivation of blood products is a proactive strategy that provides the potential to reduce transfusion-transmitted diseases. Inactivation of arboviruses by amotosalen and ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination was previously demonstrated for chikungunya, West Nile, and dengue viruses. We report here the efficiency of this process for ZIKV inactivation of human plasma. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Plasma units were spiked with ZIKV. Viral titers and RNA loads were measured in plasma before and after amotosalen and UVA photochemical treatment. RESULTS: The mean ZIKV titers and RNA loads in plasma before inactivation were respectively 6.57 log TCID50 /mL and 10.25 log copies/mL. After inactivation, the mean ZIKV RNA loads was 9.51 log copies/mL, but cell cultures inoculated with inactivated plasma did not result in infected cells and did not produce any replicative virus after one passage, nor detectable viral RNA from the second passage. CONCLUSION: In this study we demonstrate that amotosalen combined with UVA light inactivates ZIKV in fresh-frozen plasma. This inactivation process is of particular interest to prevent plasma transfusion-transmitted ZIKV infections in areas such as French Polynesia, where several arboviruses are cocirculating. %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J J Microbiol Immunol Infect %D 2015 %T Mycobacterium abscessus pneumonia in a South Pacific islander. %A Phelippeau, M %A Musso, D %A Drancourt, M %N 15 %P 32-8 %V S1684-1182 %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J J Microbiol Immunol Infect %D 2015 %T Mycobacterium abscessus pneumonia in a South Pacific islander. %A Phelippeau, M %A Musso, D %A Drancourt, M %N 15 %P 32-8 %V S1684-1182 %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J J Adolescent Health %D 2015 %T Obesity and metabolic parameters in adolescents : a school-based intervention program in FP %A Gatti, C %A Suhas, E %A Cote, S %A Anassour-Laouan, E %A Dewailly, E %A Lucas, M %N 2 %P 174-80 %V 56 %X PURPOSE:The prevalence of overweight/obesity among French Polynesian adolescents is alarming. This study aims to prevent rises in obesity by modifying school food and the physical environment of French Polynesian adolescents. METHODS: During the 5-month study, 240 adolescents from a Tubuai island college (in French Polynesia) received a balanced diet based almost exclusively on local agricultural products and fishing by the island community. They were divided into three subgroups according to their college attendance status: external (n = 14), half residents (n = 155), and residents (n = 71). To increase energy expenditure, weekly physical activity was augmented by 2-4 hours of training in Polynesian Va'a canoes. Anthropometric parameters were recorded, and blood samples collected at baseline and after 5 months. Collegians from Rurutu, a neighboring island, were considered as controls (N = 90). RESULTS: At baseline, overweight/obesity prevalence was 60% (with 28% obesity) in the intervention group. After 5 months, adjusted weight gain was -.76 kg for residents (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.59 to .08), 1.34 kg for half residents (95% CI, .84-1.83), 1.82 kg for externs (95% CI, .66-2.97), and 4.2 kg (95% CI, 3.4-5.0) in the controls. Our results indicate that the more adolescents were subjected to food and physical activity commitments, the higher was the rate among those who lost weight. We noted that the weight change magnitude predicted insulin, glucose, and visceral obesity modifications. CONCLUSIONS: This 5-month school-based intervention slowed weight gain and improved the health of Polynesian collegians. The implementation of longer school-based interventions deserves evaluation. %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Emerg Infect Dis %D 2015 %T Potential sexual transmission of zika virus. %A Musso, D %A Roche, C %A Robin, E %A Nhan, T %A Teissier, A %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %N 2 %P 121-33 et 359-61 %V 21 %X

In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually.

%8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Emerg Infect Dis %D 2015 %T Potential sexual transmission of Zika virus. %A Musso, D %A Roche, C %A Robin, E %A Nhan, T %A Teissier, A %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %N 2 %P 359-61 %V 21 %X In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually. %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Int J Infect Dis %D 2015 %T Seroprevalence of arboviruses among blood donors in French Polynesia, 2011-2013. %A Aubry, M %A Finke, J %A Teissier, A %A Roche, C %A Broult, J %A Paulous, S %A Despr %P 11-12 %V 41 %X

OBJECTIVES:
French Polynesia is a high epidemic/endemic area for arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). We recently reported the silent circulation of Ross River virus and absence of active transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) among blood donors sampled before the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) and CHIKV in French Polynesia. In this study, the prevalence of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) and the occurrence of circulation of other arboviruses were investigated in blood donors in French Polynesia.
METHODS:
Serum samples from 593 blood donors collected between July 2011 and October 2013 were tested by ELISA for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against each of the four DENV serotypes, ZIKV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and West Nile virus (WNV).
RESULTS:
It was found that 80.3%, 0.8%, 1.3%, and 1.5% of blood donors were seropositive for at least one DENV serotype, ZIKV, JEV, and WNV, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS:
These results corroborate the expected high transmission of DENV and conversely suggest that no active circulation of ZIKV, JEV, and WNV occurred in French Polynesia before 2011. Information provided by this study may be useful for public health authorities to improve surveillance and implement strategies to prevent the transmission of arboviruses.

%8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Int J Infect Dis %D 2015 %T Silent Circulation of Ross River Virus in French Polynesia. %A Aubry, M %A Finke, J %A Teissier, A %A Roche, C %A Broult, J %A Paulous, S %A Despr %P 19-24 %V 37 %X OBJECTIVES:Ross River is an emerging mosquito-borne disease in the Western Pacific. Ross River virus (RRV) circulation has been sporadically reported in some Pacific Island Countries and Territories but never in French Polynesia. To determine if RRV has circulated locally among the French Polynesian population, we conducted a seroprevalence study on blood donors. METHODS: Sera of 593 blood donors were collected from July 2011 to October 2013 and tested by ELISA for the presence of RRV-specific Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. RESULTS: A total of 204 (34.40%) blood donors were found seropositive for RRV. Among the 132 blood donors that were born in French Polynesia and had never travelled abroad, 56 (42.42%) had RRV-specific IgGs. DISCUSSION: Our results support the existence of autochthonous RRV transmission and suggest that this pathogen has silently circulated in French Polynesia. These findings raise the question of possible undetected circulation of RRV in other Pacific Island Countries and Territories. %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Emerg Infect Dis %D 2015 %T Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis in French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2008-2013. %A Le Hello, S %A Maillard, F %A Mallet, HP %A Daudens, E %A Levy, M %A Roy, V %A Branaa, P %A Bertrand, S %A Fabre, L %A Weill, FX. %N 6 %P 1045-8 %V 21 %X Outbreaks of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections associated with eggs occurred in French Polynesia during 2008-2013. Molecular analysis of isolates by using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat polymorphisms and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis was performed. This subtyping made defining the epidemic strain, finding the source, and decontaminating affected poultry flocks possible. %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Int J Infect Dis %D 2015 %T Seroprevalence of arboviruses among blood donors in French Polynesia, 2011-2013. %A Aubry, M %A Finke, J %A Teissier, A %A Roche, C %A Broult, J %A Paulous, S %A Despr %P 11-2 %V 41 %X OBJECTIVES:French Polynesia is a high epidemic/endemic area for arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). We recently reported the silent circulation of Ross River virus and absence of active transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) among blood donors sampled before the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) and CHIKV in French Polynesia. In this study, the prevalence of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) and the occurrence of circulation of other arboviruses were investigated in blood donors in French Polynesia. METHODS: Serum samples from 593 blood donors collected between July 2011 and October 2013 were tested by ELISA for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against each of the four DENV serotypes, ZIKV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and West Nile virus (WNV). RESULTS: It was found that 80.3%, 0.8%, 1.3%, and 1.5% of blood donors were seropositive for at least one DENV serotype, ZIKV, JEV, and WNV, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results corroborate the expected high transmission of DENV and conversely suggest that no active circulation of ZIKV, JEV, and WNV occurred in French Polynesia before 2011. Information provided by this study may be useful for public health authorities to improve surveillance and implement strategies to prevent the transmission of arboviruses. %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Int J Infect Dis %D 2015 %T Silent Circulation of Ross River Virus in French Polynesia. %A Aubry, M %A Finke, J %A Teissier, A %A Roche, C %A Broult, J %A Paulous, S %A Despr %P 19-24 %V 37 %X OBJECTIVES:Ross River is an emerging mosquito-borne disease in the Western Pacific. Ross River virus (RRV) circulation has been sporadically reported in some Pacific Island Countries and Territories but never in French Polynesia. To determine if RRV has circulated locally among the French Polynesian population, we conducted a seroprevalence study on blood donors. METHODS: Sera of 593 blood donors were collected from July 2011 to October 2013 and tested by ELISA for the presence of RRV-specific Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. RESULTS: A total of 204 (34.40%) blood donors were found seropositive for RRV. Among the 132 blood donors that were born in French Polynesia and had never travelled abroad, 56 (42.42%) had RRV-specific IgGs. DISCUSSION: Our results support the existence of autochthonous RRV transmission and suggest that this pathogen has silently circulated in French Polynesia. These findings raise the question of possible undetected circulation of RRV in other Pacific Island Countries and Territories. %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Clin Microbiol Infect %D 2015 %T The burden of chikungunya in the Pacific. %A Nhan, T %A Musso, D %N 6 %P e47-8 %V 21 %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Clin Microbiol Infect %D 2015 %T The burden of chikungunya in the Pacific. %A Nhan, T %A Musso, D %N 6 %P e47-8 %V 21 %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J PLoS ONE %D 2015 %T Use of Centrifugal Filter Devices to Concentrate Dengue Virus in Mosquito per os Infection Experiments. %A Richard, V %A Viallon, J %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %N 9 %P e0138161 %V 10 %X Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus transmitted to humans by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. Experimental per os infection of mosquitoes with DENV is usually a preliminary step in virus/vector studies but it requires being able to prepare artificial blood-meals with high virus titers. We report here the convenient use of centrifugal filter devices to quickly concentrate DENV particles in cell-culture supernatants. The median viral titer in concentrated-supernatants was 8.50 log10 TCID50/mL. By using these DENV concentrated-supernatants to prepare infectious blood-meals in Aedes aegypti per os infection experiments, we obtained a mean mosquito-infection rate of 94%. We also evaluated the use of centrifugal filter devices to recover DENV particles from non-infectious blood-meals presented to infected mosquitoes through a feeding membrane to collect their saliva. %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J PLoS ONE %D 2015 %T Use of Centrifugal Filter Devices to Concentrate Dengue Virus in Mosquito per os Infection Experiments. %A Richard, V %A Viallon, J %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %N 9 %P e0138161 %V 10 %X Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus transmitted to humans by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. Experimental per os infection of mosquitoes with DENV is usually a preliminary step in virus/vector studies but it requires being able to prepare artificial blood-meals with high virus titers. We report here the convenient use of centrifugal filter devices to quickly concentrate DENV particles in cell-culture supernatants. The median viral titer in concentrated-supernatants was 8.50 log10 TCID50/mL. By using these DENV concentrated-supernatants to prepare infectious blood-meals in Aedes aegypti per os infection experiments, we obtained a mean mosquito-infection rate of 94%. We also evaluated the use of centrifugal filter devices to recover DENV particles from non-infectious blood-meals presented to infected mosquitoes through a feeding membrane to collect their saliva. %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet %D 2015 %T Zika virus : following the path of dengue and chikungunya ? %A Musso, D %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %A Gubler, D %P 243-4 %V 386 %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Emerg Infect Dis %D 2015 %T Zika virus transmission from French Polynesia to Brazil %A Musso, D %N 10 %P 1887 %V 21 %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet %D 2015 %T Zika virus : following the path of dengue and chikungunya ? %A Musso, D %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %A Gubler, D %N 9990 %P 243-4 %V 386 %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Emerg Infect Dis %D 2015 %T Zika virus transmission from French Polynesia to Brazil %A Musso, D %N 10 %P 1887 %V 21 %8 2015 %0 Journal Article %J Vox Sanguinis %D 2014 %T Amotosalem and ultraviolet A illumination of dengue in plasma. %A Musso, D %A Richard, V %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %N Suppl 1 %P 218 %V 107 %8 2014 %0 Journal Article %J Vox Sanguinis %D 2014 %T Amotosalem and ultraviolet A illumination of dengue in plasma. %A Musso, D %A Richard, V %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %N Suppl 1 %P 218 %V 107 %8 2014 %0 Book Section %B Infectious diseases - Chapter 182 - Elsevier %D 2014 %T Curved and spiral bacilli : Leptospira spp. %A Megraud, F %A Lehours, P %A Drancourt, M %A Musso, D %I Elsevier Ltd %V 4th ed %8 2014 %0 Book Section %B Infectious diseases %D 2014 %T Curved and spiral bacilli : Leptospira spp. %A Megraud, F %A Lehours, P %A Drancourt, M %A Musso, D %I Elsevier Ltd %N Issue ID: %V 4th %8 2014 %0 Journal Article %J RFL %D 2014 %T Ciguatéra : aspects écologiques, biologiques et toxicologiques. %A Chinain, M %A Gatti, C %A Roué, M %A Laurent, D %A H.T., Darius %N 460 %P 27-39 %X

La ciguatéra est une intoxication résultant de la consommation de produits marins d’ambiance corallienne contaminés par des toxines marines, les ciguatoxines (CTXs), qui agissent préférentiellement sur les canaux sodiques dépendants du potentiel d’action. Cette pathologie, hautement prévalente dans les régions tropicales et intertropicales du globe, se caractérise par des troubles digestifs, neurologiques, cutanés, cardiovasculaires et respiratoires d’intensité variable, parfois compliqués par la survenue de cas chroniques et l’absence de traitement réellement efficace, sauf peut-être au sein de la pharmacopée traditionnelle. Le principal agent causal de cette pathologie est un dinoflagellé benthique, Gambierdiscus spp., qui se caractérise par une diversité morphologique et moléculaire remarquable (11 espèces connues à ce jour) et une très large répartition géographique. Plus récemment, l’implication potentielle de cyanobactéries marines dans des formes atypiques de ciguatéra a également été documentée. Les perturbations environnementales (e.g. températures élevées) et d’origine anthropique infligées aux écosystèmes coralliens sont autant de facteurs déclenchant des flambées ciguatériques. Seules certaines lignées de Gambierdiscus sont génétiquement capables de produire des CTXs. Ces dernières se répartissent en 3 grandes familles correspondant aux 3 zones d’endémie de la maladie (i.e. Pacifique, Caraïbes et Océan Indien), soit plus d’une quarantaine d’analogues chimiques. En dépit de la large panoplie de tests de détection déjà disponibles (tests in vivo, in vitro voire même traditionnels), il n’existe actuellement aucun test de référence dûment validé, ce qui constitue un obstacle majeur à l’exploitation durable des ressources pisciaires.

%8 2014 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 2014 %T Ciguatera fish toxicity in French Polynesia : size does not always matter. %A Gaboriau, M %A Ponton, D %A Darius, H T %A Chinain, M %P 41-50 %V 84 %X

Accumulation of ciguatoxins (CTXs) in tropical reef fish tissues during their life is responsible of the most prevalent human seafood intoxication in the South Pacific called Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP). It has been assumed for a long time that CTXs are transferred and accumulated along the trophic food chain, and consequently that smaller individuals within a given fish species are safer to eat than larger ones. However, the relationship between toxicity and fish size has been studied for a limited number of species only and the conclusions are often contradictory. The toxicity of 856 fishes from 59 different species sampled in six islands in French Polynesia between 2003 and 2011 was assessed by Receptor Binding Assay. Among them, 45 species × island and 32 families × island for which the number of individuals was =6 allowed testing the relationship between toxicity and size. Except for six specimens of Lutjanus bohar caught in Fakarava (P < 0.01; R2 = 0.854), the 44 remaining species × island showed no significant increase of CTXs concentration with fish total length (TL). Moreover, the proportion of toxic individuals decreased significantly for Epinephelus polyphekadion from Fakarava (n = 24; P < 0.05) and Kyphosus cinerascens from Raivavae (n = 29; P < 0.05), while no significant variation was detected for the other 43 species × island. At the family level, only three positive and three negative relationships between size and CTXs concentration were observed among the 32 family × island analyzed. No relationship between the proportion of toxic fish within a family and the relative total length of individuals were observed. The lack of relationship between toxicity and size observed for most of the species and families from the six islands suggests that fish size cannot be used as an efficient predictor of fish toxicity in French Polynesia. These results highlight the need for improving our knowledge about metabolic processes which may play a role in CTXs bio-accumulation and depuration among the different trophic levels of fishes.

%8 2014 %0 Journal Article %J Emerg Infect Dis %D 2014 %T Dengue virus type-3, South Pacific Islands, 2013 %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %A Roche, C %A Musso, D %A Mallet, P H %A Dalipanda, T %A Dofai, A %A Nogareda, F %A Nilles, E J %A Aaskov, J %N 6 %P 1034-6 %V 20 %X After an 18-year absence, dengue virus serotype 3 reemerged in the South Pacific Islands in 2013. Outbreaks in western (Solomon Islands) and eastern (French Polynesia) regions were caused by different genotypes. This finding suggested that immunity against dengue virus serotype, rather than virus genotype, was the principal determinant of reemergence. %8 2014 %0 Journal Article %J Harmful algae %D 2014 %T Dynamics of ciguatoxins from Gambierdiscus polynesiensis in the benthic herbivore Mugil cephalus: Trophic transfer implications %A Ledreux, A %A Brand, H %A Chinain, M %A Dechraoui-Bottein, M Y %A Ramsdell, J S %P 165-74 %V 39 %X This study investigates ciguatoxin dynamics in mullet after controlled feeding of Gambierdiscus polynesiensis cells as a model to characterize the absorption, distribution, retention and accumulation of ciguatoxins into the second trophic level of southwestern Pacific coral reef ecosystems. Mullet (Mugil cephalus) were fed once every other day over a period of 16 days for nine toxic feedings, and ciguatoxin activity was assessed over time in blood and seven tissues using the Neuro2a assay. Within 3 h of feeding on G. polynesiensis cells, ciguatoxins attained maximal blood concentrations, indicating rapid absorption of toxins into the systemic circulation. The time course for distribution of the estimated total tissue burden of ciguatoxin closely followed the time course for blood toxin levels, indicating a rapid distribution of the ciguatoxins throughout the fish body. The large majority (95%) of the ciguatoxin ingested dose was eliminated from the examined fish tissues 24 h after a single toxic meal, indicating little retention potential for ciguatoxin. We found no evidence for ciguatoxin accumulation after nine repeated feedings spaced two days apart, indicating that mullet did not accumulate ciguatoxin. These results provide the first experimental evidence supporting the central tenet of Randall's food chain hypothesis that ciguatoxins enter the food chain by transfer from unicellular algae to herbivorous and detritus-feeding fish. We propose that a time-dependent transformation of oxopene ciguatoxins may be necessary for the concentration of ciguatoxin through higher trophic levels. %8 2014 %0 Journal Article %J Emerg Infect Dis %D 2014 %T Dengue virus type-3, South Pacific Islands, 2013 %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %A Roche, C %A Musso, D %A Mallet, P H %A Dalipanda, T %A Dofai, A %A Nogareda, F %A Nilles, E J %A Aaskov, J %N 6 %P 1034-6 %V 20 %X After an 18-year absence, dengue virus serotype 3 reemerged in the South Pacific Islands in 2013. Outbreaks in western (Solomon Islands) and eastern (French Polynesia) regions were caused by different genotypes. This finding suggested that immunity against dengue virus serotype, rather than virus genotype, was the principal determinant of reemergence. %8 2014 %0 Journal Article %J Acta Trop %D 2014 %T Effect of temperature and larval density on Aedes polynesiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) laboratory rearing productivity and male characteristics. %A Hapairai, L %A Marie, J %A Sinkins, S P %A Bossin, H C %N S108-15 %V 132 sup %X

Aedes polynesiensis Marks (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae were reared to adulthood in the laboratory under a range of temperatures and larval densities. We studied the effect of these variables on several life table parameters of relevance to male-release-based vector control strategies including: larval survivorship, developmental time to pupation, male to female ratio, male pupae yield, adult male size and survival. The range of tested rearing temperatures (20, 25, 27, and 30 °C) and larval densities (50, 100, 200, and 400 larvae/L) was selected within the conditions allowing larval growth and survival. Larval survivorship was the highest when larvae were reared at 200 larvae/L for all temperatures except 20 °C. Male to female ratio was male biased at all temperatures and densities. Time to pupation decreased with increasing temperatures. Larval density and temperature influenced the proportion of males pupating on first day of pupation with 43-47% of total male pupae produced at 25 °C. No significant differences in mean wing length were observed between male mosquitoes reared in the laboratory (except at 20 and 30 °C for some densities) and field collected males. Altogether, the study allowed the identification of rearing conditions delivering high male yield with essentially no female contamination, adequate adult male size and survival. Ae. polynesiensis thus appears particularly amenable to biological and mechanical sex separation offering good prospects for Ae. polynesiensis population suppression trials that rely on the production and release of large numbers of incompatible or sterile males.

%8 2014 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet %D 2014 %T Emerging arboviruses in the Pacific. %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %A Musso, D %N 384 %P 1571-2 %8 2014 %0 Journal Article %J Lancet %D 2014 %T Emerging arboviruses in the Pacific. %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %A Musso, D %N 384 %P 1571-2 %8 2014 %0 Journal Article %J J Infect Dis %D 2014 %T Improvement of leptospirosis surveillance in remote Pacific islands using serum spotted on filter paper. %A Musso, D %A Roche, C %A Marfel, M %A Bel, M %A Nilles, E J %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %P 74-6 %V 20 %X

OBJECTIVES:
Leptospirosis is a serious neglected disease in the Pacific. Because sensitive and specific laboratory tests are largely unavailable, the burden of disease and epidemiological data are often unreliable and do not allow informed disease prioritization and efficient control. We report the use of serum spotted on filter paper to improve the surveillance of leptospirosis in remote and resource-limited settings.
METHODS:
A total of 172 acute-phase serum samples collected from patients with suspected dengue at Yap State Hospital, Federated States of Micronesia, were spotted on filter paper and sent by regular mail to the Institut Louis Malardé, French Polynesia. Real-time PCR protocols for dengue and leptospirosis confirmation were performed on all specimens.
RESULTS:
A total of five leptospirosis infections were detected amongst the patients with suspected dengue.
CONCLUSIONS:
This study confirms the use of filter paper as a convenient tool to improve leptospirosis surveillance capacity in remote areas. New surveillance strategies, notably based on the regular use of this type of tool, are essential to more adequately describe the epidemiology and burden of neglected diseases.

%8 2014 %0 Book Section %B Outstanding marine molecules - from natural history to human welfare. %D 2014 %T Marine cyanotoxins potentially harmful to human health. %A Roué, M %A Gugger, M %A Golubic, S %A Amzil, Z %A Araoz, R %A Turquet, J %A Chinain, M %A Laurent, D %I Labarre S & Kornprobst JM (Eds.) %V Wiley %8 2014 %0 Journal Article %J Neurotox Res %D 2014 %T Neuroprotective effects of rosmarinic Acid on ciguatoxin in primary human neurons. %A Braidy, N %A Matin, A %A Rossi, F %A Chinain, M %A Laurent, D %A Guillemin, G J %N 2 %P 226-34 %V 25 %X Ciguatoxin (CTX), is a toxic compound produced by microalgae (dinoflagellate) Gambierdiscus spp., and is bio-accumulated and bio-transformed through the marine food chain causing neurological deficits. To determine the mechanism of CTX-mediated cytotoxicity in human neurons, we measured extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, intracellular levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) and H2AX phosphorylation at serine 139 as a measure for DNA damage in primary cultures of human neurons treated with Pacific (P)-CTX-1B and P-CTX-3C. We found these marine toxins can induce a time and dose-dependent increase in extracellular LDH activity, with a concomitant decline in intracellular NAD(+) levels and increased DNA damage at the concentration range of 5-200nM. We also showed that pre- and post-treatment with rosmarinic acid (RA), the active constituent of the Heliotropium foertherianum (Boraginaceae) can attenuate CTX-mediated neurotoxicity. These results further highlight the potential of RA in the treatment of CTX-induced neurological deficits. %8 2014 %0 Journal Article %J Clin Microbiol Infect %D 2014 %T Rapid spread of emerging Zika virus in the Pacific area. %A Musso, D %A Nilles, E %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %N 10 %P 595-6 %V 20 %8 2014 %0 Journal Article %J Harmful algae %D 2014 %T Transcriptome sequencing reveals single domain Type I-like polyketide synthases in the toxic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus polynesiensis %A Pawlowiez, R %A Morey, S J %A Darius, H T %A Chinain, M %A Van Dolah, F M %P 29-37 %V 36 %X

Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are potent neurotoxins responsible for the food-borne illness known as ciguatera that occurs after consumption of contaminated fish. Benthic dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus spp. are known as the main producers of CTXs. CTXs are polycyclic polyethers, presumed to be synthesized by polyketide synthase (PKS) complexes; however, the mechanisms of CTX biosynthesis remain unresolved. Here, we investigated a de novo transcriptome assembly of Gambierdiscus polynesiensis TB-92 clone, a highly toxic producer of Pacific ciguatoxins, and focused on the identification of PKS transcripts. A cDNA library generated using a spliced leader (SL) priming approach, which specifically targets the dinoflagellate nuclear transcriptome, was sequenced by Roche 454. This strategy produced 1,221,335 raw reads, assembled into 16,336 unique contigs. Contigs were subjected to BLAST search, annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) terms and enriched with enzyme codes (EC) from Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Thirty-three PKS-related sequences were thus identified. Twenty-two contigs encoded single domain ß-ketoacyl synthases (KS) with sequence similarity to Type I PKSs, as reported in other dinoflagellates. A conserved motif previously observed near the 5' end of dinoflagellate KS domain transcripts was present in G. polynesiensis, and distinguished two groups of KS domain sequences. Ketoreductase (KR), acyltransferase (AT), and acyl carrier protein (ACP) domains were also found on single domain containing transcripts. KEGG pathway mapping placed three of the KS sequences containing the PKS conserved domain (cd00833) in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. No contigs were found encoding the conserved domains typically found in elongating ketosynthase domains of fatty acid synthases (cd00832, Type I or cd00834, Type II). Contigs mapping to other parts of the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway similarly encoded individual domains, suggesting that fatty acid synthesis takes place in multiprotein complexes. Other than the three KS domains, none of the sequences mapping to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway overlapped with those annotated as PKSs. These data lend support to the idea that PKSs may contribute to both polyketide and fatty acid synthesis in dinoflagellates. This dataset provides important background to future research in order to understand the complex mechanism of toxin production in this dinoflagellate.

%8 2014 %0 Journal Article %J Transfusion clinique et biologique %D 2014 %T Virus Zika en Polynésie française : hémovigilance receveur. %A Bierlaire, D %A Beau, F %A Lastere, S %A Musso J., Broult %P 234 %V 21 %8 2014 %0 Journal Article %J Transfusion clinique et biologique %D 2014 %T Virus Zika en Polyn %A Bierlaire, D %A Beau, F %A Last %P 234 %V 21 %8 2014 %0 Journal Article %J Emerg Infect Dis %D 2014 %T Zika virus outbreak in French Polynesia, 2013 %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %A Roche, C %A Teissier, A %A Robin, E %A Berry, A L %A Mallet, H P %A Sall, A A %A Musso, D %N 6 %P 1085-6 %V 20 %X PDF %8 2014 %0 Journal Article %J Emerg Infect Dis %D 2014 %T Zika virus outbreak in French Polynesia, 2013 %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %A Roche, C %A Teissier, A %A Robin, E %A Berry, A L %A Mallet, H P %A Sall, A A %A Musso, D %N 6 %P 1085-6 %V 20 %8 2014 %0 Journal Article %J BVS Antilles Guyane %D 2013 %T Ciguatéra : aspects physiopathologiques et cliniques %A Chinain, M %A Gatti, C %A Darius, HT. %P 2-8 %V 3 %X

En France, l’ichtyosarcotoxisme de type ciguatéra est classé comme une étiologie possible des TIAC (Toxi-Infection Alimentaire Collective) qui sont à déclaration obligatoire par les professionnels de santé. Pour l’heure, le diagnostic de la ciguatéra se base uniquement sur l’anamnèse, en particulier, l’analyse du tableau clinique du patient, du fait de l’absence de marqueurs biologiques d’exposition aux ciguatoxines (CTXs). En effet, l’on n’observe en général aucun syndrome inflammatoire chez les personnes atteintes, et le bilan hépatique reste normal. Dans certains cas, les examens biologiques standard peuvent toutefois montrer des anomalies en rapport avec une déshydratation aiguë, une augmentation des enzymes musculaires (créatine phosphokinase) [52], et/ou une élévation fréquente des IgE sériques [1]. De même, l’électrocardiogramme, l’électromyogramme ou la réalisation d’une biopsie nerveuse peuvent également être révélateurs d’anomalies cardio-vasculaires et/ou neurologiques, telles que des modifications de l’onde T, une diminution des vitesses de conduction motrice et/ou sensitive, des signes d’atteinte axonale, l’existence de zones de démyélinisation, [44].
Il est à noter que seules des analyses réalisées sur les reliefs des repas toxiques, permettant de confirmer la présence de toxines dans les chairs des poissons incriminés, sont en mesure de conforter ce diagnostic présomptif. Ces analyses ne sont toutefois réalisées que par des laboratoires spécialisés du fait de la complexité des tests utilisés.

%8 2013 %0 Journal Article %J RFL %D 2013 %T Diagnostic biologique de la leptospirose %A Musso, D %A Lascola, B %N 449 %P 39-46 %V 43 %X

La leptopsirose est une zoonose de répartition mondiale causée par des bactéries du genre Leptopira. Il s’agit d’une pathologie potentiellement mortelle pouvant bénéficier d’un traitement spécifique. La présentation clinique est non spécifique et peut être confondue avec de nombreuses autres pathologies, principalement la dengue en zones tropicales et subtropicales. La confirmation diagnostique est indispensable. Les techniques de référence ne sont pas toujours disponibles, surtout dans certains pays de forte endémie. La culture des leptospires, longue, fastidieuse et peu sensible, ne permet pas un diagnostic en urgence. Le diagnostic repose la plupart du temps sur les techniques sérologiques. La microagglutination, technique de référence, est longue et réservée aux centres de référence. D’autres méthodes sont disponibles telles que l’ELISA ou les tests rapides. Les anticorps, absents en début d’évolution, ne permettent pas un diagnostic à la phase aiguë. Les anticorps de nature IgM peuvent persister des mois ou années et ne sont pas la preuve d’une infection en cours. Seule la biologie moléculaire permet un diagnostic rapide en phase aiguë, la PCR en temps réel est maintenant la plus utilisée. La PCR permet un diagnostic en phase aiguë sur prélèvement sanguin prélevé lors des 10 premiers jours d’évolution.

Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of ubiquitous distribution caused by infection with pathogenic Leptospira species. It is a potentially serious but treatable disease. Its symptoms may mimic those of a number of other unrelated infections, especially dengue fever in tropical and subtropical areas. Diagnosis should be confirmed by laboratory tests as the clinical manifestations are often untypical. Reference laboratory tests are not always available, especially in developing countries. Culture of leptospires is long, fastidious, hazardous and has no utility in relation to immediate patient care. Diagnosis is usually performed by serodiagnosis. Microscopic agglutination test is the “gold standart” but it cannot provide an early diagnosis. Other methods such as ELISA are available, rapid tests are less sensitive. Antibodies are lacking at the acute phase then serology is not suitable for early diagnosis. IgM antibodies may remain detectable for several months or even years and then are not proof of a current infection. The only method that allow diagnosis of leptospirosis at the acute phase is molecular diagnosis. Real time PCR now replace standard PCR. Molecular detection is possible on a blood sample collected during the first 10 days of the disease.

%8 2013 %0 Journal Article %J Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report %D 2013 %T Dengue Outbreak Federated States of Micronesia, 20122013. %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %N 28 %P 570-3 %V 62 %8 2013 %0 Journal Article %J RFL %D 2013 %T Diagnostic biologique de la leptospirose %A Musso, D %A Lascola, B %N 449 %P 39-46 %V 43 %X La leptopsirose est une zoonose de r %8 2013 %0 Journal Article %J Food additives and contaminants (http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2012.755644) %D 2013 %T Evaluation of seafood toxicity in the Australes archipelago (French Polynesia) using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay %A Pawlowiez, R %A Darius, HT. %A Cruchet, P %A Rossi, F %A Caillaud, A %A Laurent, D %A Chinain, M %X

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), a disease caused by consuming fish that have accumulated ciguatoxins (CTXs) in their tissue, is regarded as the most prevalent form of intoxication in French Polynesia. Recently, the Australes, one of the least affected archipelago until the early 1980s, has shown a dramatic increase in its incidence rates in 2009 with unusual CFP cases. In the present work, potential health hazards associated with the proliferation of various marine phytoplankton species and the consumption of fish and marine invertebrates highly popular among local population were assessed in three Australes islands: Raivavae, Rurutu and Rapa. Extracts from the marine dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus, Ostreospis and mat-forming cyanobacteria as well as fish, giant clams and sea urchin samples were examined for the presence of CTXs and palytoxin (PLTX) by using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a).Cytotoxic responses observed with both standards (Pacific CTX-3C and PLTX) and targeted marine products indicate that CBA-N2a is a robust screening tool, with high sensitivity and good repeatability and reproducibility. In Rurutu and Raivavae islands, our main findings concern the presence of CTX-like compounds in giant clams and sea urchins, suggesting a second bio-accumulation route for CFP toxins in the ciguatera food chain. In Rapa, the potential CFP risk from Gambierdiscus bloom and fish was confirmed for the first time, with levels of CTXs found above the consumer advisory level of 0.01 ng Pacific CTX-1B g-1 of flesh in three fish samples. However, despite the presence of trace level of PLTX in Ostreopsis natural assemblages of Rapa, no sign of PLTX accumulation is yet observed in tested fish samples. Because this multi-toxinic context is likely to emerge in most French Polynesian islands, CBA-N2a shows great potential for future applications in the algal- and toxin-based field monitoring programmes currently on hand locally.

%8 2013 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Entomol %D 2013 %T First Record of Wyeomyia (Wyeomyia) mitchellii (Diptera: Culicidae) in French Polynesia %A Marie, J %A Bossin, H C %N 1 %P 37-42 %V 50 %X

Wyeomyia (Wyeomyia) mitchellii (Theobald) was discovered in 2007 and 2008, respectively, in Moorea and Tahiti, two islands of the Society Islands (archipel de la Société) in French Polynesia. A few adult specimens were captured using a CDC backpack aspirator and BG-Sentinel
mosquito traps. Wy. mitchellii larvae were found in water-impounding bromeliads and aroids at various survey sites around Tahiti. Imported bromeliads likely played a critical role in the introduction, establishment, and maintenance of Wy. mitchellii in Tahiti and Moorea. Bromeliads and aroids are common in residential areas, thereby increasing the exposure of human and domestic animals to Wy. mitchellii, which is of public health and veterinary concern. The establishment of Wy. mitchellii in French Polynesia requires further study.

%8 2013 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Entomol %D 2013 %T Field Evaluation of Selected Traps and Lures for Monitoring the Filarial and Arbovirus Vector, Aedes polynesiensis (Diptera: Culicidae), in French Polynesia %A Hapairai, L %A Haylay, J %A Cheong Sang, A %A Melrose, W %A Ritchie, S A %A Burkot, T R %A Sinkins, S P %A Bossin, H C %N 4 %P 731-9 %V 50 %X

The efficacy of the BG-Sentinel (BGS) and the BG-Mosquitito (BGM) mosquito traps for sampling populations of the important filariasis and dengue vector Aedes (Stegomyia) polynesiensis (Marks) was evaluated in French Polynesia against human bait collections (HBC) using a modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention backpack aspirator. Traps were baited with BG-Lure (a combination of lactic acid, ammonia, and caproic acid) or carbon dioxide plus octenol (1-octen-3-ol) known as attractants to aedine mosquitoes. Mosquito sampling was conducted on two typical islands of French Polynesia: the high, volcanic island of Moorea, and the low, coral island (atoll) of Tetiaroa. Sampling efficacy was measured in a randomized Latin Square design. Production of carbon dioxide from yeast-sugar fermentation was used as an alternative source of CO2 because supply via dry ice, gas cylinders, or propane combustion in remote tropical islands is costly and challenging. Although the BGS trap captured the greatest number of Ae. polynesiensis in both island settings, catch rates of BGS or BGM baited with either lure were not significantly different from that of HBC. On Moorea, the number of collected aedes species in the BGS trap baited with either lure was significantly greater than theBGMwith BG-lure. On Tetiaroa,BGMtrapping was severely hampered by damage from rats, and the traps were removed from the study. Our study confirms the efficiency, comparability, and convenience of the BGS trap, a robust and safe alternative to HBC for sampling Aedes mosquitoes in research and surveillance efforts against filariasis and arboviruses in the South Pacific.

%8 2013 %0 Journal Article %J J Infect Dis %D 2013 %T Improvement of leptospirosis surveillance in remote Pacific islands using serum spotted on filter paper. %A Musso, D %A Roche, C %A Marfel, M %A Bel, M %A Nilles, E J %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %P 74-6 %V 20 %X OBJECTIVES:Leptospirosis is a serious neglected disease in the Pacific. Because sensitive and specific laboratory tests are largely unavailable, the burden of disease and epidemiological data are often unreliable and do not allow informed disease prioritization and efficient control. We report the use of serum spotted on filter paper to improve the surveillance of leptospirosis in remote and resource-limited settings. METHODS: A total of 172 acute-phase serum samples collected from patients with suspected dengue at Yap State Hospital, Federated States of Micronesia, were spotted on filter paper and sent by regular mail to the Institut Louis Malard %8 2013 %0 Journal Article %J Med Vet Entomol %D 2013 %T Landing response of Aedes (Stegomyia) polynesiensis mosquitoes to coloured targets. %A Chambers, E W %A Bossin, H C %A Ritchie, S %A Ritchie, S A %A Dobson, S L %N 3 %P 332-8 %V 27 %X

Aedes polynesiensis Marks (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in the island countries and territories of the South Pacific. In the development of a novel control tool, the response of Ae. polynesiensis to six different colours (three solid fabrics, two patterned fabrics and a plastic tarp) was measured using a digital photographic system. Adult mosquitoes were placed into an environmental chamber and allowed to choose between a white target and one of six experimental targets. Mosquito landing frequency and landing duration were calculated. Adult female Ae. polynesiensis preferred all of the experimental targets to the white control target. Mosquito landing frequency was highest for the solid targets (black, navy blue and red) followed in turn by the two colour pattern targets and the polyethylene target. Mosquito landing duration was greater for experimental targets when compared with white control targets. Mosquito landing frequencies did not change over time during the course of the assay. The response of male Ae. polynesiensis was also measured when exposed to a 100% cotton black target. Male mosquitoes preferred the black target to the white control target, although at levels lower than that observed in female mosquitoes. The results suggest that future investigations evaluating the visual responses of Ae. polynesiensis mosquitoes are warranted, with a special emphasis on semi-field and field-based experiments.

%8 2013 %0 Journal Article %J BE ANSES %D 2013 %T La ciguatéra : un état des lieux en France et dans l'Union européenne %A Hossen, V %A Velge, P %A Turquet, J %A Chinain, M %A Laurent, D %A Krys, S %P 3-9 %V 56 %X

La ciguatera est une intoxication alimentaire liée à la consommation de poissons inféodés aux massifs coralliens ayant accumulé des ciguatoxines. Le syndrome clinique associe des signes digestifs, neurologiques, cutanés, cardiovasculaires et respiratoires d’intensité variable. La réglementation européenne interdit la mise sur le marché de poissons contenant des ciguatoxines mais ne précise pas de seuil réglementaire. Or, la France est un des pays européens les plus touchés par cette problématique par la survenue d’intoxications régulièrement rapportées dans certains départements et régions d’outre-mer. En Polynésie et à La Réunion, des programmes de surveillance ont été mis en place depuis plusieurs années et permettent d’acquérir des données épidémiologiques tout en gérant au mieux le risque localement. Jusqu’alors cantonnés aux régions endémiques dans l’Océan Pacifique, l’Océan Indien et les Caraïbes, des cas de ciguatera ont été mis en évidence depuis 2004 après consommation de poissons toxiques pêchés dans les eauxatlantiques subtropicales européennes (archipels de Madère et des Canaries), montrant une extension des zones ciguatérigènes, peut-être favorisée par le réchauffement climatique. La problématique de la contamination des produits de lapêche par les ciguatoxines doit donc être prise en compte notamment sur les poissons en provenance de ces archipels appartenant l’Union européenne, et les scientifiques doivent se mobiliser pour faire avancer la connaissance sur le sujet.

%8 2013 %0 Journal Article %J J Microbiol Immunol Infect %D 2013 %T Laboratory diagnosis of leptospirosis : a challenge. %A Musso, D %A Lascola, B %V In press %X

Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic bacteria called leptospires that are transmitted directly or indirectly from animals to humans. It occurs worldwide but is most common in tropical and subtropical areas. It is a potentially serious but treatable disease. Its symptoms may mimicthose of a number of other unrelated infections such as influenza, meningitis, hepatitis, dengue, or other viral hemorrhagic fevers. The spectrum of the disease is extremely wide, ranging from subclinical infection to a severe syndrome of multiorgan infection with high mortality. Laboratory diagnosis tests are not always available, especially in developing countries. Numerous tests have been developed, but availability of appropriate laboratory support is still a problem. Direct observation of leptospires by darkfield microscopy is unreliable and not recommended. Isolation of leptospires can take up to months and does not contribute to early diagnosis. Diagnosis is usually performed by serology; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the microscopic agglutination tests are the laboratory methods generally used, rapid tests are also available. Limitation of serology is that antibodies are lacking at the acute phase of the disease. In recent years, several real-time polymerase chain reaction assays have been described. These can confirm the diagnosis in the early phase of the disease prior to antibody titers are at detectable levels, but molecular testing is not available in restricted resources areas.

%8 2013 %0 Journal Article %J J Microbiol Immunol Infect %D 2013 %T Laboratory diagnosis of leptospirosis : a challenge. %A Musso, D %A Lascola, B %N 4 %P 245-52 %V 46 %X Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic bacteria called leptospires that are transmitted directly or indirectly from animals to humans. It occurs worldwide but is most common in tropical and subtropical areas. It is a potentially serious but treatable disease. Its symptoms may mimicthose of a number of other unrelated infections such as influenza, meningitis, hepatitis, dengue, or other viral hemorrhagic fevers. The spectrum of the disease is extremely wide, ranging from subclinical infection to a severe syndrome of multiorgan infection with high mortality. Laboratory diagnosis tests are not always available, especially in developing countries. Numerous tests have been developed, but availability of appropriate laboratory support is still a problem. Direct observation of leptospires by darkfield microscopy is unreliable and not recommended. Isolation of leptospires can take up to months and does not contribute to early diagnosis. Diagnosis is usually performed by serology; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the microscopic agglutination tests are the laboratory methods generally used, rapid tests are also available. Limitation of serology is that antibodies are lacking at the acute phase of the disease. In recent years, several real-time polymerase chain reaction assays have been described. These can confirm the diagnosis in the early phase of the disease prior to antibody titers are at detectable levels, but molecular testing is not available in restricted resources areas. %8 2013 %0 Journal Article %J Parasites & vectors %D 2013 %T Monitoring and evaluation of lymphatic filariasis interventions: an improved PCR-based pool screening method for high throughput Wuchereria bancrofti detection using dried blood spots %A Plichart, Lemoine %N 110 %V 6 %X

Background: Effective diagnostic tools are necessary to monitor and evaluate interruption of Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) transmission. Accurate detection of Wuchereria bancrofti (Wb) microfilaria (mf) is essential to measure the impact of community treatment programmes. PCR-based assays are specific, highly sensitive tools allowing the detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in human blood samples. However, current protocols describing the pool screening approach, use samples of less than 60 ìl of blood, which limits the sensitivity of the pool-screen PCR assay. The purpose of this study was to improve the pool-screen PCR protocol to enhance its sensitivity and usefulness for population scale studies.

Findings: DNA extractions were performed with the DNeasy kit, the PCR with the Wb LDR primers and the SYBR-Green dye. Improvements of our pool-screen real-time PCR (qPCR) assay allowed the detection of as little as one Wb microfilaria diluted in a pool of at least 12 blood samples of 60 ìl each. Using this assay, mf burdens can be predicted using a standard curve derived from mf spiked dried blood samples. The sensitivity achieved is equivalent to the detection of a single LF positive individual carrying a mf burden as low as 18 mf/ml, in a pool of blood samples from at least 12 individuals.

Conclusions: Due to its sensitivity, rapidity and cost-effectiveness, we suggest this qPCR pool-screening assay could be used as a diagnostic tool for population- scale filariasis elimination monitoring and evaluation.

%8 2013 %0 Journal Article %J J Clin Microbiol %D 2013 %T Molecular Studies Neglect Apparently Gram-Negative Populations in the Human Gut Microbiota. %A Hugon, P %A Lagier, J C %A Robert, C %A Lepolard, C %A Papazian, L %A Musso, D %A Vialettes, B %A Raoult, D %N 10 %P 3286-93 %V 51 %X Studying the relationships between gut microbiota, human health, and diseases is a major challenge that generates contradictory results. Most studies draw conclusions about the gut repertoire using a single biased metagenomics approach. We analyzed 16 different stool samples collected from healthy subjects who were from different areas, had metabolic disorders, were immunocompromised, or were treated with antibiotics at the time of the stool collection. The analyses performed included Gram staining, flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) of the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla, and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene amplicons targeting the V6 region. We quantified 1010 prokaryotes per gram of feces, which is less than was previously described. The Mann-Whitney test revealed that Gram-negative proportions of the prokaryotes obtained by Gram staining, TEM, and pyrosequencing differed according to the analysis used, with Gram-negative prokaryotes yielding median percentages of 70.6%, 31.0%, and 16.4%, respectively. A comparison of TEM and pyrosequencing analyses highlighted a difference of 14.6% in the identification of Gram-negative prokaryotes, and a Spearman test showed a tendency toward correlation, albeit not significant, in the Gram-negative/Gram-positive prokaryote ratio (0.3282, P 0.2146). In contrast, when comparing the qPCR and pyrosequencing results, a significant correlation was found for the Bacteroidetes/ Firmicutes ratio (0.6057, P0.0130). Our study showed that the entire diversity of the human gut microbiota remains unknown because different techniques generate extremely different results. We found that to assess the overall composition of bacterial communities, multiple techniques must be combined. The biases that exist for each technique may be useful in exploring the major discrepancies in molecular studies. %8 2013 %0 Journal Article %J J Clin Microbiol %D 2013 %T Molecular Studies Neglect Apparently Gram-Negative Populations in the Human Gut Microbiota. %A Hugon, P %A Lagier, J C %A Robert, C %A Lepolard, C %A Papazian, L %A Musso, D %A Vialettes, B %A Raoult, D %N 10 %P 3286-93 %V 51 %X Studying the relationships between gut microbiota, human health, and diseases is a major challenge that generates contradictory results. Most studies draw conclusions about the gut repertoire using a single biased metagenomics approach. We analyzed 16 different stool samples collected from healthy subjects who were from different areas, had metabolic disorders, were immunocompromised, or were treated with antibiotics at the time of the stool collection. The analyses performed included Gram staining, flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) of the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla, and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene amplicons targeting the V6 region. We quantified 1010 prokaryotes per gram of feces, which is less than was previously described. The Mann-Whitney test revealed that Gram-negative proportions of the prokaryotes obtained by Gram staining, TEM, and pyrosequencing differed according to the analysis used, with Gram-negative prokaryotes yielding median percentages of 70.6%, 31.0%, and 16.4%, respectively. A comparison of TEM and pyrosequencing analyses highlighted a difference of 14.6% in the identification of Gram-negative prokaryotes, and a Spearman test showed a tendency toward correlation, albeit not significant, in the Gram-negative/Gram-positive prokaryote ratio (0.3282, P 0.2146). In contrast, when comparing the qPCR and pyrosequencing results, a significant correlation was found for the Bacteroidetes/ Firmicutes ratio (0.6057, P0.0130). Our study showed that the entire diversity of the human gut microbiota remains unknown because different techniques generate extremely different results. We found that to assess the overall composition of bacterial communities, multiple techniques must be combined. The biases that exist for each technique may be useful in exploring the major discrepancies in molecular studies. %8 2013 %0 Journal Article %J WPSAR %D 2013 %T Ongoing outbreak of dengue serotype-3 in Solomon Islands, January to May 2013. %A Nogareda, F %A Joshua, C %A Sio, A %A Shortus, M %A Dalipanda, T %A Durski, K %A Musto, J %A Puiahi, E %A Dofai, A %A Aaskov, J %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %A Musso, D %A Dutta, N %A Fleisch, J %A Nilles, E %N 3 %P 1-5 %V 4 %X Introduction: In January 2013, clinicians in Honiara, Solomon Islands noted several patients presenting with dengue-like illness. Serum from three cases tested positive for dengue by rapid diagnostic test. Subsequent increases in cases were reported, and the outbreak was confirmed as being dengue serotype-3 by further laboratory tests. This report describes the ongoing outbreak investigation, findings and response.Methods: Enhanced dengue surveillance was implemented in the capital, Honiara, and in the provinces. This included training health staff on dengue case definitions, data collection and reporting. Vector surveillance was also conducted. Results: From 3 January to 15 May 2013, 5254 cases of suspected dengue were reported (101.8 per 10 000 population), including 401 hospitalizations and six deaths. The median age of cases was 20 years (range zero to 90), and 86% were reported from Honiara. Both Aedes aegyti and Aedes albopictus were identified in Honiara. Outbreak response measures included clinical training seminars, vector control activities, implementation of diagnostic and case management protocols and a public communication campaign. Discussion: This was the first large dengue outbreak documented in Solomon Islands. Factors that may have contributed to this outbreak include a largely susceptible population, the presence of a highly efficient dengue vector in Honiara, a high-density human population with numerous breeding sites and favourable weather conditions for mosquito proliferation. Although the number of cases has plateaued since 1 April, continued enhanced nationwide surveillance and response activities are necessary. %8 2013 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Entomol %D 2013 %T Population Studies of the Filarial Vector Aedes polynesiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Two Island Settings of French Polynesia %A Hapairai, L %A Cheong Sang, M %A Sinkins, S P %A Bossin, H C %N 5 %P 965-76 %V 50 %X A mark-release-recapture study was conducted to estimate the adult population size, migration, and dispersal patterns of male and female Aedes (Stegomyia) polynesiensis (Marks) in a valley of Moorea, a volcanic island, and a motu (islet) on the atoll of Tetiaroa, two settings typical of the Society Islands. Aedes polynesiensis recapture rate was high for females and low for males. The distribution of Aedes species in the valley was heterogeneous. Marked individuals dispersed to most parts of the motu and over great distances in the valley for some females. The study provides insights into the field dynamics of Ae. polynesiensis populations and confirms that more efficient sampling methods are warranted. There was no evidence of active migration between motus on the atoll, suggesting that Tetiaroa is a suitable site for small-scale initial open releases of Wolbachia incompatible insect technique and other sterile insect technique-like suppression or replacement strategies. %8 2013 %0 Journal Article %J Pathogens and global health %D 2013 %T Relevance of the eosinophil blood count in bancroftian filariasis as a screening tool for the treatment. %A Musso, D %N 2 %P 96-102 %V 107 %X Backgroud: Lymphatic filariasis constitutes a major public health issue in French Polynesia. Diagnosis has been revolutionized with the availability of circulating filarial antigen (CFA) tests which are easy to perform but are costly. Filariasis is responsible for acquired eosinophilia and eosinophil blood count (EBC) is commonly used as a screening tool.Methods: We retrospectively analysed all the results of EBCs and CFA tests performed in our laboratory over a 2-year period. We calculated the prevalence of antigenemia for nine different eosinophil cutoffs. We calculated the number of patients detected by CFA testing and the number of estimated CFA-positive patients according to their EBC. Results: Over a 2-year period, we detected 7503 eosinophilic patients. For an EBC above 500/mm3, the prevalence of positive CFA was 25.78% and the estimated number of positive CFA patients was 1934. During the same period, as CFA determination is not routinely performed, only 141 patients were detected and treated. Conclusion: Our current strategy against lymphatic filariasis which combines annual mass drug administration, systematic treatment of antigenemic and microfilaraemic patients, and vector control; failed to reach the target of 1% prevalence. Unfortunately, mainly for economical reasons, the antigenemia cannot be determined for all patients. In complement to existing strategy, we propose an additional action based on the treatment of eosinophilic patients in order to reduce the filariasis prevalence in our country. %8 2013 %0 Journal Article %J Food additives and contaminants (http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2012.752581) %D 2013 %T The use of folk tests to detect ciguateric fish : a scientific evaluation of their effectiveness in Raivavae Island (Australes, French Polynesia). %A Darius, T %A Drescher, O %A Ponton, D %A Pawlowiez, R %A Laurent, D %A Dewailly, E %A Chinain, M %X

 

Ciguatera Fish Poisoning is a seafood intoxication commonly afflicting island communities in the Pacific. These populations, strongly dependent on fish resources, have developed over centuries various strategies to decrease the risk of intoxication, including the use of folk tests to detect ciguateric fish. This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of two folk tests commonly used in Raivavae Island (Australes) the rigor mortis test (RMT) and the bleeding test (BT).

A total of 107 fishes were collected in Raivavae lagoon, among which 80 were tested by five testers using the RMT vs. 107 tested by four testers using BT. First, the performance between testers was compared. Second, the efficiency of these tests was compared to toxicity data obtained via the Receptor Binding Assay (RBA) by assessing various parameters values such as sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). Comparisons of outcomes between folk tests and RBA analyses were considered tests used separately, or in a parallel versus series approach by each tester. The overall efficiency of the RMT and BT tests was also evaluated when the judgment of all testers were "pooled".

Our results demonstrate that efficiencies varied between testers with one of them showing the best scores in detecting toxic fish 55% with RMT and 69.2% with BT. BT gave the best results in detecting toxic fish as compared to RMT, giving also better agreement between testers. If high NPV and Se values were to be privileged, our data also suggest that the best way to limit cases of intoxication would be to use RMT and BT tests in a parallel approach.

The use of traditional knowledge and a good knowledge of risky vs. healthy fishing areas may help reduce the risk of intoxication among communities where CFP is highly prevalent.

 

 

%8 2013 %0 Journal Article %J PloS Neg Trop Dis %D 2012 %T A Multicenter Evaluation of Diagnostic Tools to Define Endpoints for Programs to Eliminate Bancroftian Filariasis. %A Gass, K %A Beau Rochars, M V E %A Boakye, D %A Bradley, M %A Fischer, P U %A Gyapong, J %A Itoh, M %A Ituaso-Conway, N %A Joseph, H %A Kyelem, D %A Laney, S J %A Legrand, A M %A Liyanage, T S %A Melrose, W %A Mohammed, K %A Pilotte, N %A Ottesen, E A %A Plichart %N 1 %P e1479 %V 6 %X Successful mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns have brought several countries near the point of Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) elimination. A diagnostic tool is needed to determine when the prevalence levels have decreased to a point that MDA campaigns can be discontinued without the threat of recrudescence. A six-country study was conducted assessing the performance of seven diagnostic tests, including tests for microfilariae (blood smear, PCR), parasite antigen (ICT, Og4C3) and antifilarial antibody (Bm14, PanLF, Urine SXP). One community survey and one school survey were performed in each country. A total of 8,513 people from the six countries participated in the study, 6,443 through community surveys and 2,070 through school surveys. Specimens from these participants were used to conduct 49,585 diagnostic tests. Each test was seen to have both positive and negative attributes, but overall, the ICT test was found to be 76% sensitive at detecting microfilaremia and 93% specific at identifying individuals negative for both microfilariae and antifilarial antibody; the Og4C3 test was 87% sensitive and 95% specific. We conclude, however, that the ICT should be the primary tool recommended for decision-making about stopping MDAs. As a point-of-care diagnostic, the ICT is relatively inexpensive, requires no laboratory equipment, has satisfactory sensitivity and specificity and can be processed in 10 minutes %8 2012 %0 Journal Article %J J Phycol %D 2012 %T Development of semi-quantitative PCR assays for the detection and enumeration of Gambierdiscus species (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae). %A Vandersea, M W %A Kibler, S R %A Holland, W C %A Tester, P A %A Schultz, T F %A Faust, M A %A Holmes, M J %A Chinain, M %A Litaker, R W %P 902-15 %V 48 %X Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a serious health problem in tropical regions and is caused by the bioaccumulation of lipophilic toxins produced by dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus. Gambierdiscus species are morphologically similar and are difficult to distinguish from one another even when using scanning electron microscopy. Improved identification and detection methods that are sensitive and rapid are needed to identify toxic species and investigate potential distribution and abundance patterns in relation to incidences of CFP. This study presents the first species-specific, semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays that can be used to address these questions. These assays are specific for five Gambierdiscus species and one undescribed ribotype. The assays utilized a SYBR green format and targeted unique sequences found within the SSU, ITS, and the D1. D3 LSU ribosomal domains. Standard curves were constructed using known concentrations of cultured cells and 10-fold serial dilutions of rDNA PCR amplicons containing the target sequence for each specific assay. Assay sensitivity and accuracy were tested using DNA extracts purified from known concentrations of multiple Gambierdiscus species. The qPCR assays were used to assess Gambierdiscus species diversity and abundance in samples collected from nearshore areas adjacent to Ft. Pierce and Jupiter, Florida USA. The results indicated that the practical limit of detection for each assay was 10 cells per sample. Most interestingly, the qPCR analysis revealed that as many as four species of Gambierdiscus were present in a single macrophyte sample. %8 2012 %0 Journal Article %J RFL %D 2012 %T Diagnostic biologique de la dengue %A Musso, D %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %N 447 %P 53-62 %X

La dengue est un problème de santé publique majeur dans l’ensemble des régions tropicales et intertropicales du globe. Le nombre de demandes de diagnostic spécifique est en augmentation dans les laboratoires de France métropolitaine. Aucun signe clinique de la dengue n’est spécifique et son évolution est imprévisible. Différentes techniques sont disponibles, dépendant du stade clinique de la maladie.  De nos jours, les trois techniques utilisées en routine sont la biologie moléculaire, la recherche de l’antigène NS1 et le diagnostic indirect sérologique. Dans de nombreuses zones d’endémie, l’accès aux techniques de pointe est restreint. La biologie moléculaire par RT-PCR en temps réel sur prélèvement précoce a peu à peu remplacé l’isolement viral comme technique diagnostique de référence. La recherche de l’Ag NS1 permet aussi le diagnostic en phase aigue. Les anticorps spécifiques sont absents en phase aigue. Le choix des tests à utiliser est crucial et doit prendre en compte la situation épidémiologique, la durée d’évolution de la pathologie, la disponibilité et le coût des tests.

%8 2012 %0 Journal Article %J Parasites & vectors %D 2012 %T Distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) in southwestern Pacific countries, withfirst report from theKingdom of Tonga. %A Guillaumot, L %A 'Ofanoa, R %A Swillen, L %A Singh, N %A Bossin, H C %A Schaffner, F %P 247 %V 5 %X BackgroundAedes (Stegomyia) albopictus is currently one of the most notorious globally invasive mosquito species. Its medical importance is well documented, and its fast expansion throughout most continents is monitored with concern. It is generally assumed that its expansion through the Western Pacific island countries has not progressed since its establishment in Fiji in 1989. However, the current status of Ae. albopictus in the Pacific region is largely unknown. Findings According to literature data and our observations, Ae. albopictus is currently present in the following countries of the southern Pacific region: Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Fiji, and the Kingdom of Tonga, where it was first detected in July 2011. It is absent from New Caledonia and French Polynesia where routine entomological surveillance is carried out, and was not detected during entomological work in 2007 neither on the Cook Islands nor on the Wallis and Futuna Islands. The species was not reported from American Samoa in 2004, but it is mentioned as probably present in Vanuatu. This is the first report of Ae. albopictus in Tonga. Conclusions The introduction and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Tonga was expected due to the geographical proximity of this country to Fiji where the species is strongly established. The pathway of introduction is unknown. The expansion of Ae. albopictus in the Pacific region poses an increasing threat to public health given the role this mosquito plays as primary vector of emerging infectious diseases such as Chikungunya fever. %8 2012 %0 Journal Article %J RFL %D 2012 %T Diagnostic biologique de la dengue %A Musso, D %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %N 447 %P 53-62 %X La dengue est un probl %8 2012 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Entomol %D 2012 %T Estimation of Population Size and Dispersal of Aedes polynesiensis on Toamaro motu, French Polynesia %A Mercer, D R %A Marie, J %A Bossin, H C %A Faaruia, M %A Tetuanui, A %A Cheong Sang, A %A Dobson, S L %N 5 %P 971-980 %V 49 %X Mark-release-recapture methods were used to compare Aedes polynesiensis Marks adult numbers and dispersal between dry and wet seasons in a closed population on a small island (motu) in French Polynesia. Females were more than three times more common during wet (December 2008) than dry (May 2007) season samplings although high numbers of vectors were collected during both seasons. Lincoln-Petersen estimates for Ae. polynesiensis females on the motu were 6,055 per hectare for the dry season and 18,860 per hectare for the wet season. Marked females dispersed rapidly to all parts of the motu and survived until recaptures on days 1-5 after release. Males were not adequately sampled using human sentinels or Biogent Sentinel traps. %8 2012 %0 Journal Article %J Environ Health %D 2012 %T Influence of mercury exposure on blood pressure, resting heart rate and heart rate variability in French Polynesians: a cross-sectional study. %A Valera, B %A Dewailly, E %A Poirier, P %A Counil, E %A Suhas, E %N 1 %P 99 %V 10 %X Background: Populations which diet is mainly based on seafood usually present high levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) such as Docosahexaenoic (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Marine n-3 PUFAs have shown a beneficial effect on cardiovascular risk factors such as blood pressure (BP), resting heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). However, these populations generally present high mercury levels which could counteract the beneficial effect of n-3 PUFAs. Objective: To assess the influence of n-3 PUFAs on blood pressure (BP), resting heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) among French Polynesians while considering mercury and other potential confounders. Methods: Data were collected among 180 adults = 18 years old residing in Tubuai, which is a community with a traditional lifestyle or Papeete, which has a modern lifestyle. HRV was measured using a 2-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram (Holter). BP was measured using a standardised protocol. The association between n-3 PUFAs and the dependent variables was studied using simple and multiple linear regressions. Results: Means of DHA and EPA were 6.42 (SD: 1.4) and 0.77 (SD: 1.6) % fatty acids in red blood cell membranes, respectively. DHA was associated with resting HR (b= -2.56, p= 0.006), LF (b= 0.18, p= 0.03), HF (b= 0.20, p= 0.02), SDNN (b= 0.05, p= 0.04) and rMSSD (b= 0.09, p= 0.03) after adjusting for mercury and other confounders. Similar associations were observed with DHA+EPA while EPA was associated with SDNN (b= 0.18, p= 0.03) and SDANN (b= 0.25, p= 0.01). Conclusion: n-3 fatty acids seem to have a protective effect on resting HR and HRV among French Polynesians adults. %8 2012 %0 Journal Article %J J Phycol %D 2012 %T Molecular characterization of the diversity and potential toxicity of cyanobacterial mats in two tropical lagoons in the South Pacific Ocean. %A Villeneurve, A %A Laurent, D %A Chinain, M %A Gigger, M %A , J F %N 2 %P 275-284 %V 48 %X

Marine benthic cyanobacteria in tropical areas have recently been associated with several human poisoning events. To enhance the characterization of these microorganisms and their potential toxicity, benthic cyanobacterial communities were sampled in the lagoons of two islands (Raivavae and Rurutu) located in French Polynesia where human poisoning events by seafood had been reported. The morphological appearance of the mats was used to identify four types of cyanobacterial mat. By a 16S rRNA sequencing approach, it appeared that these mats were usually dominated by a restricted number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which were closely related to Leptolyngbya, Oscillatoria, Hydrocoleum, and Anabaena sequences, as previously reported in other tropical lagoons. Interestingly, we determined that these dominant filamentous OTUs were associated in the mats with other cyanobacteria, including unicellular species. By using a population genetic approach based on the sequencing of the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) of the rRNA operon, we found a very restricted genetic diversity in the most common OTU, which displayed a high sequence similarity with Leptolyngbya sp. In addition, there was no geographic differentiation at various spatial scales in the distribution of the different genotypes, suggesting that this species is able to spread over large distances. Finally, PCR screening of genes involved in the biosynthesis of known cyanotoxins revealed the presence of the saxitoxin gene (stxG) in two mats containing a mix of filamentous and unicellular cyanobacterial species.

%8 2012 %0 Journal Article %D 2012 %T Monitoring temporal abundance and spatial distribution of Aedes polynesiensis using BG-Sentinel %A Mercer, D R %A Bossin, H C %A Cheong Sang, M %A O'Connor, L %A Dobson, S L %N 1 %P 51-60 %V 49 %X Adult numbers and sizes of mosquitoes were monitored for 2 yr in neighboring habitats on the western coast of Raiatea (Society Archipelago) in anticipation of testing new vector control technologies. Aedes polynesiensis Marks females comprised the overwhelming majority (approximately 99%) of the three species of mosquitoes captured in Biogent Sentinel traps placed at fixed sites on three small satellite islands (motus) of the western lagoon and on the shoreline of Raiatea. Aedes polynesiensis males, Aedes aegypti (L.), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say rarely were collected. Numbers of Ae. polynesiensis females per collection differed among trapping dates and locations, with the majority of females captured on two motus, Horea and Toamaro. Shoreline and Horea females had significantly longer mean wing lengths than females from Tiano and Toamaro. Thus, wing lengths were influenced more by local developmental conditions than overall numbers of adults. Significantly more females were captured during the wet season than the dry season. Nonetheless, at least on the two highly productive motus, dry-season females had larger wing lengths than their wet season counterparts. Local weather patterns predicted about half the variation in mosquito numbers. Differences in vector abundance observed when comparing neighboring motus are likely because of differences in human activity and mosquito suppression. %8 2012 %0 Journal Article %J Plos Neg Trop Dis %D 2012 %T Open release of male mosquitoes infected with a Wolbachia biopesticide: Field performance and infection containment. %A O'connor, L %A Plichart, C %A Cheong Sang, A %A Breslfoard, C L %A Bossin, H C %A Dobson, S L %N 11 %P e1797 %V 6 %X

Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a globally significant disease, with 1.3 billion persons in 83 countries at risk. A coordinated effort of administering annual macrofilaricidal prophylactics to the entire at-risk population has succeeded in impacting and eliminating LF transmission in multiple regions. However, some areas in the South Pacific are predicted to persist as transmission sites, due in part to the biology of the mosquito vector, which has led to a call for additional tools to augment drug treatments. Autocidal strategies against mosquitoes are resurging in the effort against invasive mosquitoes and vector borne disease, with examples that include field trials of genetically modified mosquitoes and Wolbachia population replacement. However, critical questions must be addressed in anticipation of full field trials, including assessments of field competitiveness of transfected males and the risk of unintended population replacement.
Methodology/Principal Findings: We report the outcome of field experiments testing a strategy that employs Wolbachia as a biopesticide. The strategy is based upon Wolbachia-induced conditional sterility, known as cytoplasmic incompatibility, and the repeated release of incompatible males to suppress a population. A criticism of the Wolbachia biopesticide approach is that unintended female release or horizontal Wolbachia transmission can result in population replacement instead of suppression. We present the outcome of laboratory and field experiments assessing the competitiveness of transfected males and their ability to transmit Wolbachia via horizontal transmission.
Conclusions/Significance: The results demonstrate that Wolbachia-transfected Aedes polynesiensis males are competitive under field conditions during a thirty-week open release period, as indicated by mark, release, recapture and brood-hatch failure among females at the release site. Experiments demonstrate the males to be ‘dead end hosts’ for Wolbachia and that methods were adequate to prevent population replacement at the field site. The findings encourage the continued development and extension of a Wolbachia autocidal approach to additional medically important mosquito species.

%8 2012 %0 Journal Article %J J Ethnopharmacol %D 2012 %T Protective effect of Heliotropium foertherianum (Boraginaceae) folk remedy and its active compound, rosmarinic acid, against a Pacific ciguatoxin %A Rossi, F %A Jullian, V %A Pawlowiez, R %A Kumar-Roine, S %A Haddad, M %A Darius, H T %A Gaertner-Mazouni, N %A Chinain, M %A Laurent, D %P 33-40 %V 143 %X

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Senescent leaves of Heliotropium foertherianum Diane & Hilger (Boraginaceae) are traditionally used in the Pacific region to treat Ciguatera Fish Poisoning. This plant contains rosmarinic acid that is known for its multiple biological activities. In the present study, H. foertherianum aqueous extract, rosmarinic acid and its derivatives were evaluated for their capacity to reduce the effect of ciguatoxins.Materials and methods: Aqueous extract of H. foertherianum leaves was prepared and studied for its effects against a Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1B) in the neuroblastoma cell assay and the receptor binding assay. Rosmarinic acid and six derivatives were also evaluated by means of these bioassays. For this purpose, we have developed an improved synthetic route for caffeic acid 3,4-dihydroxy-phenethyl ester (CADPE). Results: Both the aqueous extract of H. foertherianum leaves and rosmarinic acid showed inhibitory activities against a Pacific ciguatoxin in the above bioassays. Among all the molecules that were evaluated, rosmarinic acid was the most active compound. Conclusion: These results confirm further the potential of H. foertherianum in the treatment of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning.

%8 2012 %0 Journal Article %J Med Mal Infect %D 2012 %T Predictive value of the eosinophil counts in the biological diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis in French Polynesia %A Musso, Vialette %P 585-90 %V 42 %X

Settings. – Lymphatic filariasis is common in many tropical and subtropical areas and is a major public health issue in south Pacific islands. In endemic areas, most infected individuals are asymptomatic but may harbor microfilariae or filarial antigens in their peripheral blood. Microscopy remains the reference diagnostic tool for the identification of microfilariae but is weakly sensitive. The diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti infection was dramatically altered by the development of filarial antigen tests, which are easy to perform but expensive for routine use. Lymphatic filariasis is responsible for acquired eosinophilia and blood eosinophil count is commonly used as a screening tool in endemic areas.

Method. – We retrospectively analyzed all the results of eosinophil counts, antigen and microfilariae detection performed in our laboratory over a 24-month period. We calculated the prevalence of antigenemia for various eosinophilic cut offs.

Results. – The prevalence of antigenemia was estimated at 25.78% with eosinophilia defined as a count eosinophilic PMN above 500 per mm3.

Discussion. – Our prevention strategy against lymphatic filariasis is based on annual mass drug administration, vector control, and systematic treatment of antigenemic and microfilaremic patients. Antigenemic and microfilaremic detection cannot be routinely performed because of their cost. Current treatments used for lymphatic filariasis are safe and cheaper than antigenic detection. A possible additional strategy to decrease the prevalence of antigenemia would be the systematic treatment of patients with hypereosinophilia.

%8 2012 %0 Journal Article %J J Clin Virol %D 2012 %T Use of serum and blood samples on filter paper to improve the surveillance of dengue in Pacific Island Countries %A Aubry, M %A Roche, C %A Dupont-Rouzeyrol, M %A Aaskov, J %A Viallon, J %A Marfel, M %A Lalita, P %A Elbourne-Duituturaga, S %A Chanteau, S %A Musson, D %A Pavlin, B I %A Harrison, D %A Kool, J L %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %V In press %X

Background: In Pacific Island Countries (PICs) the epidemiology of dengue is characterized by long-term transmission of a single dengue virus (DENV) serotype. The emergence of a new serotype in one island country often indicates major outbreaks with this serotype will follow in other PICs. Objectives: Filter paper (FP) cards on which whole blood or serum from dengue suspected patients had been dried was evaluated as a method for transportation of this material by standard mail delivery throughout the Pacific. Study design: Twenty-two FP-dried whole blood samples collected from patients in New Caledonia and Wallis & Futuna Islands, during DENV-1 and DENV-4 transmission, and 76 FP-dried sera collected from patients in Yap State, Majuro (Republic of Marshall Islands), Tonga and Fiji, before and during outbreaks of DENV-2 in Yap State and DENV-4 in Majuro, were tested for the presence of DENV RNA, by serotype specific RT-PCR, at the Institut Louis Malardé in French Polynesia. Results: The serotype of DENV could be determined, by a variety of RT-PCR procedures, in the FP-dried samples after more than three weeks of transport at ambient temperatures. In most cases, the sequencing of the envelope gene to genotype the viruses also was possible. Conclusions: The serotype and genotype of DENV can be determined from FP-dried serum or whole blood samples transported over thousands of kilometers at ambient, tropical, temperatures. This simple and low-cost approach to virus identification should be evaluated in isolated and resource poor settings for surveillance for a range of significant viral diseases.

%8 2012 %0 Journal Article %J J Clin Virol %D 2012 %T Use of serum and blood samples on filter paper to improve the surveillance of dengue in Pacific Island Countries %A Aubry, M %A Roche, C %A Dupont-Rouzeyrol, M %A Aaskov, J %A Viallon, J %A Marfel, M %A Lalita, P %A Elbourne-Duituturaga, S %A Chanteau, S %A Musso, D %A Pavlin, B I %A Harrison, D %A Kool, J L %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %N 1 %P 23-9 %V 55 %X Background: In Pacific Island Countries (PICs) the epidemiology of dengue is characterized by long-term transmission of a single dengue virus (DENV) serotype. The emergence of a new serotype in one island country often indicates major outbreaks with this serotype will follow in other PICs. Objectives: Filter paper (FP) cards on which whole blood or serum from dengue suspected patients had been dried was evaluated as a method for transportation of this material by standard mail delivery throughout the Pacific. Study design: Twenty-two FP-dried whole blood samples collected from patients in New Caledonia and Wallis & Futuna Islands, during DENV-1 and DENV-4 transmission, and 76 FP-dried sera collected from patients in Yap State, Majuro (Republic of Marshall Islands), Tonga and Fiji, before and during outbreaks of DENV-2 in Yap State and DENV-4 in Majuro, were tested for the presence of DENV RNA, by serotype specific RT-PCR, at the Institut Louis Malard %8 2012 %0 Book Section %B Food chain : new research. %D 2012 %T Ciguatera Shellfish Poisoning (CSP), a new ecotoxicological phenomenon. From Cyanobacteria to Humans via Giant clams. %A Laurent, D %A Kerbrat, A S %A Darius, T %A Rossi, F %A Yeeting, B %A Haddad, M %A Golubic, S %A Pauillac, S %A Chinain, M %I Jensen M.A. & Muller D.W. %P 1-44 %V Nova Publi %X

Giant clams, although frequently consumed in the South Pacific, are rarely incriminated in human intoxications. However, they are sometimes involved in strong and atypical Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) incidents, classically known to result from the ingestion of toxin-containing tropical fish associated with coral reefs. Nowadays, CFP risk assessment and management are still based exclusively on the monitoring of one known causative agent, the benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus. Indeed, in certain favourable conditions, ciguatoxins (CTXs), a family of polyether neurotoxins produced by this microalga, can potentially accumulate up the food chain to reach high concentrations in fish specimens at the upper trophic levels, thus exposing consumers to serious health risks.Following recent ecotoxicological studies conducted in the islands of Lifou (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia), Raivavae (Austral archipelago, French Polynesia) and Emao (Republic of Vanuatu), we demonstrated the link between the presence of cyanobacterial blooms and the occurrence of poisonings incidents by giant clams and/or fish from lower trophic levels, resulting in both ciguatera-like and paralysing symptoms. Toxicological studies using the mouse bioassay, the neuroblastoma cell-based assay and the receptor-binding assay showed the presence of CTXs-like and paralysing toxins both in cyanobacteria and the molluscs collected from contaminated locations.During cyanobacterial blooms, filter-feeding bivalve molluscs such as giant clams are likely to become contaminated, thus providing a new link for the transfer of cyanotoxins to upper trophic levels including humans. The name “Ciguatera Shellfish Poisoning” (CSP) is proposed to designate this newly deciphered ecotoxicological phenomenon. The symptoms of this particular poisoning include the characteristics of CFP (reversal of sensations, itching and bradycardia) associated with additional symptoms like the burning of the mouth and the throat that appear very quickly and are followed by severe paralysis.We recommend that future field monitoring programs of toxic organisms include the survey of toxic cyanobacterial blooms concurrently with other toxic microalgae, toward a more effective management of tropical seafood poisonings.

%8 2011 %0 Journal Article %J Phytother Res %D 2011 %T A Review of Traditional Remedies of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in the Pacific. %A Kumar-Roine, S %A Darius, T %A Matsui, M %A Fabre, N %A Haddad, M %A Chinain, M %A Pauillac, S %A Laurent, D %P 947-958 %V 25 %X

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is an illness caused by eating tropical coral !sh contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The clinical management of patients with CFP is generally supportive and symptomatic in nature as no antidote exists. Of the many drugs prescribed, several have been claimed to be ef!cient in small, uncontrolled studies, but the outcomes of treatments with these medicines are often contradictory. In New Caledonia, traditional remedies are commonly employed in the treatment of CFP and of the 90 plant species catalogued as useful in CFP, the most popular herbal remedy by far is a decoction prepared from the leaves of Heliotropium foertherianum Diane & Hilger (Boraginaceae). Other important plants used in the treatment of CFP include Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Vitex L. sp. (Lamiaceae). This review focuses on the evidence for efficacy of these species and pharmacological studies which support their use. Other plants used in CFP and the conventional treatment of CFP are also discussed briefly.

%8 2011 %0 Journal Article %J Mar Drugs %D 2011 %T First Evidence of Palytoxin and 42-Hydroxy-palytoxin in the Marine Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium %A Kerbrat, A S %A Amzil, Z %A Pawlowiez, R %A Golubic, S %A Sibat, M %A Darius, T %A Chinain, M %A Laurent, D %N 4 %P 543-60 %V 9 %X Marine pelagic diazotrophic cyanobacteria of the genus Trichodesmium (Oscillatoriales) are widespread throughout the tropics and subtropics, and are particularly common in the waters of New Caledonia. Blooms of Trichodesmium are suspected to be a potential source of toxins in the ciguatera food chain and were previously reported to contain several types of paralyzing toxins. The toxicity of water-soluble extracts of Trichodesmium spp. were analyzed by mouse bioassay and Neuroblastoma assay and their toxic compounds characterized using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry techniques. Here, we report the first identification of palytoxin and one of its derivatives, 42-hydroxy-palytoxin, in field samples of Trichodesmium collected in the New Caledonian lagoon. The possible role played by Trichodesmium blooms in the development of clupeotoxism, this human intoxication following the ingestion of plankton-eating fish and classically associated with Ostreopsis blooms, is also discussed. %8 2011 %0 Conference Paper %B Actes du 1er colloque international de psychiatrie de Polynésie française : prévention du suicide, des maladies psychiatriques et des addictions, Tahiti, 10-13 mai 2011 %D 2011 %T Huiles essentielles de fleurs de Moto %A Lechat-Vahirua, I %C Tahiti (Polynésie française - 10 au 13 mai 2011) %X

pp. 192-196

%8 2011 %0 Book %D 2011 %T Intoxications par biotoxines marines (ciguatéra). Biogenèse, surveillance et gestion du risque. %A Chinain, M %X

La ciguatéra est une intoxication alimentaire liée à la consommation de poissons lagonaires appartenant à des espèces habituellement comestibles. Cette forme d’ichtyosarcotoxisme hautement prévalente en Polynésie française, constitue un véritable enjeu de santé publique et un défi économique pour les populations de ces îles très dépendantes des produits marins pour leur subsistance. Le présent ouvrage résume les principaux résultats des recherches menées entre 1990 et 2010 à l’Institut Louis Malardé (Tahiti) sur cette intoxication. Parmi les retombées pratiques de ces travaux, on retiendra la caractérisation de plusieurs espèces polynésiennes de Gambierdiscus, dinoflagellé à l’origine de la ciguatéra ; l’obtention de cultures in vitro de la micro-algue qui permet aujourd’hui de produire en masse les précieuses ciguatoxines ; la constitution d’un réseau de surveillance et d’alerte du risque ciguatérique opérationnel à l’échelle de la Polynésie ; la réalisation de campagnes de lutte dans les zones de grande endémie comme à Raivavae ou Rapa, aux Australes. Cet ouvrage s’adresse plus particulièrement aux scientifiques intéressés à la surveillance et la gestion du risque ciguatérique.

%7 Editions universitaires européennes %8 2011 %@ 978-613-1-59943-9 %0 Journal Article %J Plos Negl Trop Dis %D 2011 %T Male Mating Competitiveness of a Wolbachia-Introgressed Aedes polynesiensis Strain under Semi-Field Conditions %A Chambers, E W %A Hapairai, L %A Peel, B A %A Bossin, H %A Dobson, S L %N 8 %P e1271 %V 5 %X

Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a global public health problem affecting approximately 120 million people worldwide,is a leading cause of disability in the developing world including the South Pacific. Despite decades of ongoing mass drug administration (MDA) in the region, some island nations have not yet achieved the threshold levels of microfilaremia established by the World Health Organization for eliminating transmission. Previously, the generation of a novel Aedes polynesiensis strain (CP) infected with an exogenous type of Wolbachia has been described. The CP mosquito is cytoplasmically incompatible (i.e., effectively sterile) when mated with wildtype mosquitoes, and a strategy was proposed for the control of A. polynesiensis populations by repeated, inundative releases of CP males to disrupt fertility of wild females. Such a strategy could lead to suppression of the vector population and subsequently lead to a reduction in the transmission of filarial worms. Methodology/Principal Findings: CP males and F1 male offspring from wild-caught A. polynesiensis females exhibit near equal mating competitiveness with F1 females under semi-field conditions. Conclusions/Significance: While laboratory experiments are important, prior projects have demonstrated the need for additional testing under semi-field conditions in order to recognize problems before field implementation. The results reported here from semi-field experiments encourage forward progression toward small-scale field releases.

%8 2011 %0 Journal Article %J PLoS ONE %D 2011 %T Recent Emergence of Dengue Virus Serotype 4 in French Polynesia Results from Multiple Introductions from Other South Pacific Islands %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %A Roche, C %A Aubry, M %A Teissier, A %A Lastere, S %A Daudens, E %A Mallet, P H %A Musso, D %A Aaskov, J %N 12 %P e29555 %V 6 %X Background: Infection by dengue virus (DENV) is a major public health concern in hundreds of tropical and subtropicalcountries. French Polynesia (FP) regularly experiences epidemics that initiate, or are consecutive to, DENV circulation in other South Pacific Island Countries (SPICs). In January 2009, after a decade of serotype 1 (DENV-1) circulation, the first cases of DENV-4 infection were reported in FP. Two months later a new epidemic emerged, occurring about 20 years after the previous circulation of DENV-4 in FP. In this study, we investigated the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of the introduction, spread and genetic microevolution of DENV-4 in FP. Methodology/Principal Findings: Epidemiological data suggested that recent transmission of DENV-4 in FP started in the Leeward Islands and this serotype quickly displaced DENV-1 throughout FP. Phylogenetic analyses of the nucleotide sequences of the envelope (E) gene of 64 DENV-4 strains collected in FP in the 1980s and in 2009 %8 2011 %0 Journal Article %J Proc Roy Soc Biological Sci %D 2011 %T Worldwide patterns of genetic differentiation imply multiple 'domestications' of Aedes aegypti, a major vector of human diseases. %A Brown, J E %A McBride, C S %A Johnson, P %A Ritchie, S %A Paupy, C %A Bossin, H %A Lutomiah, J %A Fernandez-Salas, I %A Ponlawat, A %A Cornel, A J %A Black IV, W C %A Gorrochotegui-Escalante, N %A Urdaneta-Marquez, L %A Sylla, M %A Slotman, M %A Murray, K O %A Walke %X

Understanding the processes by which species colonize and adapt to human habitats is particularly important in the case of disease-vectoring arthropods. The mosquito species Aedes aegypti, a major vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses, probably originated as a wild, zoophilic species in sub-Saharan Africa, where some populations still breed in tree holes in forested habitats. Many populations of the species, however, have evolved to thrive in human habitats and to bite humans.This includes some populationswithin Africa aswell as almost all those outside Africa. It is not clearwhether all domestic populations are genetically related and represent a single ‘domestication’ event, or whether association with human habitats has developedmultiple times independently within the species.To test the hypotheses above,we screened 24worldwide population samples ofAe. aegypti at 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci. We identified two distinct genetic clusters: one included all domestic populations outside of Africa and the other included both domestic and forest populations within Africa. This suggests that human association in Africa occurred independently from that in domestic populations across the rest of the world. Additionally, measures of genetic diversity support Ae. aegypti in Africa as the ancestral form of the species. Individuals from domestic populations outside Africa can reliably be assigned back to their population of origin, which will help determine the origins of new introductions of Ae. aegypti.

%8 2011 %0 Journal Article %J J Essent Oil Res %D 2011 %T Aromatic plants of French Polynesia. V. Chemical composition of essential oils of leaves of Psidium guajava L. and Psidium cattleyanum Sabine. %A Adam, F %A Lechat-Vahirua, I %A Deslandes, E %A Menut, C %N 1 %P 98-101 %V 23 %0 Journal Article %J PLoS ONE %D 2011 %T Recent Emergence of Dengue Virus Serotype 4 in French Polynesia Results from Multiple Introductions from Other South Pacific Islands %A Cao-Lormeau J., Roche Aubry Teissier Lastere Daudens Mallet Musso Aaskov %N 12 %P e29555 %V 6 %X

 

Background: Infection by dengue virus (DENV) is a major public health concern in hundreds of tropical and subtropical countries. French Polynesia (FP) regularly experiences epidemics that initiate, or are consecutive to, DENV circulation in other South Pacific Island Countries (SPICs). In January 2009, after a decade of serotype 1 (DENV-1) circulation, the first cases of DENV-4 infection were reported in FP. Two months later a new epidemic emerged, occurring about 20 years after the previous circulation of DENV-4 in FP. In this study, we investigated the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of the introduction, spread and genetic microevolution of DENV-4 in FP.
Methodology/Principal Findings: Epidemiological data suggested that recent transmission of DENV-4 in FP started in the Leeward Islands and this serotype quickly displaced DENV-1 throughout FP. Phylogenetic analyses of the nucleotide sequences of the envelope (E) gene of 64 DENV-4 strains collected in FP in the 1980s and in 2009–2010, and some additional strains from other SPICs showed that DENV-4 strains from the SPICs were distributed into genotypes IIa and IIb. Recent FP strains were distributed into two clusters, each comprising viruses from other but distinct SPICs, suggesting that emergence of DENV-4 in FP in 2009 resulted from multiple introductions. Otherwise, we observed that almost all strains collected in the SPICs in the 1980s exhibit an amino acid (aa) substitution V287I within domain I of the E protein, and all recent South Pacific strains exhibit a T365I substitution within domain III.
Conclusions/Significance: This study confirmed the cyclic re-emergence and displacement of DENV serotypes in FP. Otherwise, our results showed that specific aa substitutions on the E protein were present on all DENV-4 strains circulating in SPICs. These substitutions probably acquired and subsequently conserved could reflect a founder effect to be associated with epidemiological, geographical, eco-biological and social specificities in SPICs.

 

%0 Journal Article %J J Essent Oil Res %D 2010 %T Aromatic plants of French Polynesia. IV. Composition and chemical variations of the essential oils of leaves of Etlingera cevuga (Seeman) R. E. Smith %A Lechat-Vahirua, I %A Mintermite, Y %A Menut, C %N 5 %P 407-409 %V 22 %X

The chemical variation of the essential oils of leaves of Etlingera cevuga collected in three locations of the island of Tahiti were studied by capillary gas chromatography and combined GC/MS. The chemical profile of the oils remains relatively constant where methyl eugenol (40.9–45.7%), (E)-methyl isoeugenol (8.6–16.5%), (Z)-methyl isoeugenol (0.8–1.5%) and eugenol (3.6–8.4%) accounted together for more than 55% of the oil.

%8 2010 %0 Journal Article %J J Essent Oil Res %D 2010 %T Aromatic plants of French Polynesia. V. Chemical composition of essential oils of leaves of Psidium guajava L. and Psidium cattleyanum Sabine. %A Adam, F %A Lechat-Vahirua, I %A Deslandes, E %A Menut, C %V In press %8 2010 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 2010 %T Ciguatera risk management in French Polynesia: The case study of Raivavae Island (Australes Archipelago). %A Chinain, M %A Darius, T %A Ung, A %A Tchou Fouc, M %A Revel, T %A Cruchet, P %A Pauillac, S %A Laurent, D %P 674-90 %V 56 %X Based on epidemiological data available through long-term monitoring surveys conducted by both the Public Health Directorate and the Louis Malard %8 2010 %0 Journal Article %J Marine Pollution Bulletin %D 2010 %T Detection of ciguatoxin-like and paralysing toxins in Trichodesmimum spp. from New Caledonia lagoon. %A Kerbrat, A S %A Darius, T %A Pauillac, S %A Chinain, M %A Laurent, D %P 360-6 %V 61 %X Marine pelagic cyanobacteria Trichodesmimum are widespread in the New Caledonia lagoon. Blooms of these Oscillatoriales are suspected to be a potential source of toxins in the ciguatera food chain and were previously reported to contain certain types of paralysing toxins. In the present study, toxicity experiments were conducted on lipd- ans water-soluble extracts of freeze-dried samples of these cyanobacteria. Lipid-soluble fractions revealed a ciguatoxin-like activity in both in vivo (mouse bioassay) and in vitro (mouse neuroblastoma cells assay and receptor binding assay using tritiated brevetoxin-3) assays. The water-soluble fractions tested on mice exhibited neurotoxicity with paralytic symptoms. These toxicities have also been observed with benthic filamentous cyanobacteria within the Oscillatoriales order, also collected in New Caledonia. This study provides an unprecedented evidence of the toxicity of Trichodesmimum species from the New Caledonia lagoon. This survey also demonstrates the possible role of these cyanobacteria fish poisoning. %8 2010 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 2010 %T First identification of the neurotoxin homoanatoxin-a from mats of Hydrocoleum lyngbyaceum (marine cyanobacteria) possibly linked to giant clam poisoning in New Caledonia. %A Méjean A Laurent D, Peyraud-Thomas Kerbrat AS Golubic Pauillac Chinain %P 829-835 %V 56 %X

We report the first identification of homoanatoxin-a from benthic marine cyanobacteria (Hydrocoleum lyngbyaceum) samples collected in Lifou (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia), where cases of giant clams (Tridacna maxima) intoxications were recorded during a severe ciguatera fish poisoning outbreak. Homoanatoxin-a was also detected in extracts of giant clams harvested in the surroundings of the contaminated area suggesting the possible link between these poisoning events and the occurrence of potentially neurotoxic Hydrocoleum.

%8 2010 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 2010 %T Global Distribution of Ciguatera Causing Dinoflagellates in the Genus Gambierdiscus. %A Litaker, R W %A Vandersea, M W %A Faust, M A %A Kibler, S R %A Nau, A %A Chinain, M %A Holmes, M J %A Holland, W C %A Tester, P A %P 711-730 %V 56 %X

Dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus produce toxins that bioaccumulate in tropical and subtropical fishes causing ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). Little is known about the diversity and distribution of Gambierdiscus species, the degree to which individual species vary in toxicity, and the role each plays in causing CFP. This paper presents the first global distribution for specific Gambierdiscus species. Current sampling indicates five species endemic to the Atlantic (including the Caribbean/West Indies and Gulf of Mexico), five species specific to the tropical Pacific, and two globally distributed species, G. carpenteri and G. caribaeus. The regional species distributions correlate with differences in the ciguatoxins recovered from Atlantic and Pacific fishes indicating that Atlantic and Pacific Gambierdiscus spp. may produce different suites of toxins. A literature survey indicated that among-species toxicities varied by >100 fold compared to environmentally induced variations in toxicity of 2-9 fold. These data suggest that inherent between-species differences in toxicity may influence CFP occurrence more than does environmental up regulation of toxin production. How variations in within-species toxicity affect CFP incidence rates is unknown. The degree to which toxicity varies among species or strains has profound implications for developing a cost-effective early warning system for CFP.

%8 2010 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 2010 %T Growth and toxin production in the ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus polynesiensis (Dinophyceae) in culture. %A Chinain, M %A Darius, T %A Ung, A %A Cruchet, P %A Wang, Z %A Ponton, D %A Laurent, D %A Pauillac, S %P 739-50 %V 56 %X The growth and toxin production in a clonal strain of Gambierdiscus polynesiensis, TB-92, was examined in batch culture conditions. The mean growth rate at exponential phase was (0.13 %8 2010 %0 Journal Article %J Ann Trop Med Parasitol %D 2010 %T Homology of complete genome sequences for dengue virus type-1, from dengue-fever- and dengue-haemorrhagic-fever-associated epidemics in Hawaii and French Polynesia. %A Imrie, A %A Roche, C %A Zhao, Z %A Bennett, S %A Laille, M %A P., Effler %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %N 3 %P 225-35 %V 104 %X Dengue epidemic virulence is thought to be conferred by various factors, including the genotype of the virus involved. Increased or decreased epidemic virulence has been associated not only with the introduction of type-2 (DENV-2) strains into the South Pacific, the Caribbean and South America, but also with newly emergent DENV-3 genotypes in Sri Lanka, and the year-to-year variation in the DENV-4 strains circulating in Puerto Rico. These observations indicate that there are inherent differences among viral genotypes in their capacity to induce severe disease, that is, their virulence potential. The present study involved a comparison of the complete genome sequences of DENV-1 viruses that had been isolated from cases of dengue fever (DF) or dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) that occurred in French Polynesia or Hawaii in 2001, when a virulent DHF-associated dengue epidemic was occurring throughout the Pacific region. Previous studies have identified putative virulence-associated motifs and substitutions in the DENV-2 genome, and the main aim of the present study was to identify similar changes in DENV-1 that may be associated with viral virulence. As no virulence determinants were seen, however, in any gene or untranslated region, it appears that genotype is not the sole determinant of virulence in DENV-1. Further studies, to compare DF- and DHF-associated strains of DENV-1 isolated from epidemics of variable virulence, in the same eco-biological context, are needed. %8 2010 %0 Journal Article %J Ann Trop Med Parasitol %D 2010 %T Homology of complete genome sequences for dengue virus type-1, from dengue-fever- and dengue-haemorrhagic-fever-associated epidemics in Hawaii and French Polynesia. %A Imrie, A %A Roche, C %A Zhao, Z %A Bennett, S %A Laille, M %A P., Effler %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %N 3 %P 225-35 %V 104 %X Dengue epidemic virulence is thought to be conferred by various factors, including the genotype of the virus involved. Increased or decreased epidemic virulence has been associated not only with the introduction of type-2 (DENV-2) strains into the South Pacific, the Caribbean and South America, but also with newly emergent DENV-3 genotypes in Sri Lanka, and the year-to-year variation in the DENV-4 strains circulating in Puerto Rico. These observations indicate that there are inherent differences among viral genotypes in their capacity to induce severe disease, that is, their virulence potential. The present study involved a comparison of the complete genome sequences of DENV-1 viruses that had been isolated from cases of dengue fever (DF) or dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) that occurred in French Polynesia or Hawaii in 2001, when a virulent DHF-associated dengue epidemic was occurring throughout the Pacific region. Previous studies have identified putative virulence-associated motifs and substitutions in the DENV-2 genome, and the main aim of the present study was to identify similar changes in DENV-1 that may be associated with viral virulence. As no virulence determinants were seen, however, in any gene or untranslated region, it appears that genotype is not the sole determinant of virulence in DENV-1. Further studies, to compare DF- and DHF-associated strains of DENV-1 isolated from epidemics of variable virulence, in the same eco-biological context, are needed. %8 2010 %0 Journal Article %J Clin Microbiol Infect %D 2010 %T Influenza A(H1N1)2009 in the French Pacific territories: assessment of the epidemic wave during the austral winter. %A P, Barbozan %A Baudon, C %A Chérié-Challine, L %A Gastellu-Etchegorry, M %A Gueguen, J %A La Ruche, G %A Grangeon, JP %A Laumond-Barny, S %A Noël, M %A Pfannstiel, A %A Chee-Ayee, A %A Daudens, E %A Frogier, E %A Le, B %A Mallet JP, HP Pescheux %A Vergeaud, H %A Lastère, S %A Dut %N 4 %P 304-8 %V 16 %X

The three French territories in the Pacific (New Caledonia [NC], French Polynesia [FP] and Wallis and Futuna [WF]) have been affected by an outbreak of influenza A(H1N1)2009 during the austral winter of 2009. This wave of influenza-like illness was characterized by a short duration (approximately 8 weeks) and high attack rates: 16-18% in NC and FP, 28% in Wallis and 38% in Futuna. The number of infected patients requiring hospitalization in critical care services and the number of deaths were, respectively, 21 and 10 in NC and 13 and 7 in FP (none in WF). Diabetes, cardiac and pulmonary diseases, obesity in adults, neuromuscular diseases in children, and Oceanic origin were frequently observed among severe cases and deaths. A significant proportion of the population remains susceptible to A(H1N1)2009, making the occurrence of a second wave likely. A state of preparedness and control efforts must be implemented, based on preventive measures (immunization), as well as combined clinical and virological surveillance and health organization.

%8 2010 %0 Journal Article %J Clin Microbiol Infect %D 2010 %T Influenza A(H1N1)2009 in the French Pacific territories: assessment of the epidemic wave during the austral winter. %A Pacific, Epidemiological Task Group for Overseas French Territories of the %A Barboza, P %A Baudon, C %A Ch %N 4 %P 304-8 %V 16 %X The three French territories in the Pacific (New Caledonia [NC], French Polynesia [FP] and Wallis and Futuna [WF]) have been affected by an outbreak of influenza A(H1N1)2009 during the austral winter of 2009. This wave of influenza-like illness was characterized by a short duration (approximately 8 weeks) and high attack rates: 16-18% in NC and FP, 28% in Wallis and 38% in Futuna. The number of infected patients requiring hospitalization in critical care services and the number of deaths were, respectively, 21 and 10 in NC and 13 and 7 in FP (none in WF). Diabetes, cardiac and pulmonary diseases, obesity in adults, neuromuscular diseases in children, and Oceanic origin were frequently observed among severe cases and deaths. A significant proportion of the population remains susceptible to A(H1N1)2009, making the occurrence of a second wave likely. A state of preparedness and control efforts must be implemented, based on preventive measures (immunization), as well as combined clinical and virological surveillance and health organization. %8 2010 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Epidemiol Sante publ %D 2010 %T La transition alimentaire en Polynésie française : dimensions générationnelle, géographique et sociale %A Counil, E %A Ferland, A %A Suhas, E %A Teyssou, R %A Dewailly, E %N Suppl 2 %P S67 %V 58 %X

Dans le cadre d’une étude transversale multicentrique sur la transition alimentaire et sanitaire en Polynésie française, notre objectif était de : (i) développer un score synthétique permettant de mesurer le degré de transition alimentaire, (ii) relier ce score à des profils nutritionnels et (iii) à des facteurs tels que le coût et la disponibilité des aliments.

%8 2010 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 2010 %T Marine toxic cyanobacteria: Diversity, environmental responses and hazards. %A Golubic, S %A Abed, R M M %A Palinska, K %A Pauillac, S %A Chinain, M %A Laurent, D %P 836-841 %V 56 %X

Toxic cyanobacterial blooms have been a primary concern predominantly in the plankton of freshwater bodies. Recently, however, the toxicity of benthic cyanobacteria is increasingly attracting attention of the scientific community and environmental agencies. The occurrence of toxic strains in benthic cyanobacteria is intimately linked to our understanding of the diversity and ecological responses of these organisms under field conditions. To that effect, we are engaged in combined morphotypic and genotypic characterization (polyphasic) of benthic natural populations of cyanobacteria in tropical lagoons and coral reefs, with the objective to provide a reliable reference for further comparative work. The methods of identification based on phenotypic properties and those based on molecular tools for genotypic identification are correlated. The approach is based on identifying the occurrences of cyanobacterial benthic blooms, tested for purity and analyzed by application of molecular tools. The questions addressed include the distinction between marine and freshwater taxa, between populations in geographically separate regions as well as between their potential vs. expressed toxicity.

%8 2010 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 2010 %T Marine toxic cyanobacteria: Diversity, environmental responses and hazards. %A Golubic, S %A Abed, R M M %A Pali %P 836-41 %V 56 %X Toxic cyanobacterial blooms have been a primary concern predominantly in the plankton of freshwater bodies. Recently, however, the toxicity of benthic cyanobacteria is increasingly attracting attention of the scientific community and environmental agencies. The occurrence of toxic strains in benthic cyanobacteria is intimately linked to our understanding of the diversity and ecological responses of these organisms under field conditions. To that effect, we are engaged in combined morphotypic and genotypic characterization (polyphasic) of benthic natural populations of cyanobacteria in tropical lagoons and coral reefs, with the objective to provide a reliable reference for further comparative work. The methods of identification based on phenotypic properties and those based on molecular tools for genotypic identification are correlated. The approach is based on identifying the occurrences of cyanobacterial benthic blooms, tested for purity and analyzed by application of molecular tools. The questions addressed include the distinction between marine and freshwater taxa, between populations in geographically separate regions as well as between their potential vs. expressed toxicity. %8 2010 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 2010 %T Pacific ciguatoxin 1B-induced modulation of inflammatory mediators in a murine macrophage cell line. %A Matsui, M %A Kumar-Roine, S %A Darius, T %A Chinain, M %A Laurent, D %A Pauillac, S %P 776-84 %V 56 %X Ciguatoxins, potent marine neurotoxins responsible for ciguatera, exert their numerous damaging effects through primary binding to the voltage-sensitive sodium channels of excitable cells. Using RAW 264.7 murine macrophages, we report the first experimental study presenting evidence that P-CTX-1B (the most potent congener from the Pacific) could modulate mRNA expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). P-CTX-1B, unlike other less potent marine polyether toxins, P-CTX-3C and PbTx-3, induced the overexpression of interleukin (IL)-1 %8 2010 %0 Journal Article %J Mar Drugs %D 2010 %T Update on the methodologies available for ciguatoxin determination. A perspective to confront the onset of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Europe. %A Caillaud, A %A Iglesia, P %A Darius, T %A Pauillac, S %A Aligizaki, K %A Fraga, S %A Chinain, M %A Diog %P 1838-1907 %V 8 %X Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a human food borne intoxication mainly due to the consumption of finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). Complexity and variability of such compounds have made difficult the development of reliable methods for their determination with the specificity and sensitivity required to be suitable for routine monitoring of CFP. The present review aims to describe the methodologies available for CTX detection including those based on toxicological, biochemical and chemical as well as pharmaceutical properties of CTXs. Selecting any of these methodological approaches in a routine monitoring of ciguatera may be dependent on the applicability of the method. However, identifying a reference validated method for CTXs is a critical and urgent issue, and is dependent on the availability of CTXs certified standards and coordinated action among laboratories. Reports of CFP cases of intoxication in European hospitals have been described in several countries, mostly due to travel to CFP areas. Additionally, the recent detection of the tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean in the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands, and possibly in Madeira, constitute additional reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe]. The question of the possible contribution of climate change on the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised. Regarding European Union regulations on marine toxins in seafood products, the impact of ciguatera onset on EU policies will be discussed; critical analysis and availability of current methodologies for CTX determination is required in order to rapidly respond to suspected cases of CFP and to conduct sound work on CFP risk analysis. %8 2010 %0 Journal Article %J BEH %D 2009 %T %A Daudens, E %A Lastere, S %A Hirschauer, C %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %A Louette, R %A Roche, C %A Chee-Ayee, A %A Goffard, N %A Vrousos, E %A Wiegandt, A %A Mallet, P H %N 48-49-50 %P 499-503 %X Introduction - Cet article pr %8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J J Ethnopharmacol %D 2009 %T Ability of certain plant extracts traditionally used to treat ciguatera fish poisoning to inhibit nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophages. %A Kumar-Roine, S %A Matsui, M %A Reybier, K %A Darius, T %A Chinain, M %A Pauillac, S %A Laurent, D %P 369-377 %V 123 %X Aim of the study: Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is an intertropical ichthyosarcotoxism that manifests in complex assortment of symptoms in humans. Ciguatoxins (CTXs), issued from Gambierdicus spp., are causative agents of this intoxication. We have recently demonstrated that a Pacific CTX (P-CTX- 1B) strongly modulated iNOS expression, leading to overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. NO produced in large amounts is involved in a wide range of pathophysiological processes. Many traditional remedies are commonly used in the Pacific against CFP. In this context, bioassay-guided screening was carried out to study NO inhibiting capacity of 28 selected plant extracts. Materials and methods: We prepared aqueous extracts of plants used in New Caledonia in the treatment of CFP and screened their NO inhibitory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Results: Among 28 plants tested, Euphorbia hirta (Euphorbiaceae), Syzygium malaccense (Myrtaceae), Schinus terebenthifolius (Anacardiaceae), Punica granatum (Punicaceae), Cerbera manghas (Apocynaceae), Vitex trifolia (Labiateae) and Ximenia americana (Olacaceae) showed inhibitory activity, validating their use as traditional remedies in CFP, and the potential for use in the treatment of conditions accompanied by NO overproduction. Conclusion: These plants are promising candidates for further screening of their activecompounds through activity-guided fractionation. %8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J J Essent Oil Res %D 2009 %T Aromatic plants of French Polynesia. III. Constituents of the essential oil of leaves of Ocimum basilicum. %A Adam, F %A Lechat-Vahirua, I %A Deslandes, E %A Bessiere, J-M %A Menut, C %N 3 %P 237-240 %V 31 %X Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), one of the most popular aromatic plants, shows great variation in both morphology and essential oil components. In this study, the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the leaves of the three samples of basil of French Polynesia were investigated for the first time. The main constituents of the oil were (E)-methyl cinnamate (43.4-62.3%) and (Z)-methyl cinnamate (8.1-8.6%). %8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J J Ethnopharmacol %D 2009 %T Characterisation of the anti-inflammatory potential of Vitex trifolia L. (Labiatae), a multipurpose plant of the Pacific traditional medicine. %A Matsui, M %A Kumar-Roine, S %A Darius, T %A Chinain, M %A Laurent, D %A Pauillac, S %N 3 %P 369-377 %V 123 %X

Aim of the studyVitex trifolia L. (Labiatae) is a plant commonly employed against Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) in the Pacific region. Here, the anti-inflammatory potential of an aqueous extract of Vitex trifolia leaves was evaluated by monitoring its effects on the modulation of cytokines, the mediators of inflammation, as well as on the expression profiles of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) which produces the free radical nitric oxide (NO). Materials and methods We prepared an aqueous extract from Vitex trifolia leaves and evaluated its anti-inflammatory potency by monitoring its effect on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokines and iNOS mRNA over-production in RAW 264.7 macrophages using quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) methods. Results Aqueous extract of Vitex trifolia leaves showed significant dose- and time-dependent inhibitory activity on interleukin (IL)-1

%8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J Malaria J %D 2009 %T Colonisation and mass rearing: learning from others. %A Benedict, M Q %A Knols, B G J %A Bossin, H C %A Howell, P I %A Mialhe, E %A Caceres, C %A Robinson, A S %N Suppl 2 %P S4 %V 8 %X Mosquitoes, just as other insects produced for the sterile insect technique (SIT), are subjected to several unnatural processes including laboratory colonisation and large-scale factory production. After these processes, sterile male mosquitoes must perform the natural task of locating and mating with wild females. Therefore, the colonisation and production processes must preserve characters necessary for these functions. Fortunately, in contrast to natural selection which favours a suite of characteristics that improve overall fitness, colonisation and production practices for SIT strive to maximize only the few qualities that are necessary to effectively control populations. However, there is considerable uncertainty about some of the appropriate characteristics due to the lack of data. Development of biological products for other applications suggest that it is possible to identify and modify competitiveness characteristics in order to produce competitive mass produced sterile mosquitoes. This goal has been pursued - and sometimes achieved - by mosquito colonisation, production, and studies that have linked these characteristics to field performance. Parallels are drawn to studies in other insect SIT programmes and aquaculture which serve as vital technical reference points for mass-production of mosquitoes, most of whose development occurs- and characteristics of which are determined - in an aquatic environment. Poorly understood areasthat require further study are numerous: diet, mass handling and genetic and physiological factors that influence mating competitiveness. Compromises in such traits due to demands to increase numbers or reduce costs, should be carefully considered in light of the desired field performance. %8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 2009 %T Ciguat %A Oehler, E %A Gatti, C %A Legrand, A-M %A Ghawche, F %P 75-77 %V 69 %X La ciguat %8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J J Ethnopharmacol %D 2009 %T Characterisation of the anti-inflammatory potential of Vitex trifolia L. (Labiatae), a multipurpose plant of the Pacific traditional medicine. %A Matsui, M %A Kumar-Roine, S %A Darius, T %A Chinain, M %A Laurent, D %A Pauillac, S %N 3 %P 427-433 %V 126 %X

Aim of the studyVitex trifolia L. (Labiatae) is a plant commonly employed against Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) in the Pacific region. Here, the anti-inflammatory potential of an aqueous extract of Vitex trifolia leaves was evaluated by monitoring its effects on the modulation of cytokines, the mediators of inflammation, as well as on the expression profiles of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) which produces the free radical nitric oxide (NO). Materials and methods We prepared an aqueous extract from Vitex trifolia leaves and evaluated its anti-inflammatory potency by monitoring its effect on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokines and iNOS mRNA over-production in RAW 264.7 macrophages using quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) methods. Results Aqueous extract of Vitex trifolia leaves showed significant dose- and time-dependent inhibitory activity on interleukin (IL)-1

%8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J Biomed Central %D 2009 %T Dengue viruses binding proteins from Aedes aegypti and Aedes polynesiensis salivary glands. %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %N 35 %V 6 %X

Dengue virus (DENV), the etiological agent of dengue fever, is transmitted to the human host during blood uptake by an infective mosquito. Infection of vector salivary glands and further injection of infectious saliva into the human host are key events of the DENV transmission cycle. However, the molecular mechanisms of DENV entry into the mosquito salivary glands have not been clearly identified. Otherwise, although it was demonstrated for other vector-transmitted pathogens that insect salivary components may interact with host immune agents and impact the establishment of infection, the role of mosquito saliva on DENV infection in human has been only poorly documented. To identify salivary gland molecules which might interact with DENV at these key steps of transmission cycle, we investigated the presence of proteins able to bind DENV in salivary gland extracts (SGE) from two mosquito species. Using virus overlay protein binding assay, we detected several proteins able to bind DENV in SGE from Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes polynesiensis (Marks). The present findings pave the way for the identification of proteins mediating DENV attachment or entry into mosquito salivary glands, and of saliva-secreted proteins those might be bound to the virus at the earliest step of human infection. The present findings might contribute to the identification of new targets for anti-dengue strategies.

http://www.virologyj.com/content/6/1/35

%8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J PLoS Negl Trop Dis %D 2009 %T Dengue 1 diversity and microevolution, French polynesia 2001-2006: connection with epidemiology and clinics. %A Descloux, E %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %A Roche, C %A De Lamballerie, X %N 8 %P e493 %V 3 %X BACKGROUND: Dengue fever (DF) is an emerging infectious disease in the tropics and subtropics. Determinants of DF epidemiology and factors involved in severe cases-dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS)-remain imperfectly characterized. Since 2000, serotype 1 (DENV-1) has predominated in the South Pacific. The aim of this study was (i) to determine the origin and (ii) to study the evolutionary relationships of DENV-1 viruses that have circulated in French Polynesia (FP) from the severe 2001 outbreak to the recent 2006 epidemic, and (iii) to analyse the viral intra-host genetic diversity according to clinical presentation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sequences of 181 envelope gene and 12 complete polyproteins of DENV-1 viruses obtained from human sera in FP during the 2001-2006 period were generated. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all DENV-1 FP strains belonged to genotype IV-"South Pacific" and derived from a single introduction event from South-East Asia followed by a 6-year in situ evolution. Although the ratio of nonsynonymous/synonymous substitutions per site indicated strong negative selection, a mutation in the envelope glycoprotein (S222T) appeared in 2002 and was subsequently fixed. It was noted that genetic diversification was very significant during the 2002-2005 period of endemic DENV-1 circulation. For nine DF sera and eight DHF/DSS sera, approximately 40 clones/serum of partial envelope gene were sequenced. Importantly, analysis revealed that the intra-host genetic diversity was significantly lower in severe cases than in classical DF. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: First, this study showed that DENV-1 epidemiology in FP was different from that described in other South-Pacific islands, characterized by a long sustained viral circulation and the absence of new viral introduction over a 6-year period. Second, a significant part of DENV-1 evolution was observed during the endemic period characterized by the rapid fixation of S222T in the envelope protein that may reflect genetic drift or adaptation to the mosquito vector. Third, for the first time, it is suggested that clinical outcome may be correlated with intra-host genetic diversity. %8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J Biomed Central %D 2009 %T Dengue viruses binding proteins from Aedes aegypti and Aedes polynesiensis salivary glands. %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %N 35 %V 6 %X Dengue virus (DENV), the etiological agent of dengue fever, is transmitted to the human host during blood uptake by an infective mosquito. Infection of vector salivary glands and further injection of infectious saliva into the human host are key events of the DENV transmission cycle. However, the molecular mechanisms of DENV entry into the mosquito salivary glands have not been clearly identified. Otherwise, although it was demonstrated for other vector-transmitted pathogens that insect salivary components may interact with host immune agents and impact the establishment of infection, the role of mosquito saliva on DENV infection in human has been only poorly documented. To identify salivary gland molecules which might interact with DENV at these key steps of transmission cycle, we investigated the presence of proteins able to bind DENV in salivary gland extracts (SGE) from two mosquito species. Using virus overlay protein binding assay, we detected several proteins able to bind DENV in SGE from Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes polynesiensis (Marks). The present findings pave the way for the identification of proteins mediating DENV attachment or entry into mosquito salivary glands, and of saliva-secreted proteins those might be bound to the virus at the earliest step of human infection. The present findings might contribute to the identification of new targets for anti-dengue strategies. %8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J PLoS Negl Trop Dis %D 2009 %T Dengue 1 diversity and microevolution, French polynesia 2001-2006: connection with epidemiology and clinics. %A Descloux, E %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %A Roche, C %A De Lamballerie, X %N 8 %P e493 %V 3 %X BACKGROUND: Dengue fever (DF) is an emerging infectious disease in the tropics and subtropics. Determinants of DF epidemiology and factors involved in severe cases-dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS)-remain imperfectly characterized. Since 2000, serotype 1 (DENV-1) has predominated in the South Pacific. The aim of this study was (i) to determine the origin and (ii) to study the evolutionary relationships of DENV-1 viruses that have circulated in French Polynesia (FP) from the severe 2001 outbreak to the recent 2006 epidemic, and (iii) to analyse the viral intra-host genetic diversity according to clinical presentation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sequences of 181 envelope gene and 12 complete polyproteins of DENV-1 viruses obtained from human sera in FP during the 2001-2006 period were generated. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all DENV-1 FP strains belonged to genotype IV-"South Pacific" and derived from a single introduction event from South-East Asia followed by a 6-year in situ evolution. Although the ratio of nonsynonymous/synonymous substitutions per site indicated strong negative selection, a mutation in the envelope glycoprotein (S222T) appeared in 2002 and was subsequently fixed. It was noted that genetic diversification was very significant during the 2002-2005 period of endemic DENV-1 circulation. For nine DF sera and eight DHF/DSS sera, approximately 40 clones/serum of partial envelope gene were sequenced. Importantly, analysis revealed that the intra-host genetic diversity was significantly lower in severe cases than in classical DF. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: First, this study showed that DENV-1 epidemiology in FP was different from that described in other South-Pacific islands, characterized by a long sustained viral circulation and the absence of new viral introduction over a 6-year period. Second, a significant part of DENV-1 evolution was observed during the endemic period characterized by the rapid fixation of S222T in the envelope protein that may reflect genetic drift or adaptation to the mosquito vector. Third, for the first time, it is suggested that clinical outcome may be correlated with intra-host genetic diversity. %8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J BEH %D 2009 %T Epidémiologie de la dengue et stratégies de lutte en Polynésie française, 2006-2008 %A Daudens, E %A Lastere, S %A Hirschauer, C %A Cao-Lormeau, V M %A Louette, R %A Roche, C %A Chee-Ayee, A %A Goffard, N %A Vrousos, E %A Wiegandt, A %A Mallet, P H %N 48-49-50 %P 499-503 %X

Introduction - Cet article présente un bilan épidémiologique de la dengue en Polynésie française entre 2006 et 2008.
Méthode - L’article s’appuie sur les données du système de surveillance de la dengue fournies par les laboratoires, le réseau sentinelle, les passages aux urgences du Centre hospitalier de Polynésie française (passages aux urgences et hospitalisations déclarées pour dengue). Les stratégies de lutte utilisées sont également exposées.
Résultats - Une épidémie de dengue de sérotype 1 a débuté en août 2006 pour s’achever en novembre 2007. L’épidémie a été d’intensité modérée et sans sévérité particulière par rapport à celle de 2001.
Conclusion - Le système de surveillance de la dengue doit être renforcé, en particulier le réseau sentinelle, en impliquant davantage les médecins participants. Les communes ainsi que leurs populations devront s’engager dans la durée dans toutes les actions de destruction des gîtes larvaires dans le but d’obtenir des densités de moustiques les plus faibles possibles en permanence.

%8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J BEH %D 2009 %T Evaluation de la prévalence de la filariose lymphatique en 2008 en Polynésie française. %A Mou, Y %A Plichart, C %A Legrand, A M %A Mallet, H P %A Cerf, N %A Nguyen, N L %N 48-19-50 %P 504-507 %X

Introduction – Le programme régional d’élimination de la filariose lymphatique dans le Pacifique (PacELF) a été mis en place en Polynésie française en 2000. Il était nécessaire de mesurer son impact en 2008 sur tout le territoire pour décider de la suite à lui donner. Méthodes – Enquête transversale sur un échantillon stratifié en grappes à deux degrés, représentatif de la population âgée de 2 ans et plus de la Polynésie française, sur la base d’un questionnaire standardisé administré
en mode face à face et d’un prélèvement veineux pour le diagnostic de l’infection filarienne.
Résultats – L’étude a mis en évidence une prévalence de 11,3% d’antigénémie positive (AD12) par immunochromatographie (ICT). Dix pour cent d’entre eux étaient microfilarémiques. La morbidité filarienne est de 0,5%.
Conclusion – Aucune des strates étudiées ne présentait une prévalence d’infection inférieure à 1% (par ICT) correspondant au seuil d’élimination de la filariose lymphatique défini par le programme PacELF. Ces résultats confirment que l’endémie filarienne reste bien présente en Polynésie française.

%8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J BEH %D 2009 %T Epidémiologie de la leptospirose en Polynésie française de 2006 à 2008. %A Hirschauer, C %A Daudens, E %A Coudert, C %A Frogier, E %A Melix, G %A Mallet, H P %N 48-49-50 %P 508-511 %X

Introduction - Cette étude présente un bilan épidémiologique de la leptospirose en Polynésie française (Pf) de 2006 à 2008.
Méthode - Les données cliniques obtenues à partir du PMSI et des fiches de renseignements cliniques, ainsi que les données biologiques des laboratoires ont été recherchées et analysées pour 2006, 2007 et 2008.
Résultats - L’incidence annuelle moyenne est élevée (35/100 000 habitants); la majorité des cas recensés sont hospitalisés (67%), dont 33% nécessitent un séjour en réanimation. Les signes cliniques et les facteurs de risque déclarés sont classiques. Des cas sont retrouvés toute l’année
et dans tous les archipels.
Discussion - Avec une incidence très supérieure à la métropole, la leptospirose est une préoccupation de santé publique en Pf. Malgré la disponibilité d’une technique PCR pour un diagnostic précoce, 40% des cas sont diagnostiqués par la sérologie (réalisable à partir du 5e jour de maladie).
Conclusion - Le mode de vie (marche pieds nus, baignade, agriculture familiale) rend difficile l’application stricte des mesures de protection individuelle. Le système de surveillance doit être amélioré avec une investigation autour de chaque cas déclaré. Des actions d’information et de sensibilisation des professionnels et des populations seront mises en place.

%8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J BEH %D 2009 %T Étude de prévalence de la sensibilité aux antibiotiques de Staphylococcus aureus en Polynésie française, 2006-2008. %A Lévy A.S., Baudet Beau Devaud Sauget %N 48-49-50 %P 526-528 %X

Introduction - L’importance des infections à Staphylococcus aureus en Polynésie française (Pf) et l’émergence des S. aureus résistant à la méticilline
(Sarm) isolés d’infections communautaires ont motivé la création d’un réseau de surveillance épidémiologique de la sensibilité de S. aureus
aux antibiotiques en Pf.
Matériel et méthodes - Tous les laboratoires de Pf (n=5) participent à cette surveillance. Une étude de prévalence est réalisée tous les ans depuis 2006, sur un trimestre. Des informations cliniques et épidémiologiques sont associées à l’étude de la sensibilité de S. aureus aux antibiotiques. Le caractère associé aux soins ou d’origine communautaire de l’infection est indiqué pour chaque souche étudiée.
Résultats - Chaque année, environ 200 souches de S. aureus ont été isolées de patients habitant dans tous les archipels de Pf et présentant dans les trois-quarts des cas des infections cutanées. Deux-tiers des souches sont d’origine communautaire. Les Sarm représentent 20% des S. aureus d’origine communautaire et 40% des S. aureus impliqués dans des infections associées aux soins. La moitié des Sarm est isolée d’infections communautaires.
Conclusion - Cette étude souligne la prévalence importante des Sarm dans la communauté en Pf, nécessitant un renforcement des mesures de prévention et une adaptation des recommandations d’antibiothérapie pour les infections à S. aureus.

%8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J BEH %D 2009 %T Epid %A Hirschauer, C %A Daudens, E %A Coudert, C %A Frogier, E %A Melix, G %A Mallet, H P %N 48-49-50 %P 508-11 %X Introduction - Cette %8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J Canadian J Diabetes %D 2009 %T Fasting insulin levels higher among adolescents than adults: an erosion of public health %A Château-Degat, M L %A Counil, E %A Ferland, A %A Louan-Sidi, E %A Suhas, E %A Teyssou, R %A Dewailly, E %N 3 %P 279 %V 33 %X

Populations in dietary transition are characterized by a gradual abandonment of traditional-local foods towards an increased consumption of imported store-bought foods. They show, most of the time, an increased prevalence of Type 2 diabetes and obesity. As a result, many Pacific islanders are already suffering the consequences of their dietary transition, particularly obesity.

%8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J Inform'Action %D 2009 %T Influenza A (H1N1) pdm in French Polynesia - Assessment of epidemiological situation as at 21 October 2009 %A Mallet, H P %A Daudens, E %A Chee-Ayee, A %A Vergeaud, H %A Frogien, E %A Pescheux, J P %A Le, B %A Lastère, S %V 31 %8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J Inform'Action %D 2009 %T Influenza A (H1N1) pdm in French Polynesia - Assessment of epidemiological situation as at 21 October 2009 %A Mallet, H P %A Daudens, E %A Chee-Ayee, A %A Vergeaud, H %A Frogien, E %A Pescheux, J P %A Le, B %A Last %V 31 %8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J BEHweb %D 2009 %T La grippe A(H1N1)2009 dans les territoires français du Pacifique : bilan de la vague épidémique pendant l’hiver austral. %A Pacifique, Groupe de travail en épidémiologie dans les territoires français ultramarins du %P 1-6 %V 3 %X

Les trois territoires français du Pacifique (Nouvelle-Calédonie [NC], Polynésie française [Pf] et Wallis et Futuna [WF]) ont été touchés par une vague épidémique de grippe A(H1N1)2009 pendant l’hiver austral. Cette vague de syndromes grippaux se caractérise par une courte durée (environ 8 semaines) et des taux d’attaque élevés : 16 à 18% en NC et en Pf, 28% à Wallis et 38% à Futuna. Le nombre de patients infectés ayant nécessité une hospitalisation en soins intensifs et le nombre de décès ont été respectivement de 21 et 10 en NC et 13 et 7 en Pf (aucun à WF). Les facteurs de risque de formes graves ou de décès rapportés ont déjà été évoqués, notamment le diabète, les pathologies pulmonaires et cardiaques, l’obésité chez l’adulte, les pathologies neuromusculaires chez l’enfant et l’origine océanienne. Une proportion importante de la population reste susceptible au virus et rend possible une deuxième vague qu’il convient d’anticiper par des mesures préventives (vaccination), de surveillance clinique et virologique et d’organisation sanitaire.

%8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J BEHweb %D 2009 %T La grippe A(H1N1)2009 dans les territoires fran %A , Groupe de travail en %N 1-6 %V 3 %X Les trois territoires fran %8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J Nucleic Acids Research %D 2009 %T PathExpress update: the enzyme neighbourhood method of associating gene-expression data with metabolic pathways. %A Goffard, N %A Weiller, G %N (Web) %X

The post-genomic era presents us with the challenge of linking the vast amount of raw data obtained with transcriptomic and proteomic techniques to relevant biological pathways. We present an update of PathExpress, a web-based tool to interpret gene-expression data and explore the metabolic network without being restricted to predefined pathways. We define the Enzyme Neighbourhood (EN) as a sub-network of linked enzymes with a limited path length to identify the most relevant sub-networks affected in gene-expression experiments. (http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/gkp432v1)

%8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J Canadian J Diabetes %D 2009 %T Populations in transition: how to measure the dietary component ? %A Counil, E %A Château-Degat, M L %A Ferland, A %A Suhas, E %A Teyssou, R %A Dewailly, E %N 3 %P 229 %V 33 %X

The dietary transition that accompanies rapid social change has been related to increased prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes worldwide, and in particular among aboriginal populations. Instead of using individual food/nutrient consumptions or complex dietary patterns as a measure of dietary changes over time, age and space, we propose a simple score developed in the framework of the Dietary and Health Transition in French Polynesia study.

%8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J BEH %D 2009 %T Surveillance épidémiologique de la ciguatéra en Polynésie française. %A Chateau-Degat, M L %A Chinain, M %A Darius, T %A Dewailly, E %A Mallet, H P %N 48-49-50 %P 522-525 %X

Alors que la ciguatéra est peu connue sous les latitudes nord, cette intoxication d’origine alimentaire constitue un problème de santé publique
persistant aux conséquences économiques réelles pour plusieurs pays tropicaux. Les objectifs de la présente étude étaient de dresser un portrait de l’évolution de cet ichtyosarcotoxisme depuis l’année 2002 en Polynésie française (Pf) et également de clarifier le lien entre la sévérité de la maladie et certains facteurs étiologiques environnementaux, comme le régime alimentaire du poisson consommé. Pour ce faire, les données du programme de surveillance de la Direction de la santé et de l’Institut Louis Malardé ont été utilisées. Les principaux résultats de cette étude montrent une tendance globale à la diminution des cas de ciguatéra en Pf, avec une incidence plus marquée dans les archipels des Tuamotu et Gambier. Le tableau clinique observé reste classique, mais les symptômes cardiaques sont plus atypiques, avec une fréquence importante de l’hypertension. Aucun lien entre la sévérité de la maladie et les facteurs environnementaux n’a été observé. Bien qu’un déclin du poids de cette intoxication semble réel, il est important de maintenir une surveillance ad hoc de la ciguatéra et de ses effets sur la santé en Pf.

%8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J Malaria J %D 2009 %T Sex separation strategies: past experience and new approaches. %A Papathanos, P A %A Bossin, H C %A Benedict, Catteruccia %A Malcolm, C A %A Alphey, L %A Crisanti, A %N Suppl. 2 %P S5 %V 8 %X The success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) and other genetic strategies designed to eliminate large populations of insects relies on the efficient inundative releases of competitive, sterile males into the natural habitat of the target species. As released sterile females do not contribute to the sterility in the field population, systems for the efficient mass production and separation of males from females are needed. For vector species like mosquitoes, in which only females bite and transmit diseases, the thorough removal of females before release while leaving males competent to mate is a stringent prerequisite. Biological, genetic and transgenic approaches have been developed that permit efficient male-female separation for some species considered for SIT. However, most sex separation methods have drawbacks and many of these methods are not directly transferable to mosquitoes. Unlike genetic and transgenic systems, biological methods that rely on sexually dimorphic characters, such as size or development rate, are subject to natural variation, requiring regular adjustment and re-calibration of the sorting systems used. The yield can be improved with the optimization of rearing, but the scale of mass production places practical limits on what is achievable, resulting in a poor rearing to output ratio. High throughput separation is best achieved with scalable genetic or transgenic approaches. %8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J BEH %D 2009 %T Surveillance %A Chateau-Degat, M L %A Chinain, M %A Darius, T %A Dewailly, E %A Mallet, H P %N 48-49-50 %P 522-525 %X Alors que la ciguat %8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J Plant Physiology Preview %D 2009 %T The proteome of seed development in the model legume Lotus japonicus. %A Dam, S %A Laursen, B S %A Ornfelt, J H %A Jochimsen, B %A Staerfeldt, H H %A Friis, C %A Nielsen, K %A Goffard, N %A Besenbacher, S %A Krusell, L %A Sato, S %A Tabata, S %A Thogersen, I B %A Enghild, J J %A Stougaard, J %P 108.133405 %V 10.1104 %X

http://www.plantphysiol.org/cgi/content/abstract/pp.108.133405v1

%8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J Phycologia %D 2009 %T Taxonomy of Gambierdiscus including four new species, Gambierdiscus caribaeus, Gambierdiscus carolinianus, Gambierdiscus carpenteri and Gambierdiscus ruetzleri (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae). %A Litaker, R W %A Vandersea, M W %A Faust, M A %A Kibler, S R %A Chinain, M %A Holmes, M J %A Holland, W C %A Tester, P A %N 5 %P 344-390 %V 48 %X

Gambierdiscus species produce toxins that cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), the most common nonbacterial illness associated with fish consumption worldwide. Understanding the role that individual Gambierdiscus species play in causing CFP is hampered because the morphologically similar species in the genus are difficult to distinguish. Ambiguities in the description of the type species Gambierdiscus toxicus also exist. This paper presents detailed line drawings along with additional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light micrographs to more fully characterize the six known Gambierdiscus species in addition to describing four new species, Gambierdiscus caribaeus sp. nov., Gambierdiscus carolinianus sp. nov., Gambierdiscus carpenteri sp. nov., and Gambierdiscus ruetzleri sp. nov. All four of the new species are photosynthetic and epibenthic and have a Kofoidian plate formula of Po, 3', 7?, 6C, 6 or 7S, 5'?, 1p, and2Adachi and Fukuyo (1979) be designated as the lectotype for this species and that the epithecal view of isolate GTT-91 shown in Fig. 1 from be designated as the epitype. The GTT-91 isolate has been well characterized genetically and the original SEM stub of this isolate archived at the Smithsonian Institution has been re-examined to provide a more detailed morphological analysis of the epitype.

%8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J Phycologia %D 2009 %T Taxonomy of Gambierdiscus including four new species, Gambierdiscus caribaeus, Gambierdiscus carolinianus, Gambierdiscus carpenteri and Gambierdiscus ruetzleri (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae). %A Litaker, R W %A Vandersea, M W %A Faust, M A %A Kibler, S R %A Chinain, M %A Holmes, M J %A Holland, W C %A Tester, P A %N 5 %P 344-390 %V 48 %X Gambierdiscus species produce toxins that cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), the most common nonbacterial illness associated with fish consumption worldwide. Understanding the role that individual Gambierdiscus species play in causing CFP is hampered because the morphologically similar species in the genus are difficult to distinguish. Ambiguities in the description of the type species Gambierdiscus toxicus also exist. This paper presents detailed line drawings along with additional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light micrographs to more fully characterize the six known Gambierdiscus species in addition to describing four new species, Gambierdiscus caribaeus sp. nov., Gambierdiscus carolinianus sp. nov., Gambierdiscus carpenteri sp. nov., and Gambierdiscus ruetzleri sp. nov. All four of the new species are photosynthetic and epibenthic and have a Kofoidian plate formula of Po, 3', 7?, 6C, 6 or 7S, 5'?, 1p, and2Adachi and Fukuyo (1979) be designated as the lectotype for this species and that the epithecal view of isolate GTT-91 shown in Fig. 1 from be designated as the epitype. The GTT-91 isolate has been well characterized genetically and the original SEM stub of this isolate archived at the Smithsonian Institution has been re-examined to provide a more detailed morphological analysis of the epitype. %8 2009 %0 Journal Article %J Harmful algae %D 2008 %T Are cyanobacteria involved in Ciguatera Fish Poisoning-like outbreaks in New Caledonia ? %A Laurent, D %A Kerbrat, A S %A Darius, T %A Girard, E %A Golubic, S %A Benoit, E %A Sauviat, M P %A Chinain, M %A Molgo, J %A Pauillac, S %P 827-838 %V 7 %X

From 2001 to 2005, numerous cases of seafood poisonings were reported in a tribe from Lifou (Loyalty Islands Province, New Caledonia) of which 35 were thoroughly examined. Observations outlined by the epidemiological and clinical data (including severity and rapid onset of certain symptoms following consumption of either giant clams (Tridacna spp.) or grazing and molluscivorous fish together with the apparent inefficacy of traditional remedies, were not in favour of a classical Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) outbreak. From 2005 onwards, an environmental offshore survey of the affected area was conducted. Screening of the damaged coral area revealed the presence of large populations of cyanobacteria identified as Hydrocoleum Kützing, but the absence of Gambierdiscus spp., the well-known dinoflagellate causative agent of CFP. In vivo and in vitro toxicological studies of extracts obtained from cyanobacteria and giant clams, strongly suggested the co-occurrence of ciguatoxin-like, anatoxin-like and paralytic shellfish toxins in these samples.

These new findings shed new light on the complexity of the CFP symptomatology and treatment and also on the diversity and origin of the CFP toxins. Furthermore they provide new evidence of the overall variability of seafood poisonings following the ingestion of different sea products living in a marine environment where significant harmful populations of microalgae and cyanobacteria coexist.

This is the first report on the involvement of cyanobacteria in CFP-like outbreaks following the consumption of giant clams or fish specimens. Consequently, it is recommended that CFP risk assessment programs now include monitoring of cyanobacteria besides the obvious screening of CFP-promoting dinoflagellates.

%8 2008 %0 Journal Article %J Harmful algae %D 2008 %T Are cyanobacteria involved in Ciguatera Fish Poisoning-like outbreaks in New Caledonia ? %A Laurent, D %A Kerbrat, A S %A Darius, T %A Girard, E %A Golubic, S %A Benoit, E %A Sauviat, M P %A Chinain, M %A Molgo, J %A Pauillac, S %P 827-838 %V 7 %X From 2001 to 2005, numerous cases of seafood poisonings were reported in a tribe from Lifou (Loyalty Islands Province, New Caledonia) of which 35 were thoroughly examined. Observations outlined by the epidemiological and clinical data (including severity and rapid onset of certain symptoms following consumption of either giant clams (Tridacna spp.) or grazing and molluscivorous fish together with the apparent inefficacy of traditional remedies, were not in favour of a classical Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) outbreak. From 2005 onwards, an environmental offshore survey of the affected area was conducted. Screening of the damaged coral area revealed the presence of large populations of cyanobacteria identified as Hydrocoleum K %8 2008 %0 Journal Article %J Aquaculture Res %D 2008 %T Changes in fatty acid and sterol composition during oogenesis in the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera. %A Vahirua-Lechat, I %A Laure, F %A LeCoz, J R %A Bianchini, J P %A Bellais, M %A Le Moullac, G %N 16 %P 1739-46 %V 39 %X

The fatty acid and sterol composition of the oyster Pinctada margaritifera during oogenesis and in eggs was analysed. No major differences were observed during oogenesis, but the egg composition was significantly different from that of gonads. The amount of saturated fatty acids was the highest in eggs and the C16:0 predominant (P<5%); by contrast, the amount of 22:6(n-3) was significantly lower (P<5%) than in gonads. No major differences were observed for the polar lipid (PL) composition during oogenesis. The main free sterols in gonads and eggs were cholesterol and brassicasterol. Among free sterols, the proportion of cholesterol diminished continuously from the beginning to the end of gonad maturation, and this decrease persisted in eggs after spawning. Cholesterol represented 40% to 55% of the sterol ester encountered in gonad and eggs. This study allowed us to investigate the fatty acid and sterol composition during oogenesis of the pearl oyster P. margaritifera, leading to a clearer understanding of the nutritional requirements of pearl oyster during the reproduction process.

%8 2008 %0 Journal Article %J Asia Pac J Clin Nutr %D 2008 %T Fish consumption and health in French Polynesia. %A Dewailly, E %A Chateau-Degat, M L %A Suhas, E %N 1 %P 86-93 %V 17 %X French Polynesians, like other remote maritime populations are intimately connected to the ocean which nourishes their daily life and culture. Their reliance on fish raises the issue of potential exposure to harmful natural and anthropogenic contaminants as well as providing essential nutrients. The purpose of this study was to assess the risks and benefits of fish consumption in French Polynesia. This cross-sectional study included 195 adults aged 18 years old and over from the Tahiti and Moorea islands. Fatty acids, selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) blood concentrations were measured in participants and were all very high. Blood concentrations indicate that Hg, Se and omega-3 fatty acids have a common origin, i.e. fish consumption. In comparing the Polynesian group with northern populations, we found that the Polynesian group had levels of Hg similar to those observed in Inuit populations (geometric mean (range): 90.3 (15-420) nmol/L vs. Inuit: m(r): 79.6 (4-560) nmol/L). Similar results were observed with Se blood concentrations. The fatty acid concentration was also similar to that of the Inuit population even though the specific profile of fatty acids differed. For the first time, we report very high blood concentrations of mercury, selenium and omega-3 fatty acids in a fishing population from the South Pacific, comparable to those reported among fishing populations from the Northern hemisphere. Further work is ongoing to better substantiate public health nutritional policies. %8 2008 %0 Journal Article %J Asia Pac J Clin Nutr %D 2008 %T Fish consumption and health in French Polynesia. %A Dewailly, E %A Chateau-Degat, M L %A Suhas, E %N 1 %P 86-93 %V 17 %X French Polynesians, like other remote maritime populations are intimately connected to the ocean which nourishes their daily life and culture. Their reliance on fish raises the issue of potential exposure to harmful natural and anthropogenic contaminants as well as providing essential nutrients. The purpose of this study was to assess the risks and benefits of fish consumption in French Polynesia. This cross-sectional study included 195 adults aged 18 years old and over from the Tahiti and Moorea islands. Fatty acids, selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) blood concentrations were measured in participants and were all very high. Blood concentrations indicate that Hg, Se and omega-3 fatty acids have a common origin, i.e. fish consumption. In comparing the Polynesian group with northern populations, we found that the Polynesian group had levels of Hg similar to those observed in Inuit populations (geometric mean (range): 90.3 (15-420) nmol/L vs. Inuit: m(r): 79.6 (4-560) nmol/L). Similar results were observed with Se blood concentrations. The fatty acid concentration was also similar to that of the Inuit population even though the specific profile of fatty acids differed. For the first time, we report very high blood concentrations of mercury, selenium and omega-3 fatty acids in a fishing population from the South Pacific, comparable to those reported among fishing populations from the Northern hemisphere. Further work is ongoing to better substantiate public health nutritional policies. %8 2008 %0 Journal Article %J BMC Plant Biology %D 2008 %T Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of super-embryogenic Medicago truncatula explant cultures. %A Imin, N %A Goffard, N %A Nizamidin, M %A Rolfe, B %P 110 %V 8 %X

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2229/8/110

%8 2008 %0 Journal Article %J Asia Pac J Clin Nutr %D 2008 %T High fish consumption in French Polynesia and prenatal exposure to metals and nutrients. %A Dewailly, E %A Suhas, E %A Mou, Y %A Dallaire, R %A Chateau-Degat, M L %A Chansin, R %N 3 %P 461-470 %V 17 %X

French Polynesians consume high quantities of fish and are therefore exposed to seafood-related contaminants such as mercury (Hg) or lead (Pb) and nutrients such as iodine, selenium and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). As the developing foetus is sensitive to contaminants and nutrients, a cross-sectional study was conducted in French Polynesia in 2005-2006 to assess prenatal exposure to contaminants and nutrients through fish consumption. Two hundred and forty one (241) delivering women originating from all islands of French Polynesia were recruited and agreed to answer questions on fish consumption and gave permission to collect umbilical cord blood for metals and nutrients analyses. All parameters were found in high concentrations in cord blood samples except for lead. Mercury concentrations averaged 64.6 nmol/L (or 13 µg/L) with values ranging from 0.25 to 240 nmol/L. Of the sample, 82.5% had Hg concentrations above the US-EPA blood guide-line of 5.8 µg/L. Tuna was the fish species which contributed the most to Hg exposure. High selenium and LC-PUFAs may counterbalance the potential risk of prenatal exposure to Hg in French Polynesia. Due to the high fish consumption of mothers, Polynesian newborns are prenatally exposed to high doses of mercury. Although selenium and omega-3 fatty acids may counteract mercury toxicity, informing pregnant women on both the mercury and nutrient content of local fish species is important.

%8 2008 %0 Journal Article %J Asia Pac J Clin Nutr %D 2008 %T High fish consumption in French Polynesia and prenatal exposure to metals and nutrients. %A Dewailly, E %A Suhas, E %A Mou, Y %A Dallaire, R %A Chateau-Degat, M L %A Chansin, R %N 3 %P 461-470 %V 17 %X French Polynesians consume high quantities of fish and are therefore exposed to seafood-related contaminants such as mercury (Hg) or lead (Pb) and nutrients such as iodine, selenium and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). As the developing foetus is sensitive to contaminants and nutrients, a cross-sectional study was conducted in French Polynesia in 2005-2006 to assess prenatal exposure to contaminants and nutrients through fish consumption. Two hundred and forty one (241) delivering women originating from all islands of French Polynesia were recruited and agreed to answer questions on fish consumption and gave permission to collect umbilical cord blood for metals and nutrients analyses. All parameters were found in high concentrations in cord blood samples except for lead. Mercury concentrations averaged 64.6 nmol/L (or 13 %8 2008 %0 Journal Article %J Nitric Oxide %D 2008 %T Modulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages by Pacific ciguatoxin. %A Kumar-Roine, S %A Matsui, M %A Chinain, M %A Laurent, D %A Pauillac, S %P 21-28 %V 19 %X To investigate the possible involvement of the nitric oxide radical (NO) in ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), the in vitro effects of the main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1B) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were comparatively studied on neuroblastoma Neuro-2a and on macrophage RAW 264.7 cell lines. NO accumulation was quantified by measuring nitrite levels in cellular supernatant using Griess reagent while the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at the mRNA level was quantified via Real-Time Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). P-CTX-1B caused a concentration- and time-dependent induction of iNOS in RAW 264.7 cells but not in Neuro-2a cells. NO production was evidenced by increased nitrite levels in the 10muM range after 48h of RAW 264.7 cells exposure to LPS and P-CTX-1B (0.05mug/ml and 6nM, respectively). The expression of iNOS mRNA peaked at 8h for LPS then gradually decreased to low level at 48h. In contrast, a sustained level was recorded with P-CTX-1B in the 8-48h time interval. The addition of N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a stereoselective NOS inhibitor, strongly diminished NO formation but had no effect on iNOS mRNA synthesis. The implication of NO in CFP paves the way for new therapies for both western and traditional medicines. %8 2008 %0 Journal Article %J Nitric Oxide %D 2008 %T Modulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages by Pacific ciguatoxin. %A Kumar-Roine, S %A Matsui, M %A Chinain, M %A Laurent, D %A Pauillac, S %P 21-28 %V 19 %X To investigate the possible involvement of the nitric oxide radical (NO) in ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), the in vitro effects of the main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1B) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were comparatively studied on neuroblastoma Neuro-2a and on macrophage RAW 264.7 cell lines. NO accumulation was quantified by measuring nitrite levels in cellular supernatant using Griess reagent while the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at the mRNA level was quantified via Real-Time Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). P-CTX-1B caused a concentration- and time-dependent induction of iNOS in RAW 264.7 cells but not in Neuro-2a cells. NO production was evidenced by increased nitrite levels in the 10muM range after 48h of RAW 264.7 cells exposure to LPS and P-CTX-1B (0.05mug/ml and 6nM, respectively). The expression of iNOS mRNA peaked at 8h for LPS then gradually decreased to low level at 48h. In contrast, a sustained level was recorded with P-CTX-1B in the 8-48h time interval. The addition of N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a stereoselective NOS inhibitor, strongly diminished NO formation but had no effect on iNOS mRNA synthesis. The implication of NO in CFP paves the way for new therapies for both western and traditional medicines. %8 2008 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 2008 %T Severe seafood poisoning in French Polynesia : A retrospective analysis of 129 medical files. %A Gatti, C %A Oehler, E %A Legrand, A-M %P 746-753 %V 51 %X We present a retrospective study of 129 medical files concerning seafood poisonings (SFPs) registered at the central hospital of Tahiti (French Polynesia) between 1999 and 2005. Even if during that period most of the described cases (96%) concerned the ichtyosarcotoxism ciguatera, it is interesting to note that we also registered three other SFPs: tetrodotoxism, carchatoxism and lyngbyatoxism due to the consumption of tetraodon/diodon species, sharks or sea turtles, respectively. In ciguatera, cardiovascular symptoms were the primary criteria of severity with bradycardia and hypotension observed at 75% and 43%, respectively. Neurological manifestations (such as cerebellar syndrome, language troubles, diplopia or polyradiculoneuritis), trouble and/or loss of consciousness and dyspnoea were secondary criteria of severity. Body temperature was reported under 36.5 degrees C in 48 of 80 documented files. This observation, which has not previously been described in humans, may be related to possible central effects of the ingested toxin. The last remark concerns two extremely severe cases of ciguatera fish poisoning in which physicians had suspected an inflammatory neuropathy called the Guillain-Barr %8 2008 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 2008 %T Severe seafood poisoning in French Polynesia : A retrospective analysis of 129 medical files. %A Gatti, C %A Oehler, E %A Legrand, A-M %P 746-753 %V 51 %X We present a retrospective study of 129 medical files concerning seafood poisonings (SFPs) registered at the central hospital of Tahiti (French Polynesia) between 1999 and 2005. Even if during that period most of the described cases (96%) concerned the ichtyosarcotoxism ciguatera, it is interesting to note that we also registered three other SFPs: tetrodotoxism, carchatoxism and lyngbyatoxism due to the consumption of tetraodon/diodon species, sharks or sea turtles, respectively. In ciguatera, cardiovascular symptoms were the primary criteria of severity with bradycardia and hypotension observed at 75% and 43%, respectively. Neurological manifestations (such as cerebellar syndrome, language troubles, diplopia or polyradiculoneuritis), trouble and/or loss of consciousness and dyspnoea were secondary criteria of severity. Body temperature was reported under 36.5 degrees C in 48 of 80 documented files. This observation, which has not previously been described in humans, may be related to possible central effects of the ingested toxin. The last remark concerns two extremely severe cases of ciguatera fish poisoning in which physicians had suspected an inflammatory neuropathy called the Guillain-Barr %8 2008 %0 Journal Article %J BMC Plant Biology %D 2008 %T Transcriptional profiling of Medicago truncatula meristematic root cells. %A P., Holmes %A Goffard, N %A Weiller, G %A Rolfe, B %A Imin, N %P 21 %V 8 %X

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2229/8/21

 

%8 2008 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 2007 %T Ciguatera risk assessment in two toxic sites of French Polynesia using the receptor-binding assay. %A Darius, T %A Ponton, D %A Revel, T %A Cruchet, P %A Ung, A %A Tchou Fouc, M %A Chinain, M %N 5 %P 612-26 %V 50 %X Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is a tropical syndrome well known in remote archipelagos where the population is still dependent on fish resources. In order to assess the ciguatera risk in two islands of French Polynesia, Tubuai (Australes) and Nuku Hiva (Marquesas), a study was carried out on both Gambierdiscus populations as well as on various fish species using the receptor-binding assay (RBA) to detect and quantify ciguatoxins. Relationship between RBA data and size or weight of fish was evaluated, and when only few individuals for a particular species were available the trophic level was used to help comparisons between studied areas. According to epidemiological data, toxic versus safe areas were explored and compared in both islands. In Tubuai Island, Gambierdiscus cells were surprisingly absent in the north area, considered as a toxic area, but almost 94% of fishes were classified as RBA(+). In contrast, the south area, supposed to be safe, was evolving to be a risky area because of the presence of Gambierdiscus cells and 74% of fishes being RBA(+). In Nuku Hiva Island, Gambierdiscus cells were present in the toxic areas, Anaho, Taiohae and Taipivei, with two toxic blooms in Anaho Bay, but none in Terre Deserte, the fishing area of this island. With RBA data, fishes were analyzed to be RBA(+) at a high percentage in Anaho and Taiohae, higher than in Taipivei and Terre Deserte areas. In general, our findings were congruent with epidemiological data and the knowledge of local people only for risky fish species. %8 2007 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 2007 %T Ciguatera risk assessment in two toxic sites of French Polynesia using the receptor-binding assay. %A Darius, T %A Ponton, D %A Revel, T %A Cruchet, P %A Ung, A %A Tchou Fouc, M %A Chinain, M %N 5 %P 612-26 %V 50 %X Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is a tropical syndrome well known in remote archipelagos where the population is still dependent on fish resources. In order to assess the ciguatera risk in two islands of French Polynesia, Tubuai (Australes) and Nuku Hiva (Marquesas), a study was carried out on both Gambierdiscus populations as well as on various fish species using the receptor-binding assay (RBA) to detect and quantify ciguatoxins. Relationship between RBA data and size or weight of fish was evaluated, and when only few individuals for a particular species were available the trophic level was used to help comparisons between studied areas. According to epidemiological data, toxic versus safe areas were explored and compared in both islands. In Tubuai Island, Gambierdiscus cells were surprisingly absent in the north area, considered as a toxic area, but almost 94% of fishes were classified as RBA(+). In contrast, the south area, supposed to be safe, was evolving to be a risky area because of the presence of Gambierdiscus cells and 74% of fishes being RBA(+). In Nuku Hiva Island, Gambierdiscus cells were present in the toxic areas, Anaho, Taiohae and Taipivei, with two toxic blooms in Anaho Bay, but none in Terre D %8 2007 %0 Journal Article %J Microbes and infection %D 2007 %T Dengue-3 virus genomic differences that correlate with in vitro phenotype on a human cell line but not with disease severity. %A Roche, C %A Cassar, O %A Laille, M %A Murgue, B %P 63-69 %V 9 %X We compared the full genome sequence of nine clinical isolates of dengue virus obtained during an epidemic of dengue-3 in French Polynesia in 1989, from patients with various presentations of disease. The isolates, all belonging to Genotype I, had 25 amino acid substitutions. There was no association with disease severity. When cultured in the K562 human erythroleukemia cell line, the isolates induced a range of cell growth inhibitions that was not associated with the degree of disease severity. By contrast, some substitutions - charge changes in NS1 ans NS5, side-chain differences in NS1, loss of the E-153 potential glycosylation site, and 11 nucleotide insertions in the 3'UTR - that have been suggested to result in an increase or attenuation of dengue infection, appeared to be associated with the level of inhibition. These data represent the first documented study of an association between differences in the full dengue-3 genome of clinical isolates and the in vitro phenotype of these isolates on a human cell line. %8 2007 %0 Journal Article %J Microbes and infection %D 2007 %T Dengue-3 virus genomic differences that correlate with in vitro phenotype on a human cell line but not with disease severity. %A Roche, C %A Cassar, O %A Laille, M %A Murgue, B %P 63-69 %V 9 %X We compared the full genome sequence of nine clinical isolates of dengue virus obtained during an epidemic of dengue-3 in French Polynesia in 1989, from patients with various presentations of disease. The isolates, all belonging to Genotype I, had 25 amino acid substitutions. There was no association with disease severity. When cultured in the K562 human erythroleukemia cell line, the isolates induced a range of cell growth inhibitions that was not associated with the degree of disease severity. By contrast, some substitutions - charge changes in NS1 ans NS5, side-chain differences in NS1, loss of the E-153 potential glycosylation site, and 11 nucleotide insertions in the 3'UTR - that have been suggested to result in an increase or attenuation of dengue infection, appeared to be associated with the level of inhibition. These data represent the first documented study of an association between differences in the full dengue-3 genome of clinical isolates and the in vitro phenotype of these isolates on a human cell line. %8 2007 %0 Journal Article %J Phytochem Analysis %D 2007 %T Ecdysteroids from the medicinal fern Microsorum scolopendria (Burm.f.). %A Snogan, E %A Lechat-Vahirua, I %A Ho, R %A Bertho, G %A Girault, J P %A Ortiga, S %A Maria, A %A Lafont, R %P 441-50 %V 18 %X Fronds of the fern Microsorum scolopendria are widely used in traditional medicine in the Society Islands. They were investigated for the presence of ecdysteroids, which might be responsible for at least some of their medicinal properties. M. scolopendria represents an excellent source of ecdysone (0.16% of dry weight) and 20-hydroxyexdysone (0.20%), and also contains significant amount (0.01-0.02%) of makisterones A and C, inokosterone and amarasterone A, together with lower amounts of poststerone and of a compound tentatively identified as 24,28-diepi-cyasterone. During this study, three new minor phytoecdysteroids, namely 20-deoxymakisterone A, a 25(?)-epimer of amarasterone A and 25-deoxyecdysone 22-glucoside were also isolated by a combination of normal- and reversed-phase HPLC and subsequently identified by NMR. %8 2007 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 2007 %T Human leptospirosis in French Polynesia. Epidemiological, clinical and bacteriological features. %A Coudert, C %A Beau, F %A Berlioz-Arthaud, A %A Melix, G %A Devaud, F %A Boyeau, E %A Jaomeau, C %A Lablee, P %A Jarno, P %P 137-44 %V 67 %X

De pronostic sévère, la leptospirose est une maladie réellement préoccupante pour la santé des populations insulaires de Polynésie. Les difficultés diagnostiques liées au polymorphisme clinique et aux risques de confusion avec la dengue, maladie virale endémique, rendent les examens biologiques incontournables pour confirmer une leptospirose. Une étude prospective conduite à l'initiative du Réseau Océanien de Surveillance de la Santé Publique, a été menée sur les populations de Raiatea, aux Iles-sous-le-Vent, et des îles Marquises, avec pour objectif de préciser les caractéristiques épidémiologiques de la maladie et de mieux définir les mesures prophylactiques à mettre en oeuvre. Au total, 113 patients ont été inclus dans l'étude entre mars 2004 et mars 2005. 33 cas ont été confirmés par une présence d'ADN sérique ou une séro-conversion, soit une incidence annuelle de 1,7 pour 1000 habitants. Ces cas concernent en général des hommes (pour 3 cas sur 4), d'âge jeune (30,5 and de moyenne) et se répartissent sur l'année avec une prédominance pendant la saison des pluies. Seule la baignade en eau douce est apparue comme liée significativement (p<0,02) avec le diagnostic positif de leptospirose. Si le sérogroupe Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae est le plus fréquemment isolé (43% des souches), signe de la place prépondérante du rat dans la transmission à l'homme de nombreux autres sérovars ont été retrouvés, confirmant la multiplicité des réservoirs et remettant en question l'efficacité d'une vaccination par un vaccin monovalent. En corollaire, les mesures de prévention et de lutte contre cette zoonose devraient être renforcées.

 

Leptospirosis is a severe zoonotic disease that constitutes a major public health problem for the island population of French Polynesai. Due to protean clinical manifestations and the risk of misdiagnosis with dengue fever, endemic viral disease, laboratory studies are necessary to confirm diagnosis of leptospirosis. At the request of the Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network, a prospective study was conducted in the population of Raiatea in the Windward Islands and the Marquis Islands to determine the epidemiological features of the disease and to define appropriate control measures. A total of 113 patients were enrolled in study between March 2004 and March 2005. Thirty-three cases were confirmed based on demonstration of serum DNA or seroconversion. The estimated annual incidence of leptospirosis was 1.7 per 1000 inhabitants. Cases involved mainly (75%) young men (mean age, 30.5 years) and occured predominantly during the rainy season. Swimming in fresh water was the only factor showing significant correlation (p<0.02) with positive diagnosis of leptospirosis. The most frequently identified serotype was Leptospira icterohemorrahgiae (43% of strains), thus suggesting that the rat was the most common human transmission vector. However other serotypes were found, underlining the presence of diverse reservoirs and casting doublt on the efficacy of immunization using a monovalent vaccine. These findings also indicate that enhancement of prevention and control measures for leptospirosis is needed.

%8 2007 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 2007 %T Human leptospirosis in French Polynesia. Epidemiological, clinical and bacteriological features. %A Coudert, C %A Beau, F %A Berlioz-Arthaud, A %A M %N 137-44 %V 67 %X De pronostic s %8 2007 %0 Book Section %B In : Toxines émergentes : nouveaux risques, Lavoisier, pp 159-160 %D 2007 %T Interet de l'exploration des sequelles chroniques associees aux intoxications de type ciguatera. %A Gatti, C %A Legrand, A-M %X

Seafood poisonings, especially ciguatera-like intoxications, are commonly encountered in French Polynesia where fish is an important source of proteins. Even if symptoms of the acute phase of this ichtyosarcotoxism are well known, chronic signs, which can persists during months or years, are often misunderstood. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms involved in chronic manifestations, essentially neurological, consecutively to ciguatera-like intoxication. Based on data observed in Guillain-Barré syndrome or other peripheral neuropathies developed consecutively to mold toxins and mycotoxins intoxications, we hypothesize that auto-antibodies directed against gangliosides newly exposed to immune system, consecutively to nerve damages caused by marine biotoxins, could be responsible for activation and maintenance of chronic neurological manifestations involved in a number of ciguatera-like intoxications.

%8 2007 %0 Book Section %B In : Toxines %D 2007 %T Int %A Gatti, C %A Legrand, A-M %X Seafood poisonings, especially ciguatera-like intoxications, are commonly encountered in French Polynesia where fish is an important source of proteins. Even if symptoms of the acute phase of this ichtyosarcotoxism are well known, chronic signs, which can persists during months or years, are often misunderstood. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms involved in chronic manifestations, essentially neurological, consecutively to ciguatera-like intoxication. Based on data observed in Guillain-Barr %8 2007 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 2007 %T Multicentre survey of incidence and public health impact of leptospirosis in the Western Pacific %A Berlioz-Arthaud, A %A Kiedrzynski, T %A Singh, N %A Yvon, J F %A Roualen, G %A Coudert, C %A Uluiviti, V %P 714-21 %V 101 %X The objectives of the study were to describe the mode of circulation (endemic or epidemic) of human leptospirosis in various Pacific island states and territories by identifying predominant Leptospira serogroups and the most probable routes of human exposure, and to recommend a feasible laboratory strategy for leptospirosis in the Pacific. From September 2003 to December 2005, 263 leptospirosis suspect patients were recruited by public practitioners on 11 Pacific islands, using the WHO case definition. Diagnosis was confirmed using a threelevel serology algorithm and a regional laboratory network. Sixty-nine leptospirosis cases were identified from seven islands: Futuna, Raiatea and the Marquesas Islands where outbreaks were apparent, and Vanuatu, Fiji, Palau and Wallis where sporadic cases indicated at least the presence of the disease. Most patients were men aged 17 %8 2007 %0 Journal Article %J Am J Trop Med Hyg %D 2007 %T Neurologic signs of ciguatera disease : evidence of their persistence. %A Chateau-Degat, M L %A Beuter, A %A Vauterin, G %A Nguyen, N L %A Chinain, M %A Darius, T %A Legrand, A-M %A Chansin, R %A Dewailly, E %N 6 %P 1170-1175 %V 77 %X Ciguatoxins exert their effect on the voltage-sensitive sodium channel of the cellular membranes of all excitable tissues. This effect confers to ciguatera disease (CD) its neurologic hallmarks. A prospective study among French Polynesian adults over a two-month period was conducted to characterize and determine the persistence of neurologic symptoms of CD. We compared 47 patients with CD with 125 controls. In the acute phase of the disease, patients had mainly sensory disturbances as detected by an hypoesthesia on the palm of the hand and poorer sway performance compared with controls. Follow-up two months showed improvement of sway performance that eventually reaching control levels. However, for light-touch threshold, even if we observed a decrease threshold towards normal values, more than 50% of patients did not reach normal values 60 days after disease onset. Our results support the existence of neurologic impairments of CD and suggest their persistence for at least two months after onset. %8 2007 %0 Journal Article %J Am J Trop Med Hyg %D 2007 %T Neurologic signs of ciguatera disease : evidence of their persistence. %A Chateau-Degat, M L %A Beuter, A %A Vauterin, G %A Nguyen, N L %A Chinain, M %A Darius, T %A Legrand, A-M %A Chansin, R %A Dewailly, E %N 6 %P 1170-1175 %V 77 %X Ciguatoxins exert their effect on the voltage-sensitive sodium channel of the cellular membranes of all excitable tissues. This effect confers to ciguatera disease (CD) its neurologic hallmarks. A prospective study among French Polynesian adults over a two-month period was conducted to characterize and determine the persistence of neurologic symptoms of CD. We compared 47 patients with CD with 125 controls. In the acute phase of the disease, patients had mainly sensory disturbances as detected by an hypoesthesia on the palm of the hand and poorer sway performance compared with controls. Follow-up two months showed improvement of sway performance that eventually reaching control levels. However, for light-touch threshold, even if we observed a decrease threshold towards normal values, more than 50% of patients did not reach normal values 60 days after disease onset. Our results support the existence of neurologic impairments of CD and suggest their persistence for at least two months after onset. %8 2007 %0 Journal Article %J Am J Trop Med Hyg %D 2007 %T Prevalence of chronic symptoms of ciguatera disease in French Polynesian adults. %A Chateau-Degat, M L %A Huin-Blondey, M O %A Chinain, M %A Darius, T %A Legrand, A-M %A Nguyen, N L %A Laudon, F %A Chansin, R %A Dewailly, E %N 5 %P 842-846 %V 77 %X Ciguatera is a tropical disease caused by seafood poisoning, for which the duration of symptoms remains to be determined. The objectives of this prospective study were to determine the prevalence of symptoms at different time points and to identify factors associated with chronic symptoms observed in adults suffering from this disease. At the time of onset, we observed a dose-response relationship including a strong association between the delay of appearance of symptoms and a severity index (P <0.001). Our results confirmed the key role of fish organs in the risk of contracting a more severe form of ciguatera. In the chronic stage, only the severity score based on information recorded in the acute phase is related to the persistence of symptoms (P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that several symptoms observed in the acute phase of the disease are still experienced 15 days after onset. This supports previous observations based on isolated case reports. %8 2007 %0 Journal Article %J Am J Trop Med Hyg %D 2007 %T Prevalence of chronic symptoms of ciguatera disease in French Polynesian adults. %A Chateau-Degat, M L %A Huin-Blondey, M O %A Chinain, M %A Darius, T %A Legrand, A-M %A Nguyen, N L %A Laudon, F %A Chansin, R %A Dewailly, E %N 5 %P 842-846 %V 77 %X Ciguatera is a tropical disease caused by seafood poisoning, for which the duration of symptoms remains to be determined. The objectives of this prospective study were to determine the prevalence of symptoms at different time points and to identify factors associated with chronic symptoms observed in adults suffering from this disease. At the time of onset, we observed a dose-response relationship including a strong association between the delay of appearance of symptoms and a severity index (P <0.001). Our results confirmed the key role of fish organs in the risk of contracting a more severe form of ciguatera. In the chronic stage, only the severity score based on information recorded in the acute phase is related to the persistence of symptoms (P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that several symptoms observed in the acute phase of the disease are still experienced 15 days after onset. This supports previous observations based on isolated case reports. %8 2007 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Int Health %D 2007 %T Temporal trends and epidemiological aspects of ciguatera in French Polynesia: a 10-year analysis. %A Chateau-Degat, M L %A Dewailly, E %A Cerf, N %A Nguyen, N L %A Huin-Blondey, M O %A Hubert, B %A Laudon, F %A Chansin, R %N 4 %P 485-492 %V 12 %X The purpose of this study was to report the temporal trends of the incidence of ciguatera poisoning from 1992 to 2001 in French Polynesia. METHODS: This retrospective study analysed 7842 cases of ciguatera disease recorded over a period of 10 years. RESULTS: The annual incidence varied from 26.3 to 41.9 per 10,000 person-years. An analysis of cases grouped by archipelago revealed differences in incidences (P < 0.0001) with the most remote archipelagos having the highest incidences. A detailed analysis on a sub-sample of recorded cases for which clinical information was available (n = 1824) confirmed the neurological and gastrointestinal nature of this seafood poisoning. CONCLUSION: The incidence of ciguatera poisoning appeared relatively stable during the 10 years of the study period. However, the gradient of remoteness observed suggests an adaptation of management of ciguatera disease to each archipelago. %8 2007 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Int Health %D 2007 %T Temporal trends and epidemiological aspects of ciguatera in French Polynesia: a 10-year analysis. %A Chateau-Degat, M L %A Dewailly, E %A Cerf, N %A Nguyen, N L %A Huin-Blondey, M O %A Hubert, B %A Laudon, F %A Chansin, R %N 4 %P 485-492 %V 12 %X The purpose of this study was to report the temporal trends of the incidence of ciguatera poisoning from 1992 to 2001 in French Polynesia. METHODS: This retrospective study analysed 7842 cases of ciguatera disease recorded over a period of 10 years. RESULTS: The annual incidence varied from 26.3 to 41.9 per 10,000 person-years. An analysis of cases grouped by archipelago revealed differences in incidences (P < 0.0001) with the most remote archipelagos having the highest incidences. A detailed analysis on a sub-sample of recorded cases for which clinical information was available (n = 1824) confirmed the neurological and gastrointestinal nature of this seafood poisoning. CONCLUSION: The incidence of ciguatera poisoning appeared relatively stable during the 10 years of the study period. However, the gradient of remoteness observed suggests an adaptation of management of ciguatera disease to each archipelago. %8 2007 %0 Journal Article %J Parasite %D 2006 %T Circulating fibrosis markers, eosinophil cationic protein and eosinophil protein X in patients with Wuchereria bancrofti infection : association with clinical status. %A Esterre, P %A Plichart, C %A Huin-Blondey, M-O %A Nguyen, N L %A Hartman, D %A Guerret, S %A Reimert, C M %A Ricard-Blum, S %P 165-170 %V 13 %X We measured the concentrations of several circulating fibrosis markers (type I collagen I, type III procollagen, hyaluronan) and eosinophil granule proteins (ECP and EPX) in lymphatic filariosis patients to investigate their relationship with clinical, parasitological and immunological data. This study was conducted in Polynesian patients with various stages of the disease (acute lymphangitis, chyluria, hydrocoele, elephantiasis), a closely related microbial lymphangitis and endemic controls. We observed modifications of the different markers in this pathology. Serum type I collagen and PIIINP were decreased. Serum hyaluronan, linked to perilymphatic granulomatous inflammation, was significantly increased in acute lymphangitis and elephantiasis patients. Serum ECP was also increased, at the limit of significance in our sample, in elephantiasis patients. These two last markers, already validated in another helminth disease, schistosomiasis, have potential interest in terms of follow-up of morbidity in these parasitic diseases.Les dosages d'un certain nombre de marqueurs circulants de fibrose (collagene I, procollagene III, hyaluronane), deja valides sur plusieurs fibroses d'origine parasitaire, et de proteines des granules de l'eosinophile (proteines ECP et EPX), impliquees dans l'immunite anti-larves, ont ete realises chez des patients polynesiens presentant differents stades de filariose lymphatique (adenolymphangite aigue, chylurie, hydrocele, elephantiasis). Ces resultats ont ete compares avec ceux observes dans une lymphangite microbienne cliniquement tres proche (erysipele) et des contr %8 2006 %0 Journal Article %J Filaria J %D 2006 %T PCR and dissection as tools to monitor filarial infection of Aedes polynesiensis mosquitoes in French Polynesia. %A Plichart, C %A Laney, S %A Sechan, Y %A Davies, N %A Legrand, A M %P 2 %V 5 %X BACKGROUND: Entomological methods may provide important tools for monitoring the transmission of filariasis in French Polynesia. In order to standardize our PCR method and refine our protocol to assess filarial infection levels in mosquitoes, we compared dissection of the vector, Aedes polynesiensis, with the poolscreening polymerase chain reaction (PS-PCR) assay. METHODS: (1) Mosquitoes were collected in human landing catches in five areas in Moorea island, French Polynesia. (2) A fraction of the captured mosquitoes was dissected for Wuchereria bancrofti larvae. (3) Laboratory-reared mosquitoes (uninfected as well as experimentally infected ones) were repeatedly tested to optimize a PS-PCR protocol (DNA extracts from 1-50 pooled mosquitoes were tested with an internal standardized system and primers specific for the Ssp1 repeat sequence. PCR products were analysed by gel electrophoresis). (4) Another fraction of the captured mosquitoes was assayed by PS-PCR according the optimized protocol. RESULTS: The prevalence of field-mosquito infection with W. bancrofti ranged from 1 to 8 % by dissection (L1-L3) and point estimates of infection prevalence, as assayed by PS-PCR, ranged from 0.4 to 3.7 %. There was a moderately strong correlation between larval infection rates as determined by dissection and PCR. DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that the PS-PCR assay is specific and highly sensitive for detecting parasite DNA. We obtained similar although not identical results with dissections of mosquitoes. PS-PCR appears to be adequate for testing large numbers of mosquitoes in the context of filariasis elimination programs. The role and advantages of using entomologic methods to monitor filariasis programs are discussed. %8 2006 %0 Journal Article %J Appl Environ Microbiol %D 2006 %T Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato and Anaplasmataceae members in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Alsace, a focus of Lyme Borreliosis endemicity in France. %A Ferquel, E %A Garnier, M %A Marie, J %A Bern %N 4 %P 3074-3078 %V 72 %X Due to the high Lyme borreliosis incidence in Alsace, in northeastern France, we investigated in 2003-2004 three cantons in this region in order to determine the density of Ixodes ricinus ticks infected by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasmataceae. The peak density of nymphs infected by B. burgdorferi sensu lato at Munster and Guebwiller, where the disease incidence was high, was among the highest reported in Europe (105 and 114 per 100 m(2), respectively). In contrast, the peak density of infected nymphs was low in the canton of Dannemarie (5/100 m(2)), where the disease incidence was low. The two main species detected in ticks were Borrelia afzelii, more frequent in nymphs, and Borrelia garinii, more frequent in adult ticks. The rates of tick infection by Anaplasma phagocytophilum were 0.4% and 1.2% in nymphs and adults, respectively. %8 2006 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 2005 %T Biomonitoring of ciguatoxin exposure in mice using blood collection cards %A Bottein Dechraoui, M Y %A Wang, Z %A Turquet, J %A Chinain, M %A Darius, T %A Cruchet, P %A Radwan, F F %A Dickey, R W %A Ramsdell, J S %N 3 %P 243-51 %V 46 %X Ciguatera is a human food poisoning caused by consumption of tropical and subtropical fish that have, through their diet, accumulated ciguatoxins in their tissues. This study used laboratory mice to investigate the potential to apply blood collection cards to biomonitor ciguatoxin exposure. Quantitation by the neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay of Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) spiked into mice blood was made with good precision and recovery. The blood collected from mice exposed to a sublethal dose of Caribbean ciguatoxic extract (0.59 ng/g C-CTX-1 equivalents) was analyzed and found to contain detectable toxin levels at least 12 h post-exposure. Calculated concentration varied from 0.25 ng/ml at 30 min post-exposure to 0.12 ng/ml at 12 h. A dose response mice exposure revealed a linear dose-dependent increase of ciguatoxin activity in mice blood, with more polar ciguatoxin congeners contributing to 89% of the total toxicity. Finally, the toxin measurement in mice blood exposed to toxic extracts from the Indian Ocean or from the Pacific Ocean showed that the blood collection card method could be extended to each of the three known ciguatoxin families (C-CTX, I-CTX and P-CTX). The low matrix effect of extracted dried-blood samples (used at 1:10 or 1:20 dilution) and the high sensitivity of the neuroblastoma assay (limit of detection 0.006 ng/ml C-CTX-1), determined that the blood collection card method is suitable to monitor ciguatoxin at sublethal doses in mice and opens the potential to be a useful procedure for fish screening, environmental risk assessment or clinical diagnosis of ciguatera fish poisoning in humans or marine mammals. %8 2005 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 2005 %T Biomonitoring of ciguatoxin exposure in mice using blood collection cards %A Bottein Dechraoui, M Y %A Wang, Z %A Turquet, J %A Chinain, M %A Darius, T %A Cruchet, P %A Radwan, F F %A Dickey, R W %A Ramsdell, J S %N 3 %P 243-51 %V 46 %X Ciguatera is a human food poisoning caused by consumption of tropical and subtropical fish that have, through their diet, accumulated ciguatoxins in their tissues. This study used laboratory mice to investigate the potential to apply blood collection cards to biomonitor ciguatoxin exposure. Quantitation by the neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay of Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) spiked into mice blood was made with good precision and recovery. The blood collected from mice exposed to a sublethal dose of Caribbean ciguatoxic extract (0.59 ng/g C-CTX-1 equivalents) was analyzed and found to contain detectable toxin levels at least 12 h post-exposure. Calculated concentration varied from 0.25 ng/ml at 30 min post-exposure to 0.12 ng/ml at 12 h. A dose response mice exposure revealed a linear dose-dependent increase of ciguatoxin activity in mice blood, with more polar ciguatoxin congeners contributing to 89% of the total toxicity. Finally, the toxin measurement in mice blood exposed to toxic extracts from the Indian Ocean or from the Pacific Ocean showed that the blood collection card method could be extended to each of the three known ciguatoxin families (C-CTX, I-CTX and P-CTX). The low matrix effect of extracted dried-blood samples (used at 1:10 or 1:20 dilution) and the high sensitivity of the neuroblastoma assay (limit of detection 0.006 ng/ml C-CTX-1), determined that the blood collection card method is suitable to monitor ciguatoxin at sublethal doses in mice and opens the potential to be a useful procedure for fish screening, environmental risk assessment or clinical diagnosis of ciguatera fish poisoning in humans or marine mammals. %8 2005 %0 Journal Article %J Am J Trop Med Hyg %D 2005 %T Detection and characterization of Wolbachia infections in Wuchereria bancrofti (spirurida: onchocercidae) var. Pacifica and Aedes (stegomyia) polynesiensis (Diptera: culicidae). %A Plichart, C %A Legrand, A M %N 2 %P 354-358 %V 73 %X Despite control programs based on mass drug administration (MDA) of microfilaricidal compounds, Bancroftian lymphatic filariasis remains a problem in French Polynesia. For an alternative strategy to MDA, we investigated the potential role of Wolbachia to control filarial transmission. Wolbachia are intracellular alpha-proteobacteria endosymbionts that infect a broad range of insects and nematodes. These bacteria have a suspected role in the pathogenesis of filariasis. They also may be useful in mosquito control through cytoplasmic incompatibility. To detect and characterize these bacteria in the filarial and mosquito-vectors in French Polynesia, a survey was conducted on field-collected mosquitoes and microfilariae from infected people. Samples were analyzed by a polymerase chain reaction and gene sequencing. The results indicate that these bacteria are widespread. Sequence analysis of the wsp and ftsZ genes positioned the Aedes polynesiensis Wolbachia in cluster A and Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica Wolbachia in cluster D. The implications for possible improved treatment and vector control are discussed. %8 2005 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 2005 %T Histoire de la lutte contre la filariose lymphatique en Polynesie francaise : lecons de 50 annees d'efforts. %A Esterre, P %A Vigneron, E %A Roux, J %N 1 %P 45-50 %V 98 %X Avec une prevalence moyenne de porteurs de microfilaires toujours superieure a 15% dans les quatre archipels du territoire, la Polynesie francaise etait severement touchee par la filariose due a Wuchereria bancrofti dans les annees 50. Soutenue par un dynamique mecenat americain, une vaste campagne de masse anti-filarienne basee sur la chimiotherapie par la diethylcarbamazine (DEC) fut lancee et permit de demontrer l'interet des doses espacees (une dose annuelle de DEC). Progressivement applique a l'ensemble de la population polynesienne depuis 1974, ce programme tres novateur a engendre l'espoir d'une possible eradication de cette parasitose. Parallelement, les progres au laboratoire en immunologie (avec notamment la mise au point de tests rapides de diagnostic par antigenemie), puis en biologie moleculaire (dont la principale application concerne le suivi du taux d'infection des vecteurs Aedes polynesiensis) ont remis en cause ce concept optimiste (cas de l' %8 2005 %0 Journal Article %J Harmful algae %D 2005 %T Seawater temperature,Gambierdiscus spp. variability and incidence of ciguatera poisoning in French Polynesia. %A Chateau-Degat, M L %A Chinain, M %A Cerf, N %A Gingras, S %A Hubert, B %A Dewailly, E %P 1053-1062 %V 4 %X In the context of global warming and climate change, ciguatera disease is put forward as an indicator of environmental disturbance. However, to validate this indicator, some unknown parameters such as the delay between environmental perturbation and outbreaks of ciguatera need to be investigated. The main goal of this study was to investigate the temporal link between the growth of Gambierdiscus spp., and one of its influencing factors and the declared cases of ciguatera disease in humans. Algal cell density and seawater temperature (SWT) were recorded monthly from February 1993 to December 2001 on the Atimaono barrier reef of Tahiti Island. Reports of ciguatera cases were obtained from three community health clinics near the study sites. The autoregressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA) shows : (1) SWT were positively associated with Gambierdiscus spp. growth at a lagtime of 13 and 17 months (p<0.001); (2) Gambierdiscus spp. growth measured at a given time is related to a peak number of cases of ciguatera recorded 3 months after peak densities of this dinoflagellate (p<0.001). These results allow the construction of a predictive model of the temporal link between disease in humans and its etiologic agent : Gambierdiscus spp. This model constructed by using 1993-1999 data, then validated by 2000-2001 data, demonstrates an appreciable ability to predict changes in the incidence of ciguatera disease following algae blooms. %8 2005 %0 Journal Article %J Parasite Immunol %D 2005 %T Soluble cellular adhesion molecules, selectins, VEGF and endothelin-1 in patients with Wuchereria bancrofti infection and association with clinical status. %A Esterre, P %A Plichart, C %A Huin-Blondey, M-O %A Nguyen, N L %P 9-16 %V 27 %X Lymphatic filariasis, a mosquito-transmitted disease commonly known as Bancroftian filariasis, is characterized by debilitating pathology linked to the progression of lymphoedema to a chronic state of elephantiasis. We performed longitudinal measurements of endothelial adhesion and angiogenic molecules in 63 Polynesian patients living in an hyperendemic focus of Wuchereria bancrofti. Decreased serum concentrations of soluble (s-) L selectin (CD62L) were noticed in sera of of patients with chronic conditions (hydrocele and elephantiasis). Chyluria was associated with increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels, whereas elephantiasis presented a high endothelin-1 (ET-1) profile. By contrast, increased serum concentrations of soluble intercellular (sICAM-1, CD54), but not of vascular cell (sVCAM-1, CD106), adhesion molecules were observed in sera of patients with bacterial lymphangitis used as controls. These trends are consistent with the increased permeability of vascular structures, a major clinical feature observed in acute lymphatic pathology (of bacterial or filarial origin), and of fundamental differences in the pathogenesis of hydrocele and elephantiasis. Using markers correlated with the clinical status (high ET-1 and VEGF levels for elephantiasis and chyluria, respectively; low CD62L levels for hydrocoele and elephantiasis) it should be possible to monitor disease progression in lymphatic filariasis. %8 2005 %0 Journal Article %J Harmful algae %D 2005 %T Seawater temperature,Gambierdiscus spp. variability and incidence of ciguatera poisoning in French Polynesia. %A Chateau-Degat, M L %A Chinain, M %A Cerf, N %A Gingras, S %A Hubert, B %A Dewailly, E %P 1053-1062 %V 4 %X In the context of global warming and climate change, ciguatera disease is put forward as an indicator of environmental disturbance. However, to validate this indicator, some unknown parameters such as the delay between environmental perturbation and outbreaks of ciguatera need to be investigated. The main goal of this study was to investigate the temporal link between the growth of Gambierdiscus spp., and one of its influencing factors and the declared cases of ciguatera disease in humans. Algal cell density and seawater temperature (SWT) were recorded monthly from February 1993 to December 2001 on the Atimaono barrier reef of Tahiti Island. Reports of ciguatera cases were obtained from three community health clinics near the study sites. The autoregressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA) shows : (1) SWT were positively associated with Gambierdiscus spp. growth at a lagtime of 13 and 17 months (p<0.001); (2) Gambierdiscus spp. growth measured at a given time is related to a peak number of cases of ciguatera recorded 3 months after peak densities of this dinoflagellate (p<0.001). These results allow the construction of a predictive model of the temporal link between disease in humans and its etiologic agent : Gambierdiscus spp. This model constructed by using 1993-1999 data, then validated by 2000-2001 data, demonstrates an appreciable ability to predict changes in the incidence of ciguatera disease following algae blooms. %8 2005 %0 Journal Article %J Am J Trop Med Hyg %D 2004 %T Comparison of dengue-1 virus envelope glycoprotein gene sequences from French Polynesia. %A Laille, M %A Roche, C %N 4 %P 478-484 %V 71 %X Dengue (DEN) is the leading arboviral infection of humans, with 100 million cases annually in the tropical areas of the world. The recent severe DEN-1 epidemic in French Polynesia in 2001, with an incidence rate of 16% and more than 45% of the cases with dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome among 1,400 hospitalized children and eight fatalities, led us to study this new circulating strain. The entire envelope (E) gene of two French Polynesian DEN-1 virus isolates from the two epidemics of 1988-1989 (FP89) and 2001 (FP01) were sequenced and compared with 29 published DEN-1 virus E gene sequences. Phylogenetic relationships showed that the FP89 strain belonged to genotype V and the FP01 strain to genotype IV based on studies on the same region of DEN-1 virus genome (1,485 nucleotides). The recent dengue epidemic in French Polynesia in 2001 was probably due to the introduction of a new DEN-1 virus from Southeast Asia, since the minimum nucleotide divergence was 3.3% with A88, the Indonesian strain isolated in 1988 in Jakarta. %8 2004 %0 Journal Article %J Am J Trop Med Hyg %D 2004 %T Comparison of dengue-1 virus envelope glycoprotein gene sequences from French Polynesia. %A Laille, M %A Roche, C %N 4 %P 478-484 %V 71 %X Dengue (DEN) is the leading arboviral infection of humans, with 100 million cases annually in the tropical areas of the world. The recent severe DEN-1 epidemic in French Polynesia in 2001, with an incidence rate of 16% and more than 45% of the cases with dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome among 1,400 hospitalized children and eight fatalities, led us to study this new circulating strain. The entire envelope (E) gene of two French Polynesian DEN-1 virus isolates from the two epidemics of 1988-1989 (FP89) and 2001 (FP01) were sequenced and compared with 29 published DEN-1 virus E gene sequences. Phylogenetic relationships showed that the FP89 strain belonged to genotype V and the FP01 strain to genotype IV based on studies on the same region of DEN-1 virus genome (1,485 nucleotides). The recent dengue epidemic in French Polynesia in 2001 was probably due to the introduction of a new DEN-1 virus from Southeast Asia, since the minimum nucleotide divergence was 3.3% with A88, the Indonesian strain isolated in 1988 in Jakarta. %8 2004 %0 Journal Article %J Medecines et maladies infectieuses %D 2004 %T Pathogenese de la dengue : l'empereur est toujours nu! %A Murgue, B %A Cassar, O %A Roche, Deparis %N 1 %P 31-33 %V 34 %8 2004 %0 Journal Article %J M %D 2004 %T Pathogen %A Murgue, B %A Cassar, O %A Roche, Deparis %N 1 %P 31-33 %V 34 %8 2004 %0 Journal Article %J Ann Trop Med Parasitol %D 2002 %T Control of the Aedes vectors of the dengue viruses and Wuchereria bancrofti: the French Polynesian experience %A Lardeux, F %A Riviere, F %A Sechan, Loncke %N Sup 2 %P S105-S116 %V 96 %X In most of the 130 islands of French Polynesia, the stenotopic mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (the main local vector for the viruses causing dengue) and Aedes polynesiensis (the main local vector of Wuchereria bancrofti) share many breeding sites in water containers such as discarded cans, coconut shells, buckets and water-storage pots and drums. In addition to selective application of insecticides, non-polluting methods of controlling these mosquitoes have been evaluated during the last decade in two main ecological situations: (1) villages, where Aedes breeding sites are typically peridomestic; and (2) flooded burrows of land crabs, the major source of Ae. polynesiensis throughout the South Pacific region. Large-scale trials of biological control agents, such as mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis and Poecilia reticulata) and copepods (Mesocyclops aspericornis), and of integrated-control strategies have demonstrated the efficacy of certain techniques and control agents against the target Aedes populations in some village situations. Generally, mechanical methods (the use of layers of polystyrene beads against mosquito larvae and pupae, and screening against adult mosquitoes) were more efficient than use of the biological control agents. By integrating several methods of control, mosquito densities (as measured by human-bait collections and larval surveys) were reduced significantly compared with the results of concurrent sampling from untreated villages, and control remained effective for months after the interventions ceased. In land-crab burrows, the first attempts to control Aedes larvae used bacterial agents (Bacillus thuringiensis) and predatory copepods gave disappointing results. Mesocyclops aspericornis could be an effective control agent if the burrows were constantly flooded, but most burrows dry out and refill periodically, so copepod populations do not survive. As it proved difficult to reach all corners of the long sinuous burrows with any control agent, larvicidal (chlorpyrifos-methyl) baits were developed for foraging crabs to carry into their burrows. This novel technique proved to be effective and could become the method of choice for treating crab burrows. Further research is underway to find the optimum (biological or chemical) larvicidal ingredient for the crab bait. Despite the ecological and logistical challenges of controlling the Aedes vectors of the dengue viruses and W. bancrofti in so many scattered islands, the French Polynesian experience indicates that relatively simple methods can be integrated and applied effectively and economically. Operationally, however, success also depends on a strong political commitment and on at-risk communities that are sufficiently motivated to maintain a good level of Aedes control. %8 2002 %0 Journal Article %J Ann Trop Med Parasit %D 2002 %T Development and standardization of a rapid, PCR-based method for the detection of Wuchereria bancrofti in mosquitoes, for xenomonitoring the human prevalence of bancroftian filariasis. %A Williams, S A %A Laney, S %A Bierwert, L %A Saunders, L J %A Boakye, D A %A Fischer, P %A Goodman, D %A Helmy, H %A Hoti, S L %A Vasuki, V %A Lammie, P J %A Plichart, C %A Ramzy, R M %A Ottesen, E A %N sup 241-46 %V 96 %X PCR has recently been studied as a promising tool for monitoring the progress of efforts to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. PCR can be used to test concurrently at least 30 pools, with as many as 40 mosquitoes in each pool, for the presence of filarial larvae. The SspI PCR assay for the detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in pools of mosquitoes has been used since 1994 in a variety of laboratories worldwide. During that time, the original assay has been modified in these different laboratories and no standardized assay currently exists. In an effort to standardize and improve the assay, a meeting was held on 15-16 November 2001, at Emory University in Atlanta, with representatives from most of the laboratories currently using the assay. The first round of testing was designed to test the four most promising methods for DNA extraction from pools of mosquitoes. Two of the four methods stood out as clearly the best and these will be now optimised and evaluated in two further rounds of testing. %8 2002 %0 Journal Article %J Recent Res Devel Bioconj Chem %D 2002 %T Hapten-protein coupling reactions at the nanomolar level by using a reversed micellar medium. %A Pauillac, S %A Chinain, M %A Naar, J %P 151-172 %V 1 %X A rapid, simple and low cost procedure for preparing hapten-protein conjugates at the nanomolar level was developed using 4-acetyl benzoic acid (ABA), a small chromophoric hapten. This coupling procedure performed in a reversed micellar medium was successfully applied to various biologically relevant haptens with carboxyl or hydroxyl groups, these latter undergoing complete succinylation prior to reaction with the proteins. Following rabbit and mouse immunization with the corresponding conjugates, highly hapten-specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were produced, with apparent dissociation constant (KD) values in the range of 10-6-10-9 M. %8 2002 %0 Journal Article %J Recent Res Devel Bioconj Chem %D 2002 %T Hapten-protein coupling reactions at the nanomolar level by using a reversed micellar medium. %A Pauillac, S %A Chinain, M %A Naar, J %P 151-172 %V 1 %X A rapid, simple and low cost procedure for preparing hapten-protein conjugates at the nanomolar level was developed using 4-acetyl benzoic acid (ABA), a small chromophoric hapten. This coupling procedure performed in a reversed micellar medium was successfully applied to various biologically relevant haptens with carboxyl or hydroxyl groups, these latter undergoing complete succinylation prior to reaction with the proteins. Following rabbit and mouse immunization with the corresponding conjugates, highly hapten-specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were produced, with apparent dissociation constant (KD) values in the range of 10-6-10-9 M. %8 2002 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Entomol %D 2002 %T Integrated control of peridomestic larval habitats of Aedes and Culex mosquitoes (Diptera : Culicidae) in atoll villages of French Polynesia. %A Lardeux, F %A Sechan, Y %A Loncke, S %A Deparis, X %A Cheffort, J %A Faaruia, M %N 3 %P 493-498 %V 39 %X An integrated larval mosquito control program was carried out in Tiputa village on Rangiroa atoll of French Polynesia. Mosquito abundance before and after treatment was compared with the abundance in an untreated village. Mosquito larval habitats consisted of large concrete or polyurethane cisterns, wells, and 200-liter drums. Depending on the target species, larval habitat category, its configuration, and purpose (drinking consumption or not), abatement methods consisted of sealing the larval habitats with mosquito gauze, treating them with 1% Temephos, covering the water with a 10-cm thick layer of polystyrene beads or introducing fish (Poecillia reticulata Rosen & Bailey).All premises of the chosen village were treated and a health education program explained basic mosquito ecology and the methods of control. A community health agent was trained to continue the control program at the end of the experiment. Entomological indices from human bait collections and larval surveys indicated that mosquito populations were reduced significantly, compared with concurrent samples from the untreated control village, and that mosquito control remained effective for 6 mo after treatment. Effects of the treatment were noticed by the inhabitants in terms of a reduction in the number of mosquito bites. In the polynesian context, such control programs may succeed in the long-term only if strong political decisions are taken at the village level, if a community member is designated as being responsible for maintaining the program, and if the inhabitants are motivated sufficiently by the mosquito nuisance to intervene. %8 2002 %0 Journal Article %J J Food Protect %D 2002 %T Multicenter study of street foods in 13 towns on four continents by the food environmental hygiene study group of the international network of Pasteur and associated institutes. %A Garin, B %A Aidara, A %A Spiegel, A %A Arrive, P %A Bastaraud, A %A Cartel, J-L %A Ben Aissa, R %A Duval, P %A Gay, M %A Gherardi, C %A Gouali, M %A Karou, T G %A , Kruy %A Soares, J-L %A Mouffok, F %A Ravaonindrina, N %A Rasolofonirina, N %A Pham, M T %A Wouafo, M %N 1 %P 146-152 %V 65 %X An international multicenter study of ready-to-eat foods, sandwiches, and ice creams or sorbets in the streets and their vendors was carried out to assess the microbiological quality of these foods and to identify characteristics of the vendors possibly associated with pathogens. Thirteen towns in Africa, America, Asia and Oceania were involved in the study. A single protocol was used in all 13 centers : representative sampling was by random selection of vendors and a sample of foods bought from each of these vendors at a time and date selected at random. Microbiological analyses were carried out using standardized Association Francaise de Normalisation methods, and the use of a standardized questionnaire to collect data concerning the characteristics of the vendors. Fifteen surveys were carried out, with 3,003 food samples from 1,268 vendors. The proportion of unsatisfactory food samples was between 12.7 and 82.9% for ice creams and sorbets and between 11.3 and 92% for sandwiches. For ice creams and sorbets, the sale of a large number of units (>80 per day) increased the risk of unsatisfactory food by a factor of 2.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.5 to 5.1), lack of training in food hygiene by 6.6 (95% CI : 1.1 to 50), and by a factor of 2.8 (95% CI : 1.4 to 5.4) for mobile vendors. These risk factors were not identified for sandwiches, this difference may be due to the presence of a cooking step in their preparation. These results show that the poor microbiological quality of these street foods constitutes a potential hazard to public health, that the extent of this hazard varies between the cities studied, and that vendors' health education in food safety is a crucial factor in the prevention of foodborne infections. %8 2002 %0 Journal Article %J Parasite %D 2001 %T Aspects du cycle d'agressivite de Simulium buissoni Roubaud, 1906 (Diptera : Simuliidae) a Nuku Hiva, archipel des Marquises (Polynesie francaise) %A Sechan, Y %A Loncke, S %N 1 %P 31-38 %V 8 %X Sur l' %8 2001 %0 Journal Article %J Parasite %D 2001 %T Caracteristiques du developpement larvaire de Simulium Buissoni Roubaud, 1906 et de S. Sechani Craig et Fossati, 1995 (Diptera : Simuliidae) dans l'archipel des Marquises (Polynesie francaise) %A Sechan, Y %A Tetuanui, A %N 1 %P 21-30 %V 8 %X Deux especes de Simulies anthropophiles sevissent dans l'archipel des Marquises en Polynesie francaise : Simulium buissoni Roubaud, 1906 et S. sechani Craig & Fossati, 1995. La necessite de leur contr %8 2001 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Harmful Algal Blooms (Hallegraeff G.M., Blackburn S.I., Bolch C.J. and Lewis R.J. , Eds). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, pp 272-275 %D 2001 %T Monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassay for domoic acid by using hapten-protein conjugates obtained at the nanomolar level in a reversed micellar medium. %A Branaa, P %A Naar, J %A Chinain, M %A Pauillac, S %X A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure domoic acid (DA) has been developed. DA-protein conjugates were prepared via the mixed anhydride method of Erlanger performed in a reversed micellar medium using 0.32-0.64 %8 2001 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Harmful Algal Blooms, Hallegraeff G.M., Blackburn S.I., Bolch C.J. and Lewis R.J. , Eds). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, pp 226-229 %D 2001 %T Molecular characterization and classification of the ciguatera dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus. %A Chinain, M %A Revel, T %A Faust, M A %A Holmes, M J %A Ung, A %A Pauillac, S %X The benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus is regarded as the primary causative agent of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning, a disease prevalent in the Pacific regions, the Carribean and the Indian Ocean. Six distinct species within this genus, most of them being toxic, have been described so far on the basis of morphological criteria. The genetic characterization of various strains of G. toxicus has also been addressed in recent studies. In the present work, we investigated the usefulness of the rRNA genes for the molecular characterization and classification of Gambierdiscus isolated distributed in 5 of the 6 species described to date.Sequences of the 5.8S+ITS rDNA and the LSU rDNA D8-D10 regions of 11 Polynesian isolates were compared for phylogenetic analysis. Both regions proved to be useful biogeographical markers, as a grouping of these isolates according to their geographic origin (northern versus southern islands) was globally observed. To investigate the potential intesrest of the LSU rDNA D8-D10 regions in Gambierdiscus systematics, sequences of 8 isolates from distinct geographic origins distributed among 5 of the 6 morphospecies described to date, were also compared. Four molecular types corresponding to G. australes, G. polynesiensis, G. yasumotoi and G. toxicus/G. pacificus lineages could be distnguished. These results suggest that, within this genus, genetic data are fairly consistent with morphological classification by SEM microscopy. They also indicate that distinguishing species of Gambierdiscus can combine both molecular and traditional morphological criteria. %8 2001 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Harmful Algal Blooms (Hallegraeff G.M., Blackburn S.I., Bolch C.J. and Lewis R.J. , Eds). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, pp 272-275 %D 2001 %T Monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassay for domoic acid by using hapten-protein conjugates obtained at the nanomolar level in a reversed micellar medium. %A Branaa, P %A Naar, J %A Chinain, M %A Pauillac, S %X A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure domoic acid (DA) has been developed. DA-protein conjugates were prepared via the mixed anhydride method of Erlanger performed in a reversed micellar medium using 0.32-0.64 %8 2001 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Harmful Algal Blooms, Hallegraeff G.M., Blackburn S.I., Bolch C.J. and Lewis R.J. , Eds). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, pp 226-229 %D 2001 %T Molecular characterization and classification of the ciguatera dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus. %A Chinain, M %A Revel, T %A Faust, M A %A Holmes, M J %A Ung, A %A Pauillac, S %X The benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus is regarded as the primary causative agent of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning, a disease prevalent in the Pacific regions, the Carribean and the Indian Ocean. Six distinct species within this genus, most of them being toxic, have been described so far on the basis of morphological criteria. The genetic characterization of various strains of G. toxicus has also been addressed in recent studies. In the present work, we investigated the usefulness of the rRNA genes for the molecular characterization and classification of Gambierdiscus isolated distributed in 5 of the 6 species described to date.Sequences of the 5.8S+ITS rDNA and the LSU rDNA D8-D10 regions of 11 Polynesian isolates were compared for phylogenetic analysis. Both regions proved to be useful biogeographical markers, as a grouping of these isolates according to their geographic origin (northern versus southern islands) was globally observed. To investigate the potential intesrest of the LSU rDNA D8-D10 regions in Gambierdiscus systematics, sequences of 8 isolates from distinct geographic origins distributed among 5 of the 6 morphospecies described to date, were also compared. Four molecular types corresponding to G. australes, G. polynesiensis, G. yasumotoi and G. toxicus/G. pacificus lineages could be distnguished. These results suggest that, within this genus, genetic data are fairly consistent with morphological classification by SEM microscopy. They also indicate that distinguishing species of Gambierdiscus can combine both molecular and traditional morphological criteria. %8 2001 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 2001 %T Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to PbTx-2-type brevetoxins using minute amount of hapten-protein conjugates obtained in a reversed micellar medium. %A Naar, J %A Branaa, P %A Dechraoui, M Y %A Chinain, M %A Pauillac, S %N 6 %P 869-878 %V 39 %X Minute amount of Brevetoxin PbTx-3 (400 microg; 0.446 micromol) was converted into an hemisuccinate derivative (PbTx-3 HS) then covalently linked to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) in a reversed micellar medium. According to the efficient cyclic synthetic procedure described, the epitope density of the conjugates was around 10 and 20 for OVA and BSA carriers, respectively. The kinetics of antibody production in sequential sera harvested from a single BALB/c mouse immunised by multiple intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of PbTx-3-BSA conjugate was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against PbTx-3 were selected from fusion of the mouse immune splenocytes with the P3-X63-Ag 8.653 myeloma cells. In competitive inhibition ELISA experiments, both polyclonal antibodies and MAbs exhibited strong cross-reactivity (> or = 100%) to other PbTx-2-type toxins (PbTx-2 and -9) but low or moderate cross-reactivity (6-15%) to a PbTx-1-type toxin (PbTx-1). Moreover, using these two MAbs, a low cross-reactivity with okadaic acid (3%) was noticed but no significant cross-reactivity was observed with two ciguatoxins (CTX-1B and CTX-3C) over the concentration range studied. The apparent dissociation constant (K(D)) for the interaction of these MAbs with free PbTx-2-type toxins was in the 10(-6)-10(-7)M range. The performance of this MAb-based assay (limit of detection approximately 5ng/well; working range=8-150ng/well) coupled with adequate extraction methods would provide an alternative assay to the mouse i.p. bioassay for routine shellfish monitoring. This production and characterisation of MAbs using small amount of polyether toxins in a reversed micellar medium appear most valuable for the development of immunoassays to other highly potent but poorly available marine polyether toxins like ciguatoxins (CTXs). %8 2001 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Virol %D 2001 %T Plasma concentrations of sVCAM-1 and severity of dengue infections. %A Murgue, B %A Cassar, O %A Deparis, X %N 1 %P 97-104 %V 65 %X Adhesion molecules are essential for the immune response. They are involved in the regulation of cell-to-cell contact, thereby enabling leukocytes to communicate. Circulating forms of adhesion molecules are found in the serum of healthy individuals. Raised levels have been associated with disease severity in HCV and other infections and thus appear to be good markers of endothelial damage. The levels of soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and of sP and sL-selectin in the plasma of children hospitalised for dengue in French Polynesia were monitored. Studies from the 1996/1997 dengue-2 outbreak, showed that levels of sVCAM-1 increase steadily during the febrile period, peak on day 7, and then decline relatively rapidly. Disregarding the time frame within the febrile period, sVCAM-1 levels were always higher compared to controls. There was a significant association between sVCAM-1 levels and dengue haemorrhagic fever, a severe manifestation of dengue virus infection characterised by plasma leakage. No association was apparent between sVCAM-1 levels and primary vs. secondary dengue virus infections. Levels of sP-selectin and sL-selectin were significantly higher in primary compared with secondary infection but were not different in patients presenting with plasma leakage. Lastly, sVCAM-1 levels were significantly higher in an outbreak of severe disease in 1989/1990 (dengue-3) when compared to a non-severe outbreak in 1988/1989 (dengue-1) and a mild outbreak in 1996/1997 (dengue-2). The results suggested that levels of sVCAM-1 production might prove to be a useful marker in the management of severe dengue. %8 2001 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 2001 %T Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to PbTx-2-type brevetoxins using minute amount of hapten-protein conjugates obtained in a reversed micellar medium. %A Naar, J %A Branaa, P %A Dechraoui, M Y %A Chinain, M %A Pauillac, S %N 6 %P 869-878 %V 39 %X Minute amount of Brevetoxin PbTx-3 (400 microg; 0.446 micromol) was converted into an hemisuccinate derivative (PbTx-3 HS) then covalently linked to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) in a reversed micellar medium. According to the efficient cyclic synthetic procedure described, the epitope density of the conjugates was around 10 and 20 for OVA and BSA carriers, respectively. The kinetics of antibody production in sequential sera harvested from a single BALB/c mouse immunised by multiple intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of PbTx-3-BSA conjugate was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against PbTx-3 were selected from fusion of the mouse immune splenocytes with the P3-X63-Ag 8.653 myeloma cells. In competitive inhibition ELISA experiments, both polyclonal antibodies and MAbs exhibited strong cross-reactivity (> or = 100%) to other PbTx-2-type toxins (PbTx-2 and -9) but low or moderate cross-reactivity (6-15%) to a PbTx-1-type toxin (PbTx-1). Moreover, using these two MAbs, a low cross-reactivity with okadaic acid (3%) was noticed but no significant cross-reactivity was observed with two ciguatoxins (CTX-1B and CTX-3C) over the concentration range studied. The apparent dissociation constant (K(D)) for the interaction of these MAbs with free PbTx-2-type toxins was in the 10(-6)-10(-7)M range. The performance of this MAb-based assay (limit of detection approximately 5ng/well; working range=8-150ng/well) coupled with adequate extraction methods would provide an alternative assay to the mouse i.p. bioassay for routine shellfish monitoring. This production and characterisation of MAbs using small amount of polyether toxins in a reversed micellar medium appear most valuable for the development of immunoassays to other highly potent but poorly available marine polyether toxins like ciguatoxins (CTXs). %8 2001 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Virol %D 2001 %T Plasma concentrations of sVCAM-1 and severity of dengue infections. %A Murgue, B %A Cassar, O %A Deparis, X %N 1 %P 97-104 %V 65 %X Adhesion molecules are essential for the immune response. They are involved in the regulation of cell-to-cell contact, thereby enabling leukocytes to communicate. Circulating forms of adhesion molecules are found in the serum of healthy individuals. Raised levels have been associated with disease severity in HCV and other infections and thus appear to be good markers of endothelial damage. The levels of soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and of sP and sL-selectin in the plasma of children hospitalised for dengue in French Polynesia were monitored. Studies from the 1996/1997 dengue-2 outbreak, showed that levels of sVCAM-1 increase steadily during the febrile period, peak on day 7, and then decline relatively rapidly. Disregarding the time frame within the febrile period, sVCAM-1 levels were always higher compared to controls. There was a significant association between sVCAM-1 levels and dengue haemorrhagic fever, a severe manifestation of dengue virus infection characterised by plasma leakage. No association was apparent between sVCAM-1 levels and primary vs. secondary dengue virus infections. Levels of sP-selectin and sL-selectin were significantly higher in primary compared with secondary infection but were not different in patients presenting with plasma leakage. Lastly, sVCAM-1 levels were significantly higher in an outbreak of severe disease in 1989/1990 (dengue-3) when compared to a non-severe outbreak in 1988/1989 (dengue-1) and a mild outbreak in 1996/1997 (dengue-2). The results suggested that levels of sVCAM-1 production might prove to be a useful marker in the management of severe dengue. %8 2001 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Harmful Algal Blooms, (Hallegraeff G.M., Blackburn S.I., Bolch C.J. and Lewis R.J. , Eds). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, pp 280-283 %D 2001 %T Production and characterization of a monolonal antibody to type-2 brevetoxins. %A Naar, J %A Branaa, P %A Dechraoui, M Y %A Chinain, M %A Legrand, A-M %A Pauillac, S %X Two murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs 1A11 and 3A12) directed against brevetoxin PbTx-3 were selected from fusion of P3-X63-Ag 8.653 myeloma cells with BALB/c mouse immune spleen cells sensitized to a PbTx-3-bovine albumin conjugate. In competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) experiments, both MAbs exhibited strong cross-reactivity ( %8 2001 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Harmful Algal Blooms, (Hallegraeff G.M., Blackburn S.I., Bolch C.J. and Lewis R.J. , Eds). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, pp 280-283 %D 2001 %T Production and characterization of a monolonal antibody to type-2 brevetoxins. %A Naar, J %A Branaa, P %A Dechraoui, M Y %A Chinain, M %A Legrand, A-M %A Pauillac, S %X Two murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs 1A11 and 3A12) directed against brevetoxin PbTx-3 were selected from fusion of P3-X63-Ag 8.653 myeloma cells with BALB/c mouse immune spleen cells sensitized to a PbTx-3-bovine albumin conjugate. In competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) experiments, both MAbs exhibited strong cross-reactivity ( %8 2001 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Harmful Algal Blooms, (Hallegraeff G.M., Blackburn S.I., Bolch C.J. and Lewis R.J., Eds). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, pp 284-287 %D 2001 %T Strategy for the development of antibodies against ciguatoxins : bevetoxins as a model for polyether hydroxylated compounds. %A Naar, J %A Branaa, P %A Dechraoui, M Y %A Chinain, M %A Legrand, A-M %A Pauillac, S %X As a model for hydroxylated polyether toxins, brevetoxin PbTx-3 was converted into a hemisuccinate derivative (PbTx-3 HS) and covalently linked to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA). By reacting a minute amount of PbTx-3 (0.446 %8 2001 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Harmful Algal Blooms, (Hallegraeff G.M., Blackburn S.I., Bolch C.J. and Lewis R.J., Eds). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, pp 284-287 %D 2001 %T Strategy for the development of antibodies against ciguatoxins : bevetoxins as a model for polyether hydroxylated compounds. %A Naar, J %A Branaa, P %A Dechraoui, M Y %A Chinain, M %A Legrand, A-M %A Pauillac, S %X As a model for hydroxylated polyether toxins, brevetoxin PbTx-3 was converted into a hemisuccinate derivative (PbTx-3 HS) and covalently linked to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA). By reacting a minute amount of PbTx-3 (0.446 %8 2001 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Int Health %D 2001 %T The impact of 34 years of massive DEC chemotherapy on Wuchereria bancrofti infection and transmission : the Maupiti cohort. %A Esterre, P %A Plichart, C %A Sechan, Y %A Nguyen, N L %N 3 %P 190-195 %V 6 %X Semi-annual mass DEC chemotherapy combined with vector control at the beginning of the programme, has been administered on the remote island of Maupiti (French Polynesia) since 1955 (except two periods in 1960-67 and 1970-74). The result of two surveys in 1985 and 1989, reporting 0% microfilaraemia, led to the hope that the eradication of lymphatic filariasis had been achieved. We combined parasitological criteria (microfilaraemia by membrane filtration), immunological (antigenaemia and serum levels of specific IgG antibodies) and molecular (PCR-based evaluation of infection in mosquitoes) techniques and found only good control of the parasite : We found residual microfilaraemia in 0.4% of the sample (mean level in carriers : 101.2 mf/ml), antigenaemia in 4.6% (mean level in positive persons : 714.4 units/ml) and specific IgG in 21.6% (including in one very young child). In addition, an infection rate of 1.4% was calculated in the Aedes polynesiensis vector population. These data, obtained in 1997 just before a hurricane, were partially confirmed in 1999 (0.1% of infection rate in the vector). Together with the possibility of some resistance to DEC, various epidemiological factors critocal for the eradication of lymphatic filariasis are discussed. %8 2001 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Harmful Algal Blooms, (Hallegraeff G.M., Blackburn S.I., Bolch C.J. and Lewis R.J., Eds). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, pp 288-291 %D 2001 %T The reversed micellar medium as a universal tool for the development of antibody-based assays to marine phycotoxins using small amount of toxic material. %A Pauillac, S %A Branaa, P %A Chinain, M %A Naar, J %X The production of specific antibodies to marine phycotoxins is hampered by considerations such as toxicity, scarcity or chemical nature of these compounds. A rapid, simple and low cost procedure for preparing minute amount of hapten-protein immunogenic conjugates in a reversed micellar medium was successfully applied to purified toxins (0.32 - 0.64 %8 2001 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Mycotoxins and phycotoxins in perspectives at the turn of the millenium, de Koe WJ, Samson A, van Egmond HP, Gilbert J, Sabino M (Eds), pp 455-462 %D 2001 %T Toxicology of phycotoxins targeting sodium channels. %A Legrand, A-M %A Benoit, E %A Molgo, J %X Proliferation in marine habitats of harmful algae producer of phycotoxins can be responsible for different types of seafood poisonings. Planktonic or benthic microalgae, especially the dinoflagellate Alexandrium spp., Pyrodinium spp., Ptychodiscus spp. and Gambierdiscus spp. can be the source of phycotoxins involved in human intoxications. Saxitoxins and gonyautoxins, identified as a group of water-soluble tetrahydropurine compounds, are associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) while brevetoxins and ciguatoxins, identified as lipid-soluble polyether compounds are respectively responsible with neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) and ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). These PSP-, NSP- and CFP-toxins are potent neurotoxins hazardous to human. Clinical toxicology of seafood poisonings resulting from ingestion of saxitoxins and gonyautoxins can include generalised paraesthesia, limb paralysis and respiratory failure. In the most severe cases death may occurs within a few hours. Neurotoxic poisoning resulting from the ingestion of shellfish containing brevetoxins produces a mild but polymorphous clinical illness. In a similar manner, ciguatera fish poisoning is characterized by variable combinations of gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular syndromes which vary greatly with the amount of toxins ingested and the individual sensitivity. From in vitro experimental data, saxitoxins and gonyautoxins are known to block, in a highly specific manner, voltage-dependent Na+ channels in excitable membranes. Blockade of Na+ channels prevents action potentials from propagating along axons, nerve terminals and muscle fibers, which leads to inhibition of nerve-impulse evoked neurotransmitter release in chemical synapses. Brevetoxins and ciguatoxins have been shown to modify the activation and inactivation process of the Na+ channels and therefore induce alterations of the basic mechanism of synapses leading to several effects : (i) increased excitability of motor nerve terminals, (ii) spontaneous and repetitive neurotransmitter release, (iii) depletion of synaptic vesicles and (iv) swelling of nerve terminals due to an increase in surface membrane and water influx. This important knowledge on the mode of action of these neurotoxins is consistent with the generalized disturbance of nerve conduction and synaptic transmitter release observed in intoxicated patients and may explain some of the human neurological alterations. Nevertheless, thoroughly investigated and well documented neurological studies on patients should improve our understanding of the disease and lead to a better evaluation of the health hazards. %8 2001 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Harmful Algal Blooms, (Hallegraeff G.M., Blackburn S.I., Bolch C.J. and Lewis R.J., Eds). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, pp 288-291 %D 2001 %T The reversed micellar medium as a universal tool for the development of antibody-based assays to marine phycotoxins using small amount of toxic material. %A Pauillac, S %A Branaa, P %A Chinain, M %A Naar, J %X The production of specific antibodies to marine phycotoxins is hampered by considerations such as toxicity, scarcity or chemical nature of these compounds. A rapid, simple and low cost procedure for preparing minute amount of hapten-protein immunogenic conjugates in a reversed micellar medium was successfully applied to purified toxins (0.32 - 0.64 %8 2001 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Mycotoxins and phycotoxins in perspectives at the turn of the millenium, de Koe WJ, Samson A, van Egmond HP, Gilbert J, Sabino M (Eds), pp 455-462 %D 2001 %T Toxicology of phycotoxins targeting sodium channels. %A Legrand, A-M %A Benoit, E %A Molgo, J %X Proliferation in marine habitats of harmful algae producer of phycotoxins can be responsible for different types of seafood poisonings. Planktonic or benthic microalgae, especially the dinoflagellate Alexandrium spp., Pyrodinium spp., Ptychodiscus spp. and Gambierdiscus spp. can be the source of phycotoxins involved in human intoxications. Saxitoxins and gonyautoxins, identified as a group of water-soluble tetrahydropurine compounds, are associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) while brevetoxins and ciguatoxins, identified as lipid-soluble polyether compounds are respectively responsible with neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) and ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). These PSP-, NSP- and CFP-toxins are potent neurotoxins hazardous to human. Clinical toxicology of seafood poisonings resulting from ingestion of saxitoxins and gonyautoxins can include generalised paraesthesia, limb paralysis and respiratory failure. In the most severe cases death may occurs within a few hours. Neurotoxic poisoning resulting from the ingestion of shellfish containing brevetoxins produces a mild but polymorphous clinical illness. In a similar manner, ciguatera fish poisoning is characterized by variable combinations of gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular syndromes which vary greatly with the amount of toxins ingested and the individual sensitivity. From in vitro experimental data, saxitoxins and gonyautoxins are known to block, in a highly specific manner, voltage-dependent Na+ channels in excitable membranes. Blockade of Na+ channels prevents action potentials from propagating along axons, nerve terminals and muscle fibers, which leads to inhibition of nerve-impulse evoked neurotransmitter release in chemical synapses. Brevetoxins and ciguatoxins have been shown to modify the activation and inactivation process of the Na+ channels and therefore induce alterations of the basic mechanism of synapses leading to several effects : (i) increased excitability of motor nerve terminals, (ii) spontaneous and repetitive neurotransmitter release, (iii) depletion of synaptic vesicles and (iv) swelling of nerve terminals due to an increase in surface membrane and water influx. This important knowledge on the mode of action of these neurotoxins is consistent with the generalized disturbance of nerve conduction and synaptic transmitter release observed in intoxicated patients and may explain some of the human neurological alterations. Nevertheless, thoroughly investigated and well documented neurological studies on patients should improve our understanding of the disease and lead to a better evaluation of the health hazards. %8 2001 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 2000 %T Characterization of mice antisera elicited with a ciguatoxin tetracyclic synthetic ring fragment (JKLM) conjugated to carrier proteins. %A Pauillac, S %A Sasaki, M %A Inoue, A %A Naar, J %A Branaa, P %A Chinain, M %A Tachibana, K %A Legrand, A-M %N 5 %P 669-685 %V 38 %X As a good alternative to the lack of pure ciguatoxin (CTX), conjugates of JKLM ring fragment, a carboxylic derivative of the right-hand tetracyclic terminus portion of CTX-1B (the most potent CTX) with two carrier proteins have been synthesized. Two procedures using different amount of hapten were evaluated: (i) a bulk technique (3-5 mg) via the N-hydroxysuccinimide ester of the carboxylic fragment in the presence of a water-soluble carbodiimide according to the standard method in aqueous buffer, or (ii) a micro-scale technique (300 microg) via the mixed anhydride method performed in a reversed micellar medium. In both cases, bovine serum albumin and ovalbumin were respectively used for immunization of BALB/c mice and antibody screening by a solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Using the conjugates obtained through the micro-scale procedure, a long-term immunization schedule appeared to be more efficient to specifically trigger the mice immune system. These antisera titers determined in an end-point titration standard ELISA format were found around 1/128,000 as compared to 1/16,000 obtained in the short-term protocol (immunogen prepared via the bulk procedure). In competitive inhibition ELISA experiments, both types of antisera did not significantly cross-react with a brevetoxin congener (PbTx-3), okadaic acid (OA), monensin or other polyether compounds, but only sera from the short-term protocol did show high cross-reactivity to CTX-1B (133%). With sera from the long-term protocol, a lower detection limit for JKLM (1.23 x 10(-9) M) was achieved by implementation of a biotin-avidin amplification system rather than by miniaturization of the assay in Terasaki plates. This study confirms the feasibility of the immunological approach for CTXs assay in fish tissues, but also emphasizes the importance of (i) the choice of the hapten to construct a relevant well-defined immunogen, (ii) the immunization schedule to obtain hapten-specific Abs still exhibiting high cross-reactivity to CTXs. %8 2000 %0 Journal Article %J Lepr Rev %D 2000 %T Chemoprophylaxis of leprosy in the southern Marquesas with a single 25 mg/kg dose of rifampicin. Results after 10 years. %A NGuyen, L %A Cartel, J-L %A Grosset, J-H %N Sup %P S33-5 Discussion S35-6 %V 71 %X In 1988, a programme of leprosy chemoprophylaxis, employing a supervised, single 25 mg/kg dose of rifampicin, was implemented in the Southern Marquesas Islands. Of the 2786 inhabitants, 2751 (98.7%) were treated. In addition, 3144 South Marquesans living elsewhere in French Polynesia were administered the same chemoprophylaxis. During the following 10 years, seven leprosy patients were detected among those who had been administered chemoprophylaxis. Of these, two were very likely missed cases of leprosy, and cannot be considered a failure of chemoprophylaxis. The epidemiometric projection model, based on cases of leprosy observed in the Southern Marquesas during the 20 years preceding implementation of the programme, predicted that 17 leprosy cases could be expected in the South Marquesan population if no chemoprophylaxis were given. In fact, only five cases were detected in the treated population, a number significantly smaller than 17, suggesting that the chemoprophylaxis was 70% effective, assuming that no change of detection rate would have occurred without chemoprophylaxis. However, during the 10 years following implementation of the chemoprophylaxis programme, the detection rate in the Polynesian population that was not administered chemoprophylaxis declined by about 50%. Therefore, the effectiveness of the chemoprophylaxis was only 35-40%. %8 2000 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 2000 %T Characterization of mice antisera elicited with a ciguatoxin tetracyclic synthetic ring fragment (JKLM) conjugated to carrier proteins. %A Pauillac, S %A Sasaki, M %A Inoue, A %A Naar, J %A Branaa, P %A Chinain, M %A Tachibana, K %A Legrand, A-M %N 5 %P 669-685 %V 38 %X As a good alternative to the lack of pure ciguatoxin (CTX), conjugates of JKLM ring fragment, a carboxylic derivative of the right-hand tetracyclic terminus portion of CTX-1B (the most potent CTX) with two carrier proteins have been synthesized. Two procedures using different amount of hapten were evaluated: (i) a bulk technique (3-5 mg) via the N-hydroxysuccinimide ester of the carboxylic fragment in the presence of a water-soluble carbodiimide according to the standard method in aqueous buffer, or (ii) a micro-scale technique (300 microg) via the mixed anhydride method performed in a reversed micellar medium. In both cases, bovine serum albumin and ovalbumin were respectively used for immunization of BALB/c mice and antibody screening by a solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Using the conjugates obtained through the micro-scale procedure, a long-term immunization schedule appeared to be more efficient to specifically trigger the mice immune system. These antisera titers determined in an end-point titration standard ELISA format were found around 1/128,000 as compared to 1/16,000 obtained in the short-term protocol (immunogen prepared via the bulk procedure). In competitive inhibition ELISA experiments, both types of antisera did not significantly cross-react with a brevetoxin congener (PbTx-3), okadaic acid (OA), monensin or other polyether compounds, but only sera from the short-term protocol did show high cross-reactivity to CTX-1B (133%). With sera from the long-term protocol, a lower detection limit for JKLM (1.23 x 10(-9) M) was achieved by implementation of a biotin-avidin amplification system rather than by miniaturization of the assay in Terasaki plates. This study confirms the feasibility of the immunological approach for CTXs assay in fish tissues, but also emphasizes the importance of (i) the choice of the hapten to construct a relevant well-defined immunogen, (ii) the immunization schedule to obtain hapten-specific Abs still exhibiting high cross-reactivity to CTXs. %8 2000 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Virol %D 2000 %T Prospective study of the duration and magnitude of viraemia in children hospitalised during the 1996-1997 dengue-2 outbreak in French Polynesia. %A Murgue, B %A Roche, C %A Chungue, E %A Deparis, X %N 4 %P 432-438 %V 60 %X The magnitude and duration of viraemia in children admitted to the hospital with dengue was studied during a dengue 2 outbreak in French Polynesia in 1996-1997. Forty-nine patients from whom at least 3 plasma samples were available were included in the study. Based on analysis of IgG-ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition assay, 21 of these were primary and 28 were secondary infections. According to World Health Organization criteria, 42 were dengue fever and 7 were dengue haemorrhagic fever. Virus was detectable by reverse transcription-PCR in all patients for at least the first 3 days of the onset of fever, but was never detected after the 6th day (mean duration = 4.4 days). Plasma virus titers ranged from 1.7-5.6 Log(10) TCID(50)/ml. A significant difference was not observed in the magnitude and duration of viraemia in patients with primary versus secondary infections. The severity of the illness, however, was correlated with both criteria. %8 2000 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Virol %D 2000 %T Prospective study of the duration and magnitude of viraemia in children hospitalised during the 1996-1997 dengue-2 outbreak in French Polynesia. %A Murgue, B %A Roche, C %A Chungue, E %A Deparis, X %N 4 %P 432-438 %V 60 %X The magnitude and duration of viraemia in children admitted to the hospital with dengue was studied during a dengue 2 outbreak in French Polynesia in 1996-1997. Forty-nine patients from whom at least 3 plasma samples were available were included in the study. Based on analysis of IgG-ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition assay, 21 of these were primary and 28 were secondary infections. According to World Health Organization criteria, 42 were dengue fever and 7 were dengue haemorrhagic fever. Virus was detectable by reverse transcription-PCR in all patients for at least the first 3 days of the onset of fever, but was never detected after the 6th day (mean duration = 4.4 days). Plasma virus titers ranged from 1.7-5.6 Log(10) TCID(50)/ml. A significant difference was not observed in the magnitude and duration of viraemia in patients with primary versus secondary infections. The severity of the illness, however, was correlated with both criteria. %8 2000 %0 Journal Article %J Cybium %D 2000 %T Reversal of pacific ciguatoxin-1B effects on myelinated axons by agents used in ciguatera treatment. %A Benoit, E %A Laurent, D %A Mattei, C %A Legrand, A-M %A Molgo, J %N 3 %P 33-40 %V 24 %X Ciguatera fish poisoning is a distinctive form of ichthyosarcotoxism characterised mainly by gastrointestinal and neurological disturbances. The ciguatoxins, responsible for this poisoning, are complex polyethers produced by toxic strains of the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. These toxins are increased to dangerous levels for man during their transmission through herbivorous and carnivorous fish, various species being contaminated. The known molecular target of ciguatoxins is the voltage-gated Na+ channel. During the action of these toxins, the permanent opening, at the resting membrane potential, produces a continuous entry of Na+ ions in excitable cells causing a marked increase in membrane excitability and in cellular volume. To precise the neurocellular basis of the efficacy of some agents used in clinical and traditional treatments of ciguatera, their effects were studied on frog myelinated axons exposed to Pacific ciguatoxin-1B (CTX-1B). During the action of this toxin, the increase in axonal volume and membrane excitability were reversed by lidocaine (a local anaesthetic), by CaCl2 and by hyperosmotic external solutions (containing D-mannitol, sucrose or tetramethylammonium chloride). The CTX-1B-induced hyperexcitability of the membrane was also reversed by extracts of Argusia argentea leaves or Davallia solida rhizomes, used traditionally in New-Caledonia. It is concluded that the various agents studied are able to counteract the neurocellular effects of CTX-1B in myelinated axons. These results are of particular interest since they provide a scientific basis to understand the beneficial action of therapeutic agents used in the treatment of ciguatera fish poisoning.La ciguatera est une forme particuliere d'ichtyosarcotoxisme principalement caracterisee par des troubles gastro-intestinaux et neurologiques. Ce sont les ciguatoxines, polyethers complexes produits par des varietes toxiques du dinoflagelle Gambierdiscus toxicus, qui en sont responsables en se concentrant pour atteindre des doses dangereuses pour l'homme lors de leur transfert dans de nombreuses especes de poissons herbivores et carnivores. La cible moleculaire connue des ciguatoxines est le canal Na sensible au potentiel de membrane. Durant l'action de ces toxines, l'ouverture permanente des canaux au potentiel de repos de la membrane, produit une entree continue d'ions Na dans les cellules excitables ce qui augmente notablement l'excitabilite membranaire et le volume cellulaire. Dans le but de preciser les bases neurocellulaires de l'efficacite de certains agents utilises dans le traitement clinique et traditionnel de la ciguatera, leurs effets ont ete etudies sur des axones myelinises de grenouille prealablement soumis a l'action de la ciguatoxine-lB du Pacifique (CTX-1B). L'augmentation du volume axonal et de l'excitabilite de la membrane, produite par cette toxine, a ete neutralisee par la lidocaine (anesthesique local), le CaCl, et les milieux extracellulaires hyperosmotiques contenant du D-mannitol, du saccharose ou du chlorure de tetramethylammonium. L'hyperexcitabilite membranaire, produite par la CTX-1B, a egalement ete supprimee par les extraits de feuilles d'Argusia argentea ou de rhizomes de Davallia solida, utilises dans la medecine traditionnelle en Nouvelle-Caledonie. En conclusion, les divers agents etudies sont capables de neutraliser les effets neurocellulaires de la CTX-1B au niveau des axones myelinises. Ces resultats sont particulierement interessants puisqu'ils apportent une base scientifique necessaire a la comprehension de l'action benefique des agents therapeutiques utilises de maniere encore empirique dans le traitement de l'ichtyosarcotoxisme de type ciguatera. %8 2000 %0 Journal Article %J Parasite %D 2000 %T Repartition de Simulium buissoni Roubaud, 1906 et S. sechani Craig & Fossati, 1995 (Diptera : Simuliidae) a Nuku-Hiva et Eiao (archipel des Marquises, Polynesie francaise). %A Sechan, Y %A Faaruia, M %N 4 %P 283-290 %V 7 %X Nuku-Hiva et Eiao sont les seules %8 2000 %0 Journal Article %J Parasite %D 2000 %T Role of streptococcal infection in the acute pathology of lymphatic filariasis. %A Esterre, P %A Plichart, C %A Huin-Blondey, M-O %A Nguyen, N L %N 2 %P 91-94 %V 7 %X Les evidences s'accumulent quant a un r %8 2000 %0 Journal Article %J Cybium %D 2000 %T Reversal of pacific ciguatoxin-1B effects on myelinated axons by agents used in ciguatera treatment. %A Benoit, E %A Laurent, D %A Mattei, C %A Legrand, A-M %A Molgo, J %N 3 %P 33-40 %V 24 %X Ciguatera fish poisoning is a distinctive form of ichthyosarcotoxism characterised mainly by gastrointestinal and neurological disturbances. The ciguatoxins, responsible for this poisoning, are complex polyethers produced by toxic strains of the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. These toxins are increased to dangerous levels for man during their transmission through herbivorous and carnivorous fish, various species being contaminated. The known molecular target of ciguatoxins is the voltage-gated Na+ channel. During the action of these toxins, the permanent opening, at the resting membrane potential, produces a continuous entry of Na+ ions in excitable cells causing a marked increase in membrane excitability and in cellular volume. To precise the neurocellular basis of the efficacy of some agents used in clinical and traditional treatments of ciguatera, their effects were studied on frog myelinated axons exposed to Pacific ciguatoxin-1B (CTX-1B). During the action of this toxin, the increase in axonal volume and membrane excitability were reversed by lidocaine (a local anaesthetic), by CaCl2 and by hyperosmotic external solutions (containing D-mannitol, sucrose or tetramethylammonium chloride). The CTX-1B-induced hyperexcitability of the membrane was also reversed by extracts of Argusia argentea leaves or Davallia solida rhizomes, used traditionally in New-Caledonia. It is concluded that the various agents studied are able to counteract the neurocellular effects of CTX-1B in myelinated axons. These results are of particular interest since they provide a scientific basis to understand the beneficial action of therapeutic agents used in the treatment of ciguatera fish poisoning.La ciguatera est une forme particuli %8 2000 %0 Journal Article %J J Am Chem Soc %D 2000 %T Structural elucidation of ciguatoxin congeners by fast-atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry. %A Yasumoto, T %A Igarashi, T %A Legrand, A-M %A Cruchet, P %A Chinain, M %A Fujita, T %A Naoki, H %N 17 %P 4988-4989 %V 122 %8 2000 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Entomol %D 2000 %T Spectrofluorometers are not adequate for aging Aedes and Culex (Diptera : Culicidae) using pteridine fluorescence. %A Lardeux, F %A Ung, A %A Chebret, M %N 5 %P 769-773 %V 37 %X Attempts were made to use pteridine fluorescence levels as a tool for aging individual Aedes polynesiensis Marks and Culex quinquefasciatus Say mosquitoes. Fluorescent pigments were extracted and quantified with techniques and apparatus (i.e., a spectrofluorometer) that can be used in developing countries or in field laboratories, and that has already given consistent results in similar studies on other insect groups. However, for Ae. polynesiensis as well as Cx. quinquefasciatus, individual fluorescence measurements were mostly below the spectrofluorometer white noise level. With batches of Aedes or Culex of the same age, significant fluorescence levels were recorded but not in relation to their calendar ages. The low content of pteridines in mosquitoes suggests that standard spectrofluorometry is not sufficiently sensitive for such studies. %8 2000 %0 Journal Article %J J Phycol %D 2000 %T Small subunit rDNA sequence analysis of symbiotic dinoflagellates from seven scleractinian corals in a tahitian lagoon. %A Darius, H T %A Martin, P M V %A Grimont, P %A Dauga, C %P 951-959 %V 36 %X The diversity of symbiotic dinoflagellates from reef-building corals collected in the lagoon of Tahiti (South Pacific ocean) was investigated by using a molecular approch. Populations of symbionts (strains or species) of 7 coral species (Fungia scutaria, F. paumotensis Stutchbury, Pavona cactus Forsk %8 2000 %0 Journal Article %J J Am Chem Soc %D 2000 %T Structural elucidation of ciguatoxin congeners by fast-atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry. %A Yasumoto, T %A Igarashi, T %A Legrand, A-M %A Cruchet, P %A Chinain, M %A Fujita, T %A Naoki, H %N 17 %P 4988-4989 %V 122 %8 2000 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Mycotoxins and phycotoxins in perspective at the turn of the millenium, de Koe WJ, Samson RA, van Egmond HP, Gilbert J, Sabino M (Eds), Xth International IUPAC Symposium on Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins, Guaruja (Brazil), pp 475-482 %D 2000 %T Structural determination of new ciguatoxin congeners by tandem mass spectrometry. %A Naoki, H %A Fujita, T %A Cruchet, P %A Legrand, A-M %A Igarashi, T %A Yasumoto, T %X Ciguatera is the widespread seafood poisoning in tropical areas, the causative toxins are produced by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus but undergo structural modification during the food chain transmission to produce various metabolite toxins. Structure of three major toxins, ciguatoxin (CTX), CTX4A and CTX3C were previously determined by NMR spectroscopy but many other congeners were left undetermined mainly due to the paucity of the samples for NMR experiments. Fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry (FABS MS/MS) was carried out to elucidate their structures. Toxic fraction were prepared from the flesh and viscera of moray eels Gymnothorax javanicus, the flesh of red snappers Lujanus bohar, and parrotfish Scarus gibbus, and G. toxicus aither cultured or collected in French Polynesia. Collision induced dissociation (CID) spectra of molecular related Na-adduct ions (M+Na)+ or 2-sulfobenzoate derivatives (M-H) of selected congeners showed characteristic fragmentation facilitating straightforward interpretation of the spectra. More than 20 structures of the congeners were deduced. Structural modifications were mainly seen in the both termini of the toxin molecules. %8 2000 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Mycotoxins and phycotoxins in perspective at the turn of the millenium, de Koe WJ, Samson RA, van Egmond HP, Gilbert J, Sabino M (Eds), Xth International IUPAC Symposium on Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins, Guaruja (Brazil), pp 475-482 %D 2000 %T Structural determination of new ciguatoxin congeners by tandem mass spectrometry. %A Naoki, H %A Fujita, T %A Cruchet, P %A Legrand, A-M %A Igarashi, T %A Yasumoto, T %X Ciguatera is the widespread seafood poisoning in tropical areas, the causative toxins are produced by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus but undergo structural modification during the food chain transmission to produce various metabolite toxins. Structure of three major toxins, ciguatoxin (CTX), CTX4A and CTX3C were previously determined by NMR spectroscopy but many other congeners were left undetermined mainly due to the paucity of the samples for NMR experiments. Fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry (FABS MS/MS) was carried out to elucidate their structures. Toxic fraction were prepared from the flesh and viscera of moray eels Gymnothorax javanicus, the flesh of red snappers Lujanus bohar, and parrotfish Scarus gibbus, and G. toxicus aither cultured or collected in French Polynesia. Collision induced dissociation (CID) spectra of molecular related Na-adduct ions (M+Na)+ or 2-sulfobenzoate derivatives (M-H) of selected congeners showed characteristic fragmentation facilitating straightforward interpretation of the spectra. More than 20 structures of the congeners were deduced. Structural modifications were mainly seen in the both termini of the toxin molecules. %8 2000 %0 Journal Article %J Parasite %D 2000 %T Tentative de discrimination des femelles adultes de simulies (Diptera : Simuliidae) a Nuku-Hiva (archipel des Marquises, Polynesie francaise). %A Sechan, Y %A Loncke, S %N 4 %P 291-295 %V 7 %X Une etude recente a permis de decouvrir l'existence insoupconnee de Simulium sechani Craig & Fossati, 1995 dans une partie de l' %8 2000 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Mycotoxins and phycotoxins in perspective at the turn of the millenium, de Koe WJ, Samson RA, van Egmond HP, Gilbert J, Sabino M (Eds), Xth International IUPAC Symposium on Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins, Guaruja (Brazil), pp 455-462 %D 2000 %T Toxicology of phycotoxins targeting sodium channels. %A Legrand, A-M %A Benoit, E %A Molgo, J %X Proliferation in marine habitats of harmful algae producer of phycotoxins can be responsible for different types of seafood poisonings. Planktonic or benthic microalgae, especially the dinoflagellates Alexandrium spp., Pyrodinium spp., Ptychodiscus spp. and Gambierdiscus spp. can be source of phycotoxins involved in human intoxications. Saxitoxins and gonyautoxins, identified as a group of water-soluble tetrahydropurine compounds, are associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) while brevetoxins and ciguatoxins, identified as lipid-soluble polyether compounds are respectively responsible with neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) and ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). These PSP-, NSP- and CFP-toxins are potent neurotoxins harzardous to human. Clinical toxicology of seafood poisonings resulting from ingestion of saxitoxins and gonyautoxins can include generalised paraesthesia, limb paralysis and respiratory failure. In the most severe cases death may occurs within a few hours. Neurotoxic poisoning resulting from the ingestion of shellfish containing brevetoxins produces a mild but polymorphous clinical illness. In a similar manner, ciguatera fish poisoning is characterized by variable combinations of gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular syndromes which vary greatly with the amount of toxins ingested and the individual sensitivity. From in vitro experimental data, saxitoxins and gonyautoxins are known to block, in a highly specific manner, voltage-dependent Na+ channels in excitable membranes. Blockade of Na+ channels prevents action potentials from propagating along axons, nerve terminals and muscle fibers, which leads to inbibition of nerve-impulse evoked neurotransmitter release in chemical synapses. Brevetoxins and ciguatoxins have been shown to modify the activation and inactivation process of the Na+ channels and therefore induce alterations of the basic mechanism of synapses leading to several effects : (i) increased excitability of motor nerve terminals, (ii) spontaneous and repetitive neurotransmitter release, (iii) depletion of synaptic vesicles and (iv) swelling of nerve terminals due to an increase in surface membrane and water influx. This important knowledge on the mode of action of these neurotoxins is consistent with the generalized disturbance of nerve conduction and synaptic transmitter release observed in intoxicated patients and many explain some of the human neurological alterations. Nevertheless, thoroughly investigated and well documented neurological studies on patients should improve our understanding of the disease and lead to a better evaluation of the health hazards. %8 2000 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Mycotoxins and phycotoxins in perspective at the turn of the millenium, de Koe WJ, Samson RA, van Egmond HP, Gilbert J, Sabino M (Eds), Xth International IUPAC Symposium on Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins, Guaruja (Brazil), pp 455-462 %D 2000 %T Toxicology of phycotoxins targeting sodium channels. %A Legrand, A-M %A Benoit, E %A Molgo, J %X Proliferation in marine habitats of harmful algae producer of phycotoxins can be responsible for different types of seafood poisonings. Planktonic or benthic microalgae, especially the dinoflagellates Alexandrium spp., Pyrodinium spp., Ptychodiscus spp. and Gambierdiscus spp. can be source of phycotoxins involved in human intoxications. Saxitoxins and gonyautoxins, identified as a group of water-soluble tetrahydropurine compounds, are associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) while brevetoxins and ciguatoxins, identified as lipid-soluble polyether compounds are respectively responsible with neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) and ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). These PSP-, NSP- and CFP-toxins are potent neurotoxins harzardous to human. Clinical toxicology of seafood poisonings resulting from ingestion of saxitoxins and gonyautoxins can include generalised paraesthesia, limb paralysis and respiratory failure. In the most severe cases death may occurs within a few hours. Neurotoxic poisoning resulting from the ingestion of shellfish containing brevetoxins produces a mild but polymorphous clinical illness. In a similar manner, ciguatera fish poisoning is characterized by variable combinations of gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular syndromes which vary greatly with the amount of toxins ingested and the individual sensitivity. From in vitro experimental data, saxitoxins and gonyautoxins are known to block, in a highly specific manner, voltage-dependent Na+ channels in excitable membranes. Blockade of Na+ channels prevents action potentials from propagating along axons, nerve terminals and muscle fibers, which leads to inbibition of nerve-impulse evoked neurotransmitter release in chemical synapses. Brevetoxins and ciguatoxins have been shown to modify the activation and inactivation process of the Na+ channels and therefore induce alterations of the basic mechanism of synapses leading to several effects : (i) increased excitability of motor nerve terminals, (ii) spontaneous and repetitive neurotransmitter release, (iii) depletion of synaptic vesicles and (iv) swelling of nerve terminals due to an increase in surface membrane and water influx. This important knowledge on the mode of action of these neurotoxins is consistent with the generalized disturbance of nerve conduction and synaptic transmitter release observed in intoxicated patients and many explain some of the human neurological alterations. Nevertheless, thoroughly investigated and well documented neurological studies on patients should improve our understanding of the disease and lead to a better evaluation of the health hazards. %8 2000 %0 Journal Article %J Bioconjugate Chemistry %D 1999 %T An improved method for the microsale preparation and characterization of hapten-protein conjugates : the use of cholesterol as a model for nonchromophore hydroxylated haptens. %A Naar, J %A Branaa, P %A Chinain, M %A Pauillac, S %N 6 %P 1143-1149 %V 10 %X A minute amount (0.446 micromoal) of cholesterol (Chol) was converted into an hemisuccinate derivative (Chol HS) using an excess of succinic anhydride. The optimal conditions for synthesis of Chol HS were explored by checkerboard experiments in which various succinic anhydride/Chol molar ratios ranging from 5:1 to 30:1 were assayed over a wide temperature range (50-85 degrees C) and for various incubation times (3-8 h). Total conversion was obtained at the higher reagent ratios, temperatures, and incubation times. Subsequently, this carboxylic derivative was first covalently linked to bovine serum albumin (BSA) then to various proteins (casein, ovalbumin, and hemocyanins) or to a synthetic homopolymer (poly-DL-Lysine) via a modified version of the mixed anhydride method of Erlanger, performed in a reversed micellar medium. The assessment of the number of haptenic groups per mole of BSA (epitope density) was achieved chromatographically by two methods according to a Chol standard curve established at 207 nm with linearity in the range 0-50 microg. These procedures involving an alkaline hydrolysis of a sample of either the conjugate (direct method) or the unreacted Chol HS (indirect method) yielded an acceptable level of agreement and concordant results in all cases. The influence of the activated hapten/BSA molar ratio on the coupling efficiency was investigated by the direct method within the range 10:1 to 250:1. Using the optimal conditions determined for Chol HS synthesis (a molar reagent ratio of 30:1 with incubation at 65 degrees C for 6 h) and for BSA haptenation (a 100-fold molar excess of activated hapten, with a carrier stock concentration of 5 mg/mL), epitope density of the conjugates lied between 23 and 27. By reacting the same amount of activated hapten ( approximately 216 microg) with identical amounts of various carriers (300 microg), conjugation efficiency was found similar on a microgram of Chol bound per milligram of carrier basis. This simple and reproducible conjugation and analysis procedures should provide a general method applicable to poorly available and weakly immunogenic haptens bearing hydroxyl groups such as polyether-type marine toxins. %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J Biochimie %D 1999 %T Activation of Na+ channels by ciguatoxin-1B produces a localized increase of intracellular Ca2+ in chromaffin cells. %A Mattei, C %A Benoit, E %A Darchen, F %A Legrand, A-M %A Molgo, J %N Sup 6 %P 191 %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J Parasite %D 1999 %T Assessment of immunochromatographic test for rapid lymphatic filariasis diagnosis. %A Nguyen, N L %A Plichart, C %A Esterre, P %N 4 %P 355-358 %V 6 %X Deux tests d'immunodiagnostic rapide de la filariose a Wuchereria bancrofti (kits australiens ICT Filariose) ont ete etudies sur le terrain et au laboratoire. Le but de cette etude etait de verifier les performances et l'utilite reelle de ces tests de capture d'antigene dans la filariose lymphatique dans trois foyers d'endemicite differente, situes dans l'archipel de la Societe (Polynesie francaise). Un echantillon de 1595 patients a donc ete analyse en parallele avec le test ICT, la technqiue ELISA de reference (capture de l'antigene circulant Og4C3) et la detection de microfilaires sanguines (par filtration sur membrane Nucleopore). Une seconde generation de test, validee pour l'utilisation de sang total, a ete testee en parallele sur une cinquantaine de serums de reference, par rapport au test de premiere generation, valide sur le serum uniquement.La correspondance entre les resultats obtenus par les deux tests rapides est excellente mais la sensibilite de cette technique immunochromatographique est toujours inferieure a celle de l'ELISA de reference. Contrairement a un test equivalent de diagnostic rapide du paludisme (ICT Malaria Pf), il ne semble pas y avoir de faux positifs dus a la presence de facteurs rhumatoides. La performance inferieure par rapport a l'ELISA semble accentuee dans les situations epidemiologiques ou l'on observe une forte proportion d'individus amicrofilaremiques mais porteurs de vers adultes, comme dans certaines %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J Bioconjugate Chemistry %D 1999 %T An improved method for the microsale preparation and characterization of hapten-protein conjugates : the use of cholesterol as a model for nonchromophore hydroxylated haptens. %A Naar, J %A Branaa, P %A Chinain, M %A Pauillac, S %N 6 %P 1143-1149 %V 10 %X A minute amount (0.446 micromoal) of cholesterol (Chol) was converted into an hemisuccinate derivative (Chol HS) using an excess of succinic anhydride. The optimal conditions for synthesis of Chol HS were explored by checkerboard experiments in which various succinic anhydride/Chol molar ratios ranging from 5:1 to 30:1 were assayed over a wide temperature range (50-85 degrees C) and for various incubation times (3-8 h). Total conversion was obtained at the higher reagent ratios, temperatures, and incubation times. Subsequently, this carboxylic derivative was first covalently linked to bovine serum albumin (BSA) then to various proteins (casein, ovalbumin, and hemocyanins) or to a synthetic homopolymer (poly-DL-Lysine) via a modified version of the mixed anhydride method of Erlanger, performed in a reversed micellar medium. The assessment of the number of haptenic groups per mole of BSA (epitope density) was achieved chromatographically by two methods according to a Chol standard curve established at 207 nm with linearity in the range 0-50 microg. These procedures involving an alkaline hydrolysis of a sample of either the conjugate (direct method) or the unreacted Chol HS (indirect method) yielded an acceptable level of agreement and concordant results in all cases. The influence of the activated hapten/BSA molar ratio on the coupling efficiency was investigated by the direct method within the range 10:1 to 250:1. Using the optimal conditions determined for Chol HS synthesis (a molar reagent ratio of 30:1 with incubation at 65 degrees C for 6 h) and for BSA haptenation (a 100-fold molar excess of activated hapten, with a carrier stock concentration of 5 mg/mL), epitope density of the conjugates lied between 23 and 27. By reacting the same amount of activated hapten ( approximately 216 microg) with identical amounts of various carriers (300 microg), conjugation efficiency was found similar on a microgram of Chol bound per milligram of carrier basis. This simple and reproducible conjugation and analysis procedures should provide a general method applicable to poorly available and weakly immunogenic haptens bearing hydroxyl groups such as polyether-type marine toxins. %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J Biochimie %D 1999 %T Activation of Na+ channels by ciguatoxin-1B produces a localized increase of intracellular Ca2+ in chromaffin cells. %A Mattei, C %A Benoit, E %A Darchen, F %A Legrand, A-M %A Molgo, J %N Sup 6 %P 191 %8 1999 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Seret B & Sire JY (Eds), Soc Fr Ichtyol, Paris. Proceedings of the 5th Indo-Pacifique Fish Conference, Noumea (New Caledonia), pp 721-738 %D 1999 %T Bioactive agents involved in fish poisoning : an overview. %A Molgo, J %A Mattei, C %A Benoit, E %A Legrand, A-M %A Kreger, A S %8 1999 %0 Conference Paper %B In : S %D 1999 %T Bioactive agents involved in fish poisoning : an overview. %A Molgo, J %A Mattei, C %A Benoit, E %A Legrand, A-M %A Kreger, A S %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1999 %T Ciguatoxins and brevetoxins, neurotoxic polyether compounds active on sodium channels. %A Dechraoui, M Y %A Naar, J %A Pauillac, S %A Legrand, A-M %N 1 %P 125-143 %V 37 %X Ciguatoxins (CTXs) and brevetoxins (PbTxs) modify the activation and inactivation processes of voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSC). In this study, the specific binding to rat brain synaptosomes of two commercial PbTxs, five purified CTXs and their derivatives was evaluated in competition with various concentrations of radiolabelled brevetoxin ([3H]PbTx-3). The results indicate that all CTXs bind specifically and with high affinity to sodium channels. Statistical analysis of the calculated inhibition constants identified two classes of toxins: the PbTxs and the less polar CTXs, and a group of CTXs of very high affinity. Relatively small chemical differences between the CTXs gave rise to significant differences in their affinity to the rat brain sodium channels. Cytotoxic effects associated with sodium channel activation were evaluated for the two classes of toxins on murine neuroblastoma cells, and their acute toxicity was determined in mice. CTXs have shown high affinities to VSSC of rat brain membranes and strong cytotoxic effects on neuroblastoma cells which correlate with their very low LD50 in mice. For PbTxs, it is different. Although binding with high affinity to VSSC and giving rise to significant cytotoxic effects, they are known to be poorly toxic intraperitoneally to mice. Furthermore, within the CTXs family, even though the most toxic compound (CTX-1B) has the highest affinity and the less toxic one (CTX-4B) the lowest affinity, a detailed analysis of the data pointed out a complex situation: (i) high affinity and toxicity seem to be related to the hydroxylation of the molecule on the A-ring rather than to the backbone type, (ii) acute toxicity in mice does not follow exactly the sodium-dependent cytotoxicity on neuroblastoma cells. These data suggest that the high toxicity of CTXs is related to sodium-dependent disturbances of the excitable membranes but might also involveother cellular mechanisms. %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J J Soc Biol %D 1999 %T Ciguatoxines et brevetoxines : dissection de leurs actions neurobiologiques. %A Mattei, C %A Molgo, J %A Legrand, A-M %A Benoit, E %N 3 %P 329-344 %V 193 %X Cette revue est centree sur les actions neurobiologiques des ciguatoxines et des brevetoxines, phycotoxines produites respectivement par les dinoflagelles Gambierdiscus toxicus et Ptychodiscus brevis. Ces actions sont illustrees en particulier par les effets de ces toxines sur la fibre nerveuse myelinisee et la jonction neuromusculaire squelettique de vertebres. Les ciguatoxines, via les poissons herbivores et carnivores, et les brevetoxines, par le biais d'invertebres marins et d'embruns portes par le vent de mer, sont responsables d'intoxications humaines qui se manifestent notamment par des troubles neurologiques. La cible moleculaire de ces familles de polyethers cycliques liposolubles est le canal Na+ active par le potentiel de membrane, proteine transmembranaire fondamentale pour l'excitabilite cellulaire. Au niveau de ce canal, les differentes toxines partagent le meme site de fixation, le site-recepteur 5, dont la localisation a ete etablie au niveau de la sous-unite a constituant la proteine-canal neuronale. Les etudes electrophysiologiques du mode d'action des ciguatoxines et des brevetoxines permettent d'identifier ces toxines comme etant de puissants activateurs des canaux Na+. En effet, durant l'action de ces phycotoxines, l'ouverture prolongee des canaux Na+, au potentiel membranaire de repos, produit une entree permanente d'ions Na+ dans la plupart des cellules electriquement excitables, entree qui a de multiples consequences sur les mecanismes physiologiques dependant du sodium. D'un point de vue electrophysiologique, une des consequences bien connue est une depolarisation de la membrane provoquant en retour l'apparition de decharges spontanees et/ou repetitives de potentiels d'action. Ces decharges peuvent etre transitoires ou continues selon la preparation et la toxine etudiees. C'est cette augmentation de l'excitabilite membranaire, lors de l'action des ciguatoxines et des brevetoxines, qui est responsable des differents effets exerces par ces toxines au niveau de diverses synapses chimiques et cellules secretrices. Finalement, une autre consequence de l'entree permanente d'ions Na+ dans les cellules a pu etre revelee gr %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1999 %T Ciguatoxins and brevetoxins, neurotoxic polyether compounds active on sodium channels. %A Dechraoui, M Y %A Naar, J %A Pauillac, S %A Legrand, A-M %N 1 %P 125-143 %V 37 %X Ciguatoxins (CTXs) and brevetoxins (PbTxs) modify the activation and inactivation processes of voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSC). In this study, the specific binding to rat brain synaptosomes of two commercial PbTxs, five purified CTXs and their derivatives was evaluated in competition with various concentrations of radiolabelled brevetoxin ([3H]PbTx-3). The results indicate that all CTXs bind specifically and with high affinity to sodium channels. Statistical analysis of the calculated inhibition constants identified two classes of toxins: the PbTxs and the less polar CTXs, and a group of CTXs of very high affinity. Relatively small chemical differences between the CTXs gave rise to significant differences in their affinity to the rat brain sodium channels. Cytotoxic effects associated with sodium channel activation were evaluated for the two classes of toxins on murine neuroblastoma cells, and their acute toxicity was determined in mice. CTXs have shown high affinities to VSSC of rat brain membranes and strong cytotoxic effects on neuroblastoma cells which correlate with their very low LD50 in mice. For PbTxs, it is different. Although binding with high affinity to VSSC and giving rise to significant cytotoxic effects, they are known to be poorly toxic intraperitoneally to mice. Furthermore, within the CTXs family, even though the most toxic compound (CTX-1B) has the highest affinity and the less toxic one (CTX-4B) the lowest affinity, a detailed analysis of the data pointed out a complex situation: (i) high affinity and toxicity seem to be related to the hydroxylation of the molecule on the A-ring rather than to the backbone type, (ii) acute toxicity in mice does not follow exactly the sodium-dependent cytotoxicity on neuroblastoma cells. These data suggest that the high toxicity of CTXs is related to sodium-dependent disturbances of the excitable membranes but might also involveother cellular mechanisms. %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J J Soc Biol %D 1999 %T Ciguatoxines et br %A Mattei, C %A Molgo, J %A Legrand, A-M %A Benoit, E %N 3 %P 329-344 %V 193 %X Cette revue est centr %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Int Hlth %D 1999 %T Dengue : an evaluation of dengue severity in French Polynesia based on an analysis of 403 laboratory-confirmed cases. %A Murgue, B %A Deparis, X %A Chungue, E %A Cassar, O %A Roche, C %N 11 %P 765-773 %V 4 %X We conducted a retrospective study of 403 laboratory-confirmed dengue cases hospitalized in Tahiti between August 1989 and March 1997. According to standard WHO criteria, 337 of these cases were dengue fever (DF) and 64 were dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Of the 10 fatal cases, 6 were DF and 4 were DHF. As an alternative, we used a correspondence analysis procedure to define dengue severity based on basic clinical and biological criteria for which we assigned a severity score, and then selected the 50 most severe cases from this analysis. Of the latter, 17 patients had been classified as DF and 33 as DHF by the WHO criteria. From this analysis, haemorrhages and decreased platelets counts associated with hepatic disorders are the main criteria associated with the severe dengue cases. Thus in our study population, the WHO classification does not account for the overall severity of dengue; hepatic failure should be considered as a specific severe form of dengue since plasma leakage, which is the pathophysiological hallmark of DHF, is only one of the pathogenic mechanisms leading to severity. %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Int Hlth %D 1999 %T Dengue : an evaluation of dengue severity in French Polynesia based on an analysis of 403 laboratory-confirmed cases. %A Murgue, B %A Deparis, X %A Chungue, E %A Cassar, O %A Roche, C %N 11 %P 765-773 %V 4 %X We conducted a retrospective study of 403 laboratory-confirmed dengue cases hospitalized in Tahiti between August 1989 and March 1997. According to standard WHO criteria, 337 of these cases were dengue fever (DF) and 64 were dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Of the 10 fatal cases, 6 were DF and 4 were DHF. As an alternative, we used a correspondence analysis procedure to define dengue severity based on basic clinical and biological criteria for which we assigned a severity score, and then selected the 50 most severe cases from this analysis. Of the latter, 17 patients had been classified as DF and 33 as DHF by the WHO criteria. From this analysis, haemorrhages and decreased platelets counts associated with hepatic disorders are the main criteria associated with the severe dengue cases. Thus in our study population, the WHO classification does not account for the overall severity of dengue; hepatic failure should be considered as a specific severe form of dengue since plasma leakage, which is the pathophysiological hallmark of DHF, is only one of the pathogenic mechanisms leading to severity. %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J J Exp Mar Biol Ecol %D 1999 %T Effects of epiphytic bacteria on the growth of the toxic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus (Dinophyceae). %A Sakami, T %A Nakahara, H %A Chinain, M %A Ishida, Y %P 231-246 %V 233 %X The effects of epiphytic bacteria on the growth of the ciguatera dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus were examined. Neither of the two G. toxicus strains used in this experiment were able to proliferate in PES medium when the algal cells were in an axenic condition, while proliferation occurred in four of seven bacterial strains examined. Alteromonas sp. strain B4 was the most effective and was found to excrete high molecular weight (> 10 k Da) substances into the medium. The effects of isolated epiphytic bacteria on the growth of G. toxicus were assayed using an algal culture which was contaminated by associated bacteria to maintain the algal growth constant. Most bacteria isolated from the surfaces of red algae Jania spp. with peptone-agar medium did not affect the growth of G. toxicus. One strain, however, Flavobacterium sp. strain C1 clearly inhibited algal growth. Many bacteria were isolated with the utilization of enrichment techniques from Jania spp. where G. toxicus abundantly occurs. The bacterial flora on Jania spp. differed between samples in both number and colony characteristics and the inhibition of G. toxicus growth. %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Entomol %D 1999 %T Effects of larval density on the size of Aedes polynesiensis adults (Diptera : Culicidae). %A Mercer, D R %N 6 %P 702-708 %V 36 %X Replicated cohorts of a Tahitian laboratory strain of Aedes polynesiensis Marks were reared at 3 larval densities with a fixed amount of food. For larvae provided with limiting per capita food (i.e., 400 larvae per pan with 500 mg liver powder) relative to standard rearing conditions (i.e., 200 larvae per pan), mean pupal survival as well as male and female mean adult dry weights were significantly reduced and median developmental times were significantly prolonged. However, excess per capita food did not allow low density cohorts (i.e., 100 larvae per pan) to increase adult production, developmental rate, or adult dry weight compared with cohorts reared under standard rearing conditions. Male and female pupal wet weights, adult dry weights, and adult wing lengths all were correlated for Ae. polynesiensis collected as pupae from natural habitats near Papara Commune, Tahiti. Mean adult dry weights of host-seeking females from the same and a neighboring location did not differ significantly from weights of females emerging from field-collected pupae. The comparison of mean adult dry weight of these adults with adults reared at different densities in the laboratory indicated that field populations develop under food-limited conditions. Aedes polynesiensis responds to intraspecific larval competition by producing small adults over elongated developmental periods. Pupal wet weights, adult dry weights, and adult wing lengths are equally acceptable measures of mosquito size for vector and fecundity studies. %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J J Exp Mar Biol Ecol %D 1999 %T Effects of epiphytic bacteria on the growth of the toxic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus (Dinophyceae). %A Sakami, T %A Nakahara, H %A Chinain, M %A Ishida, Y %P 231-246 %V 233 %X The effects of epiphytic bacteria on the growth of the ciguatera dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus were examined. Neither of the two G. toxicus strains used in this experiment were able to proliferate in PES medium when the algal cells were in an axenic condition, while proliferation occurred in four of seven bacterial strains examined. Alteromonas sp. strain B4 was the most effective and was found to excrete high molecular weight (> 10 k Da) substances into the medium. The effects of isolated epiphytic bacteria on the growth of G. toxicus were assayed using an algal culture which was contaminated by associated bacteria to maintain the algal growth constant. Most bacteria isolated from the surfaces of red algae Jania spp. with peptone-agar medium did not affect the growth of G. toxicus. One strain, however, Flavobacterium sp. strain C1 clearly inhibited algal growth. Many bacteria were isolated with the utilization of enrichment techniques from Jania spp. where G. toxicus abundantly occurs. The bacterial flora on Jania spp. differed between samples in both number and colony characteristics and the inhibition of G. toxicus growth. %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J Parasite Immunol %D 1999 %T Filarial antibody responses in Wuchereria bancrofti transmission area are related to parasitological but not clinical status. %A Nicolas, L %A Langy, S %A Plichart, C %A Deparis, X %N 2 %P 73-80 %V 21 %X In Wuchereria bancrofti transmission areas, three groups of individuals have been identified, according to the presence or absence of microfilariae or adult worm derived molecules in the blood compartment. These groups likely reflect individuals with different permissivity/resistance to the complete development of W. bancrofti cycle. The profile of filarial-specific immunoglobulins was analysed in W. bancrofti-exposed individuals in French Polynesia, according to the presence or absence of microfilariae (Mf) and adult worms, measured by Og4C3 circulating antigen. Individuals harbouring adult worms, have higher filarial-specific IgG4 but lower IgG3 and IgE levels, than adult worm-free individuals, independently of the presence of Mf. Low filarial-specific IgG1 and IgG2 levels were associated with the presence of Mf but independent of the presence/absence of adult worms. The filarial antibody responses were associated with the parasitological status of individuals but not with clinical symptoms such as hydroceles or limb lymphangitis or elephantiasis. The reduction of filarial-specific immunoglobulin levels was higher after treatment with diethylcarbamazine, than ivermectin, which likely reflects the better effect of the former on W. bancrofti adult worms. However, reduction of antibody levels was also observed in Mf-and adult worm-negative individuals. This could be due to the overall reduction of W. bancrofti transmission in the island where this study took place. %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1999 %T Increase in nodal volume of myelinated axons during the action of the Pacific ciguatoxin-1B (P-CTX-1B) depends on both Na+ influx and K+ efflux. %A Mattei, C %A Molgo, J %A Legrand, A-M %A Benoit, E %P 1230 %V 37 %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J Bulletin du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de Marseille. Mesogee %D 1999 %T Identification moleculaire, evaluation des echanges et de la co-evolution des dinoflagelles symbiotiques des coraux du lagon de Arue a Tahiti. %A Darius, H T %A Dauga, C %P 65-68 %V 57 %X La diversite des dinoflagelles symbiotiques de 7 especes de corail occupant le meme ecosysteme a ete etudie a l'aide d'outils moleculaires. Le gene codant la petite sous-unite ribosomale (ADNr 18S) a ete choisi et 26 sequences originales de dinoflagelles symbiotiques ont ete obtenues.Les pourcentages de similarite, les signatures et les analyses phylogenetiques des sequences montrent que nos echantillons de dinoflagelles symbiotiques appartiennent au genre Symbiodinium et qu'ils correspondent a au moins six souches differentes et trois nouvelles especes. Le niveau taxonomique des sequences de l'ADNr 18S n'etant pas toujours determine, six phylogroupes Symbiodinium ont ete definis. Nos resultats suggerent 1) la possibilite d'echanges de phylogroupes Symbiodinium similaires entre des especes de corail differentes ; 2) la presence d'association plus specifique pour deux especes de corail ; 3) le rejet du concept de co-evolution.Symbiotic Dinoflagellates are unicellular microalgae associated with scleractinian corals. This symbiosis is necessary for life and growth of reef communities. The diversity of symbiotic Dinoflagellates from seven coral species (Fungia scutaria, Fungia paumotensis, Leptastrea transversa, Pavona cactus, Pocillopora verrucosa, Montastrea curta and Acropora formosa) was studied in a restricted geographical area, the lagoon of Arue in Tahiti (French Polynesia). Symbiotic Dinoflagellates are difficult to maintain in vitro, and their diversity was explored using ribosomal small subunit gene (18S rDNA) sequences. 18S rDNAs from 15 symbiotic Dinoflagellates samples were amplified by PCR and sequenced. All the 26 sequences found were original compared to published Symbiodinium sequences. Phylogenetic analysis proved that symbiotic Dinoflagellates studied belonged to the genus Symbiodinium and may correspond to at least 6 strains and three new species. Similary percentage, sequence signature and monophyletic clusters allowed to define six phylogroups Symbiodinium. In this restricted geographical area, one Symbiodinium phylogroup could be associated with several coral species.Phylogroup Symbiodinium I was found in Fungia scutaria, Fungia paumotensis, leptastrea transversa, Pavona cactus, Pocillopora verrucosa, and Acropora formosa suggesting the possibility of symbiotic Dinoflagellates flux in this area. A single Symbiodinium phylogroup could be associated with only one coral species, as Montastrea curta which contained Symbiodinium IV phylogroup, suggesting that specific mechanisms could be involved in the establishment of a symbiosis. One coral species could be associated with more than one Symbiodinium phylogroups, as Pocillopora verrucosa which contained two Symbiodinium phylogroups. %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1999 %T Increase in nodal volume of myelinated axons during the action of the Pacific ciguatoxin-1B (P-CTX-1B) depends on both Na+ influx and K+ efflux. %A Mattei, C %A Molgo, J %A Legrand, A-M %A Benoit, E %P 1230 %V 37 %8 1999 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Seret B & Sire JY (Eds), Soc Fr Ichtyol, Paris. Proceedings of the 5th Indo-Pacifique Fish Conference, Noumea (New Caledonia), pp 759-773 %D 1999 %T Immunochemical methods for ciguatoxins detection in pacific herbivorous and carnivorous fish. %A Pauillac, S %A Sasaki, M %A Naar, J %A Inoue, A %A Branaa, P %A Cruchet, P %A Chinain, M %A Legrand, A-M %X Un conjugue de l'albumine bovine (BSA) et de l'ovalbumine (OVA) avec un fragment synthetique JKLM de la CTX-1B, la plus puissante des ciguatoxines (CTXs), a ete prepare. Les liaisons haptene-proteine porteuses ont ete etablies via le N-hydroxysuccinimide ester du fragment carboxylique, en presence d'un carbodiimide hydrosoluble. Les conjugues de la BSA et de l'OVA ont servi respectivement a l'immunisation de deux souris BALB/c et a l'analyse de leur reponse immunitaire par ELISA. Les titres en anticorps (Ac) mesures par la technique de la dilution finale etaient autour de 1/16.000 dans les deux cas. La grande specificite des Ac murins a ete demontree par ELISA de type indirect ou competitif. Dans le format classique en plaques a 96 puits, les Ac n'ont pas reagi de maniere significative avec la PbTx-3 et d'autres composes de nature polyether mais ont presente au contraire 133% de reaction croisee vis-a-vis de la CTX-1B. Des limites de detection pour JKLM et la CTX-1B de 50 et 30 picomoles respectivement ont ete obtenues avec un antiserum dilue au 1/30.000. Une diminution de la concentration en Ac (dilution 1/50.000) a permis d'abaisser le seuil de detection a 7 picomoles de CTX-1B. La sensibilite de cette technique a pu encore etre ramenee a 0,6 picomoles de fragment JKLM par utilisation d'un microtest ELISA realise en plaques de Terasaki. Un essai preliminaire d'evaluation de CTXs dans des extraits lipidiques bruts de poissons a fourni essentiellement la meme sensibilite (7 picomoles) que lors des tests de detection de CTX-1B pure realises dans les memes conditions en plaques standard. En conclusion, le test ELISA competitif decrit pourrait etre ameliore pour permettre en routine le dosage direct des CTXs dans des extraits pisciaires.A conjugate of JKLM ring fragment, a carboxylic derivative of the right-hand tetracyclic terminus portion of CTX-1B, the most potent ciguatoxin (CTX), with two carrier proteins has been synthesized. Hapten-carrier amide linkages were promoted using the N-hydroxysuccinimide ester of the carboxylic fragment in the presence of a water-soluble carbodiimide according to standard condensation procedure. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) were respectively used for i.p. immunization of two BALB/c mice and antibody screening. Titers of both antisera as determined in an end-point titration ELISA format were found to be around 1/16,000. Mice polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) specificity was demonstrated either by indirect or by competitive inhibition ELISA. In the classical 96-well format, PAbs did not significantly cross-react with PbTx-3 or other related polyether structures but did show 133% cross-reaction with CTX-1B. With a 1/30,000 antiserum dilution, the lower limit of accurate JKLM ring fragment and CTX-1B determinations was respectively 50 and 30 picomoles. Decreasing the antibody concentration (1/50,000 dilution), allowed a detection limit of 7 picomoles CTX-1B. The sensitivity of the assay could be further lowered to 0.6 picomoles JKLM fragment by means of a microELISA format performed in Terasaki plates. A preliminary assessment of CTXs in crude lipid extracts of fish yielded the same sensitivity (7 picomoles) as found for detection of pure CTX-1B performed in the standard ELISA format under the same conditions. It was concluded that the competitive ELISA described herein could be developed into a routine screening method for the determination of pacific CTXs in crude fish extracts. %8 1999 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Proceeding of the 5th Indo-Pacific Fish Conference, Noumea, New Caledonia, 1997, Seret B & Sire JY (Eds), pp 1-14 %D 1999 %T Ionic basis of the neurocellular actions of pacific ciguatoxins implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning. %A Benoit, E %A Mattei, C %A Legrand, A-M %A Molgo, J %X Ciguatoxins are responsible for a human seafood poisoning named ciguatera, a disease linked to the benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus and acquired by eating certain contaminated fish species. These toxins are complex, lipid-soluble, cyclic-polyethers which bind with high affinity to a specific receptor site of the neuronal, voltage-sensitive Na+ channel-protein. Pharmacological studies reveal that ciguatoxins increase Na+ permeability of various excitable cell membranes, notably at the resting membrane potential. This action is attributed to modification of Na+ channels, which then remain permanently open. As a consequence, ciguatoxins evoke membrane depolarization, cause spontaneous and/or repetitive action potentials, and influence Na+-Ca2+ exchange in nerve membranes. Moreover, ciguatoxins induce mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ in nerve cells. Finally, ciguatoxins produce swelling of nerve cells due to continuous Na+ entry through toxin-opened Na+ channels, which induces an increase in intracellular Na+ concentration and an influx of water. These latter effects of ciguatoxins are prevented by blocking voltage-dependent Na+ channels and are reversed by hyperosmolar external solutions containing, in particular, D-mannitol. In conclusion, these neurocellular actions may explain some of the human neurological alterations induced by ciguatoxins and the efficacy of D-mannitol used as a clinical treatment of ciguatera. %8 1999 %0 Conference Paper %B In : S %D 1999 %T Immunochemical methods for ciguatoxins detection in pacific herbivorous and carnivorous fish. %A Pauillac, S %A Sasaki, M %A Naar, J %A Inoue, A %A Branaa, P %A Cruchet, P %A Chinain, M %A Legrand, A-M %X Un conjugu %8 1999 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Proceeding of the 5th Indo-Pacific Fish Conference, Noumea, New Caledonia, 1997, Seret B & Sire JY (Eds), pp 1-14 %D 1999 %T Ionic basis of the neurocellular actions of pacific ciguatoxins implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning. %A Benoit, E %A Mattei, C %A Legrand, A-M %A Molgo, J %X Ciguatoxins are responsible for a human seafood poisoning named ciguatera, a disease linked to the benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus and acquired by eating certain contaminated fish species. These toxins are complex, lipid-soluble, cyclic-polyethers which bind with high affinity to a specific receptor site of the neuronal, voltage-sensitive Na+ channel-protein. Pharmacological studies reveal that ciguatoxins increase Na+ permeability of various excitable cell membranes, notably at the resting membrane potential. This action is attributed to modification of Na+ channels, which then remain permanently open. As a consequence, ciguatoxins evoke membrane depolarization, cause spontaneous and/or repetitive action potentials, and influence Na+-Ca2+ exchange in nerve membranes. Moreover, ciguatoxins induce mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ in nerve cells. Finally, ciguatoxins produce swelling of nerve cells due to continuous Na+ entry through toxin-opened Na+ channels, which induces an increase in intracellular Na+ concentration and an influx of water. These latter effects of ciguatoxins are prevented by blocking voltage-dependent Na+ channels and are reversed by hyperosmolar external solutions containing, in particular, D-mannitol. In conclusion, these neurocellular actions may explain some of the human neurological alterations induced by ciguatoxins and the efficacy of D-mannitol used as a clinical treatment of ciguatera. %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J J Phycol %D 1999 %T Morphology and molecular analyses of three toxic species of Gambierdiscus (Dinophyceae) : G. pacificus, sp. nov., G. australes, sp. nov., and G. polynesiensis, sp. nov. %A Chinain, M %A Faust, M A %A Pauillac, S %P 1282-1296 %V 35 %X Three new dinoflagellate species, Gambierdiscus polynesiensis, sp. nov., Gambierdiscus australes, sp. nov., and Gambierdiscus pacificus, sp. nov. are described from scanning electron micrographs. The morphology of the three new Gambierdiscus species is compared with the type species Gambierdiscus toxicus Adachi et Fukuyo 1979, and two other species : Gambierdiscus belizeanus Faust 1995 and Gambierdiscus yasumotoi Holmes 1998. The plate formula is : Po, 3', 7'', 6C, 8S, 5''', 1p, 2''''. Culture extracts of these three new species displayed both ciguatoxin- and maitotoxin-like toxicities. The following morphological characteristics differentiated each species. 1) Celles of G. polynesiensis are 68-85 mm long and 64-75 mm wide, and the cell's surface is smooth. They are identified by a large triangular apical pore plate (Po), a narrow fish-hook opening surrounded by 38 round pores, and a large, broad posterior intercalary plate (1p) wedged between narrow postcingular plates 2''' and 4'''. Plate 1p occupies 60% of the width of the hypotheca. 2) Cells of G. australes also have a smooth surface and are 76-93 mm long and 65-85 mm wide in dorsoventral depth. They are identified by the broad ellipsoid apical pore plate (Po) surrounded by 31 round pores and a long and narrow 1p plate wedged between postcingular plates 2''' and 4'''. Plate 1p occupies 30% of the width of the hypotheca. 3) Cells of G. pacificus are 67-77 mm long and 60-76 mm wide in dorsoventral depth, and its surface is smooth. They are identified by four-sided apical pore plate (Po) surrounded by 30 round pores. A short narrow 1p plate is wedged between the wide postcingular plates 2''' and 4'''. Plate 1p occupies 20% of the width of the hypotheca. These three newly described species were also characterized by isozyme electrophoresis and DNA sequencing of the D8-D10 region of their large subunit (LSU) rRNA genes. The consistency between species designations based on SEM microscopy and classification inferred from biochemical and genetic heterogeneities was examined among seven isolates of Gambierdiscus. Their classification into four morphospecies was not consistent with groupings inferred from isozyme patterns. Three molecular types could be distinguished based on the comparison of their LSU rDNA sequences. Although G. toxicus TUR was found to be more closely related to G. pacificus, sp. nov. than to other G. toxicus strains, the molecular classification was able to discriminate G. polynesiensis, sp. nov. and G. australes, sp. nov. from G. toxicus. These results suggest the usefulness of the D8-D10 portion of the Gambierdiscus LSU rDNA as a valuable taxonomic marker. %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J J Phycol %D 1999 %T Morphology and molecular analyses of three toxic species of Gambierdiscus (Dinophyceae) : G. pacificus, sp. nov., G. australes, sp. nov., and G. polynesiensis, sp. nov. %A Chinain, M %A Faust, M A %A Pauillac, S %P 1282-1296 %V 35 %X Three new dinoflagellate species, Gambierdiscus polynesiensis, sp. nov., Gambierdiscus australes, sp. nov., and Gambierdiscus pacificus, sp. nov. are described from scanning electron micrographs. The morphology of the three new Gambierdiscus species is compared with the type species Gambierdiscus toxicus Adachi et Fukuyo 1979, and two other species : Gambierdiscus belizeanus Faust 1995 and Gambierdiscus yasumotoi Holmes 1998. The plate formula is : Po, 3', 7'', 6C, 8S, 5''', 1p, 2''''. Culture extracts of these three new species displayed both ciguatoxin- and maitotoxin-like toxicities. The following morphological characteristics differentiated each species. 1) Celles of G. polynesiensis are 68-85 mm long and 64-75 mm wide, and the cell's surface is smooth. They are identified by a large triangular apical pore plate (Po), a narrow fish-hook opening surrounded by 38 round pores, and a large, broad posterior intercalary plate (1p) wedged between narrow postcingular plates 2''' and 4'''. Plate 1p occupies 60% of the width of the hypotheca. 2) Cells of G. australes also have a smooth surface and are 76-93 mm long and 65-85 mm wide in dorsoventral depth. They are identified by the broad ellipsoid apical pore plate (Po) surrounded by 31 round pores and a long and narrow 1p plate wedged between postcingular plates 2''' and 4'''. Plate 1p occupies 30% of the width of the hypotheca. 3) Cells of G. pacificus are 67-77 mm long and 60-76 mm wide in dorsoventral depth, and its surface is smooth. They are identified by four-sided apical pore plate (Po) surrounded by 30 round pores. A short narrow 1p plate is wedged between the wide postcingular plates 2''' and 4'''. Plate 1p occupies 20% of the width of the hypotheca. These three newly described species were also characterized by isozyme electrophoresis and DNA sequencing of the D8-D10 region of their large subunit (LSU) rRNA genes. The consistency between species designations based on SEM microscopy and classification inferred from biochemical and genetic heterogeneities was examined among seven isolates of Gambierdiscus. Their classification into four morphospecies was not consistent with groupings inferred from isozyme patterns. Three molecular types could be distinguished based on the comparison of their LSU rDNA sequences. Although G. toxicus TUR was found to be more closely related to G. pacificus, sp. nov. than to other G. toxicus strains, the molecular classification was able to discriminate G. polynesiensis, sp. nov. and G. australes, sp. nov. from G. toxicus. These results suggest the usefulness of the D8-D10 portion of the Gambierdiscus LSU rDNA as a valuable taxonomic marker. %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J J Neurosc Res %D 1999 %T Neurotoxins targetting receptor site 5 of voltage-dependent sodium channels increase the nodal volume of myelinated axons. %A Mattei, C %A Dechraoui, M Y %A Molgo, J %A Meunier, F A %A Legrand, A-M %A Benoit, E %N 6 %P 666-673 %V 55 %X The effects of a C57 type ciguatoxin (CTX-3C) and two types of brevetoxins (PbTx-1 and PbTx-3), known to bind to receptor site 5 of the neuronal voltage-dependent Na+ channel-protein, were studied on the morphology of living frog myelinated axons using confocal laser scanning microscopy. During the action of CTX-3C, PbTx-1, and PbTx-3 (10-50 nM), a marked swelling of nodes of Ranvier was observed without apparent modification of internodal parts of axons. In all cases, toxin-induced nodal swelling attained a steady-state within 75-100 min that was well maintained during an additional 90-115 min. The nodal swelling was reversed by an external hyperosmotic solution containing 100 mM D-mannitol and could be completely prevented by blocking voltage-dependent Na+ channels with 1 microM tetrodotoxin. It is suggested that CTX-3C, PbTx-1, and PbTx-3 by activating Na+ channels cause a continuous Na+ entry into axons, increasing internal Na+ concentration. Such an increase directly or indirectly disturbs the osmotic equilibrium between intra- and extra-axonal media, resulting in an influx of water, which is responsible for the long-lasting nodal swelling. Similar results were previously reported with two C60 type ciguatoxins (CTX-1B and CTX-4B). Thus, it is concluded that the four types of toxins targetting receptor site 5 of neuronal voltage-dependent Na+ channels, not only enhance nerve membrane excitability but also, on a long-term basis, cause a marked increase in the axonal volume. %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J J Neurosc Res %D 1999 %T Neurotoxins targetting receptor site 5 of voltage-dependent sodium channels increase the nodal volume of myelinated axons. %A Mattei, C %A Dechraoui, M Y %A Molgo, J %A Meunier, F A %A Legrand, A-M %A Benoit, E %N 6 %P 666-673 %V 55 %X The effects of a C57 type ciguatoxin (CTX-3C) and two types of brevetoxins (PbTx-1 and PbTx-3), known to bind to receptor site 5 of the neuronal voltage-dependent Na+ channel-protein, were studied on the morphology of living frog myelinated axons using confocal laser scanning microscopy. During the action of CTX-3C, PbTx-1, and PbTx-3 (10-50 nM), a marked swelling of nodes of Ranvier was observed without apparent modification of internodal parts of axons. In all cases, toxin-induced nodal swelling attained a steady-state within 75-100 min that was well maintained during an additional 90-115 min. The nodal swelling was reversed by an external hyperosmotic solution containing 100 mM D-mannitol and could be completely prevented by blocking voltage-dependent Na+ channels with 1 microM tetrodotoxin. It is suggested that CTX-3C, PbTx-1, and PbTx-3 by activating Na+ channels cause a continuous Na+ entry into axons, increasing internal Na+ concentration. Such an increase directly or indirectly disturbs the osmotic equilibrium between intra- and extra-axonal media, resulting in an influx of water, which is responsible for the long-lasting nodal swelling. Similar results were previously reported with two C60 type ciguatoxins (CTX-1B and CTX-4B). Thus, it is concluded that the four types of toxins targetting receptor site 5 of neuronal voltage-dependent Na+ channels, not only enhance nerve membrane excitability but also, on a long-term basis, cause a marked increase in the axonal volume. %8 1999 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Neuropathology & Applied Neurobiology, Lowe JS (Ed), Proceeding of the VI European Congress of Neuropathology, Barcelona, Spain, 5-8 may 1999, Blackwell Science, pp 4-5 %D 1999 %T Neuropathology of ciguatera fish poisoning : involvement of voltage-dependent sodium channels. %A Molgo, J %A Benoit, E %A Mattei, C %A Legrand, A-M %8 1999 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Neuropathology & Applied Neurobiology, Lowe JS (Ed), Proceeding of the VI European Congress of Neuropathology, Barcelona, Spain, 5-8 may 1999, Blackwell Science, pp 4-5 %D 1999 %T Neuropathology of ciguatera fish poisoning : involvement of voltage-dependent sodium channels. %A Molgo, J %A Benoit, E %A Mattei, C %A Legrand, A-M %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J Bioconjugate Chemistry %D 1999 %T Preparation and characterization of domoic acid-protein conjugates using small amount of toxin in a reversed micellar medium : application in a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. %A Branaa, P %A Naar, J %A Chinain, M %A Pauillac, S %N 6 %P 1137-1142 %V 10 %X With the aim of producing novel antibodies to domoic acid (DA), an original, rapid, and simple procedure for preparing minute amount of hapten-protein conjugates was developed. The amide-bond-generating mixed anhydride method of Erlanger was performed using 0.32-0.64 micromol of DA in a reversed micellar medium allowing strong carrier haptenization as determined by spectrophotometric measurement. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) conjugates were, respectively, used for immunization of BALB/c mice and antibody screening by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Specific polyclonal antibodies were produced upon multiple injections of (DA)(17)-BSA conjugate administered by three different routes: (i) intraperitoneal (i.p.), (ii) intraperitoneal + subcutaneous (i.p. + s.c.), (iii) footpad (f.p.). The i.p. route induced antisera of higher titer (1:350000) than did the other protocols (approximately 1:72900) and was selected throughout further experiments. Using a competitive ELISA format with a peroxidase immunoconjugate and a chromogenic substrate, no significant cross-reactivity was observed with glutamic acid, aspartic acid and kainic acid (KA), a structural analogue of DA. The sensitivity of this assay could be enhanced by 1 order of magnitude by using a beta-galactosidase immunoconjugate with a fluorogenic substrate while preserving DA specificity. The calculated dissociation constant (K(D)) for the interaction of the antibodies with free DA was 5 x 10(-)(7) M (chromogenic assay) and 5 x 10(-)(8) M (fluorogenic assay). Using the optimized assay the limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) in the ELISA buffer were 1.4 and 3 ng/mL, respectively. Moreover this assay was found applicable for measuring DA levels in spiked mussel extracts pre-cleaned through a solid-phase extraction column, as a very good correlation (r(2) = 0.96) was observed between the actual amounts of DA added and amounts detected by ELISA. Thus, accurate determinations of DA in clean extracts could be achieved between 2 and 180 ng/mL in spiked samples which corresponds to 0.02-1.8 microg/g of original mussel tissue. Owing to the regulation limits of 20 microg DA/g of shellfish tissue, these extraction and assay procedures should provide a useful complement to the standard HPLC analytical technique currently employed in monitoring DA in shellfish tissue. %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J Bioconjugate Chemistry %D 1999 %T Preparation and characterization of domoic acid-protein conjugates using small amount of toxin in a reversed micellar medium : application in a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. %A Branaa, P %A Naar, J %A Chinain, M %A Pauillac, S %N 6 %P 1137-1142 %V 10 %X With the aim of producing novel antibodies to domoic acid (DA), an original, rapid, and simple procedure for preparing minute amount of hapten-protein conjugates was developed. The amide-bond-generating mixed anhydride method of Erlanger was performed using 0.32-0.64 micromol of DA in a reversed micellar medium allowing strong carrier haptenization as determined by spectrophotometric measurement. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) conjugates were, respectively, used for immunization of BALB/c mice and antibody screening by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Specific polyclonal antibodies were produced upon multiple injections of (DA)(17)-BSA conjugate administered by three different routes: (i) intraperitoneal (i.p.), (ii) intraperitoneal + subcutaneous (i.p. + s.c.), (iii) footpad (f.p.). The i.p. route induced antisera of higher titer (1:350000) than did the other protocols (approximately 1:72900) and was selected throughout further experiments. Using a competitive ELISA format with a peroxidase immunoconjugate and a chromogenic substrate, no significant cross-reactivity was observed with glutamic acid, aspartic acid and kainic acid (KA), a structural analogue of DA. The sensitivity of this assay could be enhanced by 1 order of magnitude by using a beta-galactosidase immunoconjugate with a fluorogenic substrate while preserving DA specificity. The calculated dissociation constant (K(D)) for the interaction of the antibodies with free DA was 5 x 10(-)(7) M (chromogenic assay) and 5 x 10(-)(8) M (fluorogenic assay). Using the optimized assay the limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) in the ELISA buffer were 1.4 and 3 ng/mL, respectively. Moreover this assay was found applicable for measuring DA levels in spiked mussel extracts pre-cleaned through a solid-phase extraction column, as a very good correlation (r(2) = 0.96) was observed between the actual amounts of DA added and amounts detected by ELISA. Thus, accurate determinations of DA in clean extracts could be achieved between 2 and 180 ng/mL in spiked samples which corresponds to 0.02-1.8 microg/g of original mussel tissue. Owing to the regulation limits of 20 microg DA/g of shellfish tissue, these extraction and assay procedures should provide a useful complement to the standard HPLC analytical technique currently employed in monitoring DA in shellfish tissue. %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J Mar Biol %D 1999 %T Seasonal abundance and toxicity of the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. (Dinophyceae), the causative agent of ciguatera in Tahiti, French Polynesia. %A Chinain, M %A Germain, M %A Deparis, X %A Pauillac, S %A Legrand, A-M %P 259-267 %V 135 %X The benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. is the primary causative agent of ciguatera fish poisoning in French Polynesia. However, the initiation of ciguatera outbreaks and the factors that control ciguatoxin production in this dinoflagellate are still poorly understood. In this paper, we present some original data concerning the seasonal abundance and toxicity of natural population of Gambierdiscus spp. based on a long-term survey in a ciguateric site of the island of Tahiti. From February 1993 to December 1997, Gambierdiscus spp. population densities were monitored weekly in the Atimaono barrier reef of Papara in relation to temperature and salinity. Densities peaked at 4992 cells g-1 in October 1994 and constitued %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J Mar Biol %D 1999 %T Seasonal abundance and toxicity of the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. (Dinophyceae), the causative agent of ciguatera in Tahiti, French Polynesia. %A Chinain, M %A Germain, M %A Deparis, X %A Pauillac, S %A Legrand, A-M %P 259-267 %V 135 %X The benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. is the primary causative agent of ciguatera fish poisoning in French Polynesia. However, the initiation of ciguatera outbreaks and the factors that control ciguatoxin production in this dinoflagellate are still poorly understood. In this paper, we present some original data concerning the seasonal abundance and toxicity of natural population of Gambierdiscus spp. based on a long-term survey in a ciguateric site of the island of Tahiti. From February 1993 to December 1997, Gambierdiscus spp. population densities were monitored weekly in the Atimaono barrier reef of Papara in relation to temperature and salinity. Densities peaked at 4992 cells g-1 in October 1994 and constitued %8 1999 %0 Conference Paper %B Symposium on the chemistry of natural products %D 1999 %T Structural eluciddation of trace amounts of ciguatoxin congeners by FAB MS/MS experiments. %A Yasumoto, T %A Igarashi, T %A Legrand, A-M %A Cruchet, P %A Fujita, T %A Naoki, H %X Cigutoxin congeners(CTXs) were extracted from three species of ciguateric fish (moray eels, red snappers, and parrotfish) and the toxin-producing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. Though most of the samples were impure and in amounts less than 10.MU.g, Na-adduct ion FAB MS/MS experiments enabled us to elucidate structures of 17 congeners out of 20 detected by LC/MS. Structural modifications mainly involved oxidation and ring opening, and were observed in the sections near the both termini of the molecules. %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J Am J Trop Med Hyg %D 1999 %T Variation in oral susceptibility to dengue type 2 virus of populations of Aedes aegypti from the islands of Tahiti and Moorea, French Polynesia. %A Vazeille-Falcoz, M %A Mousson, L %A Rodhain, F %A Chungue, E %A Failloux, A B %N 2 %P 292-299 %V 60 %X Twenty three samples of Aedes aegypti populations from the islands of Tahiti and Moorea (French Polynesia) were tested for their oral susceptibility to dengue type 2 virus. The high infection rates obtained suggest that the artificial feeding protocol used was more efficient than those previously described. Statistical analysis of the results allowed us to define two distinct geographic areas on Tahiti with respect to the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti: the east coast, with homogeneous infection rates, and the west coast, with heterogeneous infection rates. No geographic differences could be demonstrated on Moorea. The possible mechanisms of this phenomenon are discussed in connection with recent findings on the variability of susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to insecticides. %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J Am J Trop Med Hyg %D 1999 %T Variation in oral susceptibility to dengue type 2 virus of populations of Aedes aegypti from the islands of Tahiti and Moorea, French Polynesia. %A Vazeille-Falcoz, M %A Mousson, L %A Rodhain, F %A Chungue, E %A Failloux, A B %N 2 %P 292-299 %V 60 %X Twenty three samples of Aedes aegypti populations from the islands of Tahiti and Moorea (French Polynesia) were tested for their oral susceptibility to dengue type 2 virus. The high infection rates obtained suggest that the artificial feeding protocol used was more efficient than those previously described. Statistical analysis of the results allowed us to define two distinct geographic areas on Tahiti with respect to the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti: the east coast, with homogeneous infection rates, and the west coast, with heterogeneous infection rates. No geographic differences could be demonstrated on Moorea. The possible mechanisms of this phenomenon are discussed in connection with recent findings on the variability of susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to insecticides. %8 1999 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1998 %T Alteration of the plateau of cardiac muscle action potential by ciguatoxin-3C %A Dechraoui, M Y %A Legrand, A-M %A Sauviat, M P %N 12 %P 1734 %V 36 %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J J Immunol Method %D 1998 %T An improved method for the production of antibodies to lipophilic carboxylic hapten using small amount of hapten-carrier conjugate. %A Pauillac, S %A Naar, J %A Branaa, P %A Chinain, M %N 1-2 %P 105-114 %V 220 %X A rapid, simple and low cost procedure for preparing minute amount of hapten-protein conjugates was developed using 4-acetyl benzoic acid (ABA) and two other closely related small chromophoric haptens. The amide bond-generating mixed anhydride method of Erlanger was modified to promote conjugation to various proteins (bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, casein and hemocyanin) or to a synthetic homopolymer (Poly-DL-lysine). The key process in this synthesis is the use of a reversed micellar medium allowing strong carrier haptenization as determined by spectrophotometric measurement at characteristic hapten absorption peaks. This coupling procedure is applicable to as little hapten material as 0.2 micromol and is disclosed to be most valuable for other rare lipid haptens which pose analytical problem in biological fluids and matrices. Specific mice polyclonal antibodies were produced following multiple intraperitoneal injections of (ABA)23-BSA conjugate as revealed by indirect and competitive ELISA. Calculated KD for the interaction of the antibodies with free ABA was found to be 5 X 10(-5)M. %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1998 %T Alteration of the plateau of cardiac muscle action potential by ciguatoxin-3C %A Dechraoui, M Y %A Legrand, A-M %A Sauviat, M P %N 12 %P 1734 %V 36 %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J J Immunol Method %D 1998 %T An improved method for the production of antibodies to lipophilic carboxylic hapten using small amount of hapten-carrier conjugate. %A Pauillac, S %A Naar, J %A Branaa, P %A Chinain, M %N 1-2 %P 105-114 %V 220 %X A rapid, simple and low cost procedure for preparing minute amount of hapten-protein conjugates was developed using 4-acetyl benzoic acid (ABA) and two other closely related small chromophoric haptens. The amide bond-generating mixed anhydride method of Erlanger was modified to promote conjugation to various proteins (bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, casein and hemocyanin) or to a synthetic homopolymer (Poly-DL-lysine). The key process in this synthesis is the use of a reversed micellar medium allowing strong carrier haptenization as determined by spectrophotometric measurement at characteristic hapten absorption peaks. This coupling procedure is applicable to as little hapten material as 0.2 micromol and is disclosed to be most valuable for other rare lipid haptens which pose analytical problem in biological fluids and matrices. Specific mice polyclonal antibodies were produced following multiple intraperitoneal injections of (ABA)23-BSA conjugate as revealed by indirect and competitive ELISA. Calculated KD for the interaction of the antibodies with free ABA was found to be 5 X 10(-5)M. %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Int Hlth %D 1998 %T Changing clinical and biological manifestations of dengue during the dengue-2 epidemic in French Polynesia in 1996/97 - description and analysis in a prospective study. %A Deparis, X %A Murgue, B %A Roche, C %A Cassar, O %A Chungue, E %N 11 %P 859-865 %V 3 %X In August 1996 dengue-2 virus was detected in French Polynesia for the first time since 1976. A prospective study was conducted from November 1996 to April 1997. Each time one of 7 physicians suspected dengue, the patient was enrolled and epidemiological, clinical and biological data were recorded. Dengue diagnosis was confirmed by virus isolation and IgM detection. The aims of this study were to find clinical and biological predictive factors constituting a specific profile of dengue (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF/DSS) and to assess the possibility of diagnosing dengue at primary health care level using clinical criteria and basic laboratory parameters. Of 298 clinically suspect cases, 196 (66%) were confirmed as dengue. The association of macular rash, pruritis, low platelet count and leukopenia was statistically predictive of dengue but not clinically, since these four signs occur in many other viral infections. As the prevalence of clinical and biological manifestations varied over time in our study, a specific profile useful for dengue diagnosis cannot be defined. With six cases of DHF, the morbidity of this dengue-2 outbreak was very low despite the sequential infection scheme DEN-3/DEN-2. The clinical expression of dengue could depend on a specific virus strain circulating in a specific population in a particular place, with varying virulence over time. %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Verh Internat Verein Limnol %D 1998 %T Control of Simulium buissoni in Nuku Hiva (French Polynesia). %A Sechan, Y %A Fossati, O %A Danigo, A-H %A Loncke, S %A Guillet, P %P 2145-2147 %V 26 %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Int Hlth %D 1998 %T Changing clinical and biological manifestations of dengue during the dengue-2 epidemic in French Polynesia in 1996/97 - description and analysis in a prospective study. %A Deparis, X %A Murgue, B %A Roche, C %A Cassar, O %A Chungue, E %N 11 %P 859-865 %V 3 %X In August 1996 dengue-2 virus was detected in French Polynesia for the first time since 1976. A prospective study was conducted from November 1996 to April 1997. Each time one of 7 physicians suspected dengue, the patient was enrolled and epidemiological, clinical and biological data were recorded. Dengue diagnosis was confirmed by virus isolation and IgM detection. The aims of this study were to find clinical and biological predictive factors constituting a specific profile of dengue (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF/DSS) and to assess the possibility of diagnosing dengue at primary health care level using clinical criteria and basic laboratory parameters. Of 298 clinically suspect cases, 196 (66%) were confirmed as dengue. The association of macular rash, pruritis, low platelet count and leukopenia was statistically predictive of dengue but not clinically, since these four signs occur in many other viral infections. As the prevalence of clinical and biological manifestations varied over time in our study, a specific profile useful for dengue diagnosis cannot be defined. With six cases of DHF, the morbidity of this dengue-2 outbreak was very low despite the sequential infection scheme DEN-3/DEN-2. The clinical expression of dengue could depend on a specific virus strain circulating in a specific population in a particular place, with varying virulence over time. %8 1998 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Harmful Algae. Reguera B, Blanco J, Fernandez ML, Wyatt T (Eds). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Xunta de Galicia (Spain), pp 39-43 %D 1998 %T Ciguatera toxins : origin, transfer through the food chain and toxicity to humans. %A Legrand, A-M %X Ciguatera is a seafood poisoning prevalent in circumtropical areas, and results from consumption of tropical reef fish contaminated by the ciguatoxin class of lipid soluble polyether toxins. Ciguatera is distributed worldwide in the insular regions of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic oceans, but its distribution is spotty. The benthic origin of the phenomenon as well as the food chain theory has been progressively demonstrated.Ciguatoxin analogs have been isolated from both toxic herbivorous and carnivorous fish and from certain strains of the benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus Adachi and Fukuyo, even in axenic conditions. Environmental and genetic factors influencing the proliferation of ciguatoxin-producer strains of G. toxicus, as well as factors influencing the accumulation of ciguatoxins in fish muscles are responsible for the multiple events leading to ciguatera endemicity. The main toxins involved in human intoxication have been screened. Near twenty ciguatoxin analogs have been found, and a few of them structurally identified. Ciguatoxins have been shown to bind specifically to sodium channels of excitable membranes and to alter the basic mechanism of synapses. Epidemiological studies are consistent with the occurrence at very low concentrations of such very potent neurotoxins acting on excitable membranes. Other types of the benthic dinoflagellate toxins must be shown to accumulate in fish to levels that can affect humans before they can be considered to be involved in ciguatera. The search for analytical methods to detect very low concentrations of ciguatera toxins in fish muscles has lead to the development of a fluorometric liquid chromatography method, cytotoxic assays, sodium channel binding assays and enzyme-immunoassays. Validation of the different methods available and determination of the best strategy for ciguatera monitoring programs, are both in need of urgent development. %8 1998 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Harmful Algae. Reguera B, Blanco J, Fernandez ML, Wyatt T (Eds). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Xunta de Galicia (Spain), pp 39-43 %D 1998 %T Ciguatera toxins : origin, transfer through the food chain and toxicity to humans. %A Legrand, A-M %X Ciguatera is a seafood poisoning prevalent in circumtropical areas, and results from consumption of tropical reef fish contaminated by the ciguatoxin class of lipid soluble polyether toxins. Ciguatera is distributed worldwide in the insular regions of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic oceans, but its distribution is spotty. The benthic origin of the phenomenon as well as the food chain theory has been progressively demonstrated.Ciguatoxin analogs have been isolated from both toxic herbivorous and carnivorous fish and from certain strains of the benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus Adachi and Fukuyo, even in axenic conditions. Environmental and genetic factors influencing the proliferation of ciguatoxin-producer strains of G. toxicus, as well as factors influencing the accumulation of ciguatoxins in fish muscles are responsible for the multiple events leading to ciguatera endemicity. The main toxins involved in human intoxication have been screened. Near twenty ciguatoxin analogs have been found, and a few of them structurally identified. Ciguatoxins have been shown to bind specifically to sodium channels of excitable membranes and to alter the basic mechanism of synapses. Epidemiological studies are consistent with the occurrence at very low concentrations of such very potent neurotoxins acting on excitable membranes. Other types of the benthic dinoflagellate toxins must be shown to accumulate in fish to levels that can affect humans before they can be considered to be involved in ciguatera. The search for analytical methods to detect very low concentrations of ciguatera toxins in fish muscles has lead to the development of a fluorometric liquid chromatography method, cytotoxic assays, sodium channel binding assays and enzyme-immunoassays. Validation of the different methods available and determination of the best strategy for ciguatera monitoring programs, are both in need of urgent development. %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Pacific Health Dialog %D 1998 %T Dengue in French Polynesia : major features, surveillance, molecular epidemiology and current situation. %A Chungue, E %A Deparis, X %A Murgue, B %P 154-162 %V 5 %X Emergence of dengue epidemics worlwide has paralleled the expansion of the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, together with jet air travel and increased urbanization. All four dengue virus serotypes (DEN-1, -2, -3, -4) have occurred in epidemic form during the last 50 years in French Polynesia. The first epidemic with known serotype was due to DEN-1 in 1944, during World War II. The disease disappeared from the Eastern Pacific after a Pacific-wide pandemic, but a series of epidemics at short intervals during two decades : DEN-3 in 1964-1965, DEN-2 in 1971, DEN-1 in 1975-1976, and DEN-4 in 1979. From 1980 to 1988, transmission of DEN-4 continued at a very low level until the resurgence of DEN-1 and DEN-3 in back-to-back epidemics in 1989. In 1996, DEN-2 reappeared in Tahiti and spread further into New Caledonia, the Cook Islands, Tonga, Samoa, and Fiji. As in most Pacific countries, epidemics with only one serotype have occurred in French Polynesia. Each time, genetic analysis of the causative viruses showed that the current epidemic was due to the introduction of a genotype different from the viruses recovered from past epidemics. These observations emphasize the need of an active clinical and virological surveillance for prevention and control of epidemics, together with molecular characterization of the viruses as part of the investigation of a dengue epidemic. As of now, a new genotype of DEN-2 different from that involved in the 1970s is disseminating throughout the Pacific region. %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J J Euk Microbiol %D 1998 %T Diversity in symbiotic dinoflagellates (Pyrrhophyta) from seven scleractinian coral species : restriction enzyme analysis of small subunit ribosomal RNA genes. %A Darius, H T %A Dauga, C %A Grimont, P %A Chungue, E %A Martin, P M V %N 6 %P 619-627 %V 45 %X The diversity of symbiotic dinoflagellates (SD) from seven coral species (Fungia scutaria, Fungia paumotensis, Leptastrea transversa, Pavona cactus, Pocillopora verrucosa, Montastrea curta, and Acropora formosa) was studied in a restricted geographical area, the lagoon of Arue on the island of Tahiti. Their diversity was explored by small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). After a nested amplification with SD specific primers, RFLP analyses were performed directly and after a cloning step. The diversity of these different SSU rDNA was estimated in respect to possible technical artifacts. In an axenic culture of SD from the coral Galaxea fascicularis, both heterogeneous SSU rDNAs and artifact molecules were observed as in our SD samples. According to the number of patterns observed, corals Fungia paumotensis, Leptastrea transversa, Pavona cactus, Montastrea curta, and Acropora formosa contained one class of SD SSU rDNAs, whereas Fungia scutaria and Pocillopora verrucosa contained three and two classes of SD SSU rDNAs respectively. In the limited geographic area studied, SD from different coral species shared the same pattern, except SD from Montastrea curta, which showed a unique pattern. In addition to the possibility of SD flux among different coral species, specific mechanisms could also be involved in the establishment of a symbiosis. %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Pacific Health Dialog %D 1998 %T Dengue in French Polynesia : major features, surveillance, molecular epidemiology and current situation. %A Chungue, E %A Deparis, X %A Murgue, B %P 154-162 %V 5 %X Emergence of dengue epidemics worlwide has paralleled the expansion of the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, together with jet air travel and increased urbanization. All four dengue virus serotypes (DEN-1, -2, -3, -4) have occurred in epidemic form during the last 50 years in French Polynesia. The first epidemic with known serotype was due to DEN-1 in 1944, during World War II. The disease disappeared from the Eastern Pacific after a Pacific-wide pandemic, but a series of epidemics at short intervals during two decades : DEN-3 in 1964-1965, DEN-2 in 1971, DEN-1 in 1975-1976, and DEN-4 in 1979. From 1980 to 1988, transmission of DEN-4 continued at a very low level until the resurgence of DEN-1 and DEN-3 in back-to-back epidemics in 1989. In 1996, DEN-2 reappeared in Tahiti and spread further into New Caledonia, the Cook Islands, Tonga, Samoa, and Fiji. As in most Pacific countries, epidemics with only one serotype have occurred in French Polynesia. Each time, genetic analysis of the causative viruses showed that the current epidemic was due to the introduction of a genotype different from the viruses recovered from past epidemics. These observations emphasize the need of an active clinical and virological surveillance for prevention and control of epidemics, together with molecular characterization of the viruses as part of the investigation of a dengue epidemic. As of now, a new genotype of DEN-2 different from that involved in the 1970s is disseminating throughout the Pacific region. %8 1998 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Harmful Algae. Reguera B, Blanco J, Fernandez ML, Wyatt T (Eds). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Xunta de Galicia (Spain), pp 590-593 %D 1998 %T Do sodium ion influx through ciguatoxin-modified voltage-dependent sodium channels induce swelling of the myelinated nerves and neuroblastoma cells ? %A Benoit, E %A Meunier, F A %A Mattei, C %A Juzans, P %A Legrand, A-M %A Molgo, J %X Ciguateric toxins, and in particular ciguatoxin (CTX-1B) extracted from poisonous fish, are responsible for a human seafood intoxication, known as ciguatera, linked to the benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. In the present study, the effects of CTX-1B (10nM) were investigated on the morphological properties of both isolated frog myelinated nerve fibers and cultured mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma NG108-15 hybrid cells, using confocal laser scanning microscopy. During the action of the toxin, a marked nodal swelling of myelinated axons was observed while no change in the morphology of neuroblastoma cells could be detected. These results are related to the previously reported effects of CTX-1B on voltage-dependent Na channels. %8 1998 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Harmful Algae. Reguera B, Blanco J, Fernandez ML, Wyatt T (Eds). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Xunta de Galicia (Spain), pp 590-593 %D 1998 %T Do sodium ion influx through ciguatoxin-modified voltage-dependent sodium channels induce swelling of the myelinated nerves and neuroblastoma cells ? %A Benoit, E %A Meunier, F A %A Mattei, C %A Juzans, P %A Legrand, A-M %A Molgo, J %X Ciguateric toxins, and in particular ciguatoxin (CTX-1B) extracted from poisonous fish, are responsible for a human seafood intoxication, known as ciguatera, linked to the benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. In the present study, the effects of CTX-1B (10nM) were investigated on the morphological properties of both isolated frog myelinated nerve fibers and cultured mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma NG108-15 hybrid cells, using confocal laser scanning microscopy. During the action of the toxin, a marked nodal swelling of myelinated axons was observed while no change in the morphology of neuroblastoma cells could be detected. These results are related to the previously reported effects of CTX-1B on voltage-dependent Na channels. %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Ann Soc Entomol Fr %D 1998 %T Ecologie d'Aedes polynesiensis Marks, 1951 (Diptera : Culicidae) vecteur de la filariose de Bancroft : 1 - Les noix de coco rongees par les rats comme g %A Riviere, F %A Klein, J-M %A Thirel, R %A Chebret, M %N 2 %P 195-207 %V 34 %X Les coques des noix de coco tombees a terre, en particulier celles rongees par les rats, constituent des g %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Ann Soc Entomol Fr %D 1998 %T Ecologie d'Aedes polynesiensis Marks, 1951 (Diptera : Culicidae) vecteur de la filariose de Bancroft. 2 - Les terriers du crabe terrestre Cardisoma carnifex comme g %A Riviere, F %A Klein, J-M %A Duval, J %A Sechan, Y %A Thirel, R %A Faaruia, M %A Colombani, L %N 3 %P 259-283 %V 34 %X Dans la region Indo-Pacifique, les terriers des crabes du genre Cardisoma abondent le long des plaines c %8 1998 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Harmful Algae. Reguera B, Blanco J, Fernandez ML, Wyatt T (Eds). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Xunta de Galicia (Spain), pp 287-290 %D 1998 %T Genetic diversity in French Polynesian strains of the ciguatoxic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus : RFLP and sequence analysis on the SSU and LSU rRNA genes. %A Chinain, M %A Germain, M %A Sako, Y %A Pauillac, S %A Legrand, A-M %X The genetic diversity among 19 strains of the ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus Adachi & Fukuyo collected from French Polynesia was investigated by RFLP and sequence analyses of their SSU and LSU rDNA, respectively. Preliminary results indicated that G. toxicus is comprised of numerous genetically distinct strains. Digestion of the SSU rRNA gene with the enzyme RsaI yielded 6 distinct restriction types. In some cases strains isolated concurrently from the same site - e.g. Teahupoo, Tubuai or Mangareva - exhibited distinct restriction profiles, suggesting a multiclonal origin for naturally occuring blooms, which may account in part for differences in severity of ciguatera incidents. Sequence comparison of a fragment of the LSU rDNA for 15 strains also revealed genetic variations in G. toxicus. Strains tended to form 2 different clusters representative of northern and southern localities in French Polynesia. However, grouping of the 15 strains examined did not reflect ciguatoxin production characteristics. The existence of a significant genetic variation within isolates of G. toxicus, yet sharing a common general morphology, stresses the need for the characterization of new molecular markers useful for fine-scale population and (or) taxonomic analyses of the genus Gambierdiscus. %8 1998 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Harmful Algae. Reguera B, Blanco J, Fernandez ML, Wyatt T (Eds). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Xunta de Galicia (Spain), pp 287-290 %D 1998 %T Genetic diversity in French Polynesian strains of the ciguatoxic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus : RFLP and sequence analysis on the SSU and LSU rRNA genes. %A Chinain, M %A Germain, M %A Sako, Y %A Pauillac, S %A Legrand, A-M %X The genetic diversity among 19 strains of the ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus Adachi & Fukuyo collected from French Polynesia was investigated by RFLP and sequence analyses of their SSU and LSU rDNA, respectively. Preliminary results indicated that G. toxicus is comprised of numerous genetically distinct strains. Digestion of the SSU rRNA gene with the enzyme RsaI yielded 6 distinct restriction types. In some cases strains isolated concurrently from the same site - e.g. Teahupoo, Tubuai or Mangareva - exhibited distinct restriction profiles, suggesting a multiclonal origin for naturally occuring blooms, which may account in part for differences in severity of ciguatera incidents. Sequence comparison of a fragment of the LSU rDNA for 15 strains also revealed genetic variations in G. toxicus. Strains tended to form 2 different clusters representative of northern and southern localities in French Polynesia. However, grouping of the 15 strains examined did not reflect ciguatoxin production characteristics. The existence of a significant genetic variation within isolates of G. toxicus, yet sharing a common general morphology, stresses the need for the characterization of new molecular markers useful for fine-scale population and (or) taxonomic analyses of the genus Gambierdiscus. %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Tetrahedon Lett %D 1998 %T Isolation and structures of new ciguatoxin analogs, 2,3-dihydroxyCTX3C and 51-hydroxyCTX3C, accumulated in tropical reef fish. %A Satake, M %A Fukui, M %A Legrand, A-M %A Cruchet, P %A Yasumoto, T %P 1197-1198 %V 39 %X Two new ciguatoxin analogs, 2,3-dihydroxyCTX3C and 51-hydroxyCTX3C, were isolated from the moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus. Their structures including relative configurations were elucidated on the basis of 1H-NMR data. %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J J Gen Virol %D 1998 %T Implication of MIP-1a in the inhibition of human hematopoietic progenitor growth by dengue virus. %A Murgue, B %A Cassar, O %A Deparis, X %A Guigon, M %A Chungue, E %N Pt 8 %P 1889-1893 %V 79 %X The mechanisms were investigated of haematopoietic progenitor growth inhibition, observed after in vitro infection of cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMNC) by a clinical isolate of dengue 3 (29-56DSS). The level of virus replication was not different when CBMNC were inoculated with 29-56DSS compared with a prototype strain of dengue 3 (H-87) which had no inhibitory effect. An inhibitory effect was also observed when cell-free and heat-inactivated supernatants from 29-56DSS cultures, but not from H-87 cultures, were added to cultures of normal CBMNC, suggesting an indirect mechanism via the release of soluble suppressive factor(s). Macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) was detected at a significantly higher level in 29-56DSS cultures than in controls. Blocking experiments with anti-MIP-1alpha antibody demonstrated that the inhibitory effect was related at least partly to high MIP-1alpha levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting an indirect effect of dengue infection on haematopoiesis mediated by a suppressive cytokine. %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Tetrahedon Lett %D 1998 %T Isolation and structures of new ciguatoxin analogs, 2,3-dihydroxyCTX3C and 51-hydroxyCTX3C, accumulated in tropical reef fish. %A Satake, M %A Fukui, M %A Legrand, A-M %A Cruchet, P %A Yasumoto, T %P 1197-1198 %V 39 %X Two new ciguatoxin analogs, 2,3-dihydroxyCTX3C and 51-hydroxyCTX3C, were isolated from the moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus. Their structures including relative configurations were elucidated on the basis of 1H-NMR data. %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Tetrahedon Lett %D 1998 %T Isolation and structures of new ciguatoxin analogs, 2,3-dihydroxyCTX3C and 51-hydroxyCTX3C, accumulated in tropical reef fish. %A Satake, M %A Fukui, M %A Legrand, A-M %A Cruchet, P %A Yasumoto, T %N 10 %P 1197-8 %V 39 %X Two new ciguatoxin analogs, 2,3-dihydroxyCTX3C and 51-hydroxyCTX3C, were isolated from the moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus. Their structures including relative configurations were elucidated on the basis of 1H-NMR data. %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J J Gen Virol %D 1998 %T Implication of MIP-1a in the inhibition of human hematopoietic progenitor growth by dengue virus. %A Murgue, B %A Cassar, O %A Deparis, X %A Guigon, M %A Chungue, E %N Pt 8 %P 1889-1893 %V 79 %X The mechanisms were investigated of haematopoietic progenitor growth inhibition, observed after in vitro infection of cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMNC) by a clinical isolate of dengue 3 (29-56DSS). The level of virus replication was not different when CBMNC were inoculated with 29-56DSS compared with a prototype strain of dengue 3 (H-87) which had no inhibitory effect. An inhibitory effect was also observed when cell-free and heat-inactivated supernatants from 29-56DSS cultures, but not from H-87 cultures, were added to cultures of normal CBMNC, suggesting an indirect mechanism via the release of soluble suppressive factor(s). Macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) was detected at a significantly higher level in 29-56DSS cultures than in controls. Blocking experiments with anti-MIP-1alpha antibody demonstrated that the inhibitory effect was related at least partly to high MIP-1alpha levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting an indirect effect of dengue infection on haematopoiesis mediated by a suppressive cytokine. %8 1998 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Harmful Algae. Reguera B, Blanco J, Fernandez ML, Wyatt T (Eds). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Xunta de Galicia (Spain), pp 567-570 %D 1998 %T Improvement of antibody production to PbTx-2 type brevetoxins and development of a new radioimmunoassay. %A Naar, J %A Pauillac, S %A Branaa, P %A Dechraoui, M Y %A Chinain, M %A Legrand, A-M %X PbTx3 was converted into an hemisuccinate derivative (PbTx3 HS) and convalently linked to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) via the mixed anhydride method. Compared to other studies, five major improvements have been achieved in the process of antigen preparation : 1) PbTx3 HS was produced with a 99% yield with a little as 400 %8 1998 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Harmful Algae. Reguera B, Blanco J, Fernandez ML, Wyatt T (Eds). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Xunta de Galicia (Spain), pp 567-570 %D 1998 %T Improvement of antibody production to PbTx-2 type brevetoxins and development of a new radioimmunoassay. %A Naar, J %A Pauillac, S %A Branaa, P %A Dechraoui, M Y %A Chinain, M %A Legrand, A-M %X PbTx3 was converted into an hemisuccinate derivative (PbTx3 HS) and convalently linked to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) via the mixed anhydride method. Compared to other studies, five major improvements have been achieved in the process of antigen preparation : 1) PbTx3 HS was produced with a 99% yield with a little as 400 %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Mar Freshwater Res %D 1998 %T Occurrence of ultraviolet radiation-absorbing mycosporine-like amino acids in coral mucus and whole corals of French Polynesia. %A Teai, T %A Drollet, J H %A Bianchini, J-P %A Cambon, A %P 127-132 %V 49 %X Specimens of six scleractinian species were gathered during the austral spring (October-November) 1994 on the external slope of the barrier reef of Arue, Tahiti, and in the lagoon of Arutua, a Tuamotu island. Mucus of each specimen was collected and the optical density and volume excreted were measured. After treatment, mucus was analysed for mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nine UV-absorbing compounds were present in coral mucus at concentrations between 1 and 500 ng g-1 mucus. Palythine and mycosporine-gly were found in all mucus studied. Mycosporine-2glycine was recovered in 71% of specimens and shinorine in 28%. Porphyra-334 and palythinol were identified as minor MAAs. Three recently identified MAAs, palythine-serine, mycosporine-methylamine:serine and mycosporine-methylamine:threonine, were also found in mucus from Pocillopora. Within a genus, there was a qualitative similarity in MAAs determined by HPLC, irrespective of locality. Values for optical density of the mucus showed the ability of MAAs to protect the animal host and endosymbiotoc algae from UV-solar flux and, as inferred from the recent literature, from oxidative forms of oxygen (HO2., O2-, HO.) derived from photosynthesis. %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1998 %T Phycotoxins and related heath problems : ciguatoxins and ciguatera fish poisoning. %A Legrand, A-M %A Chinain, M %A Pauillac, S %A Benoit, E %A Molgo, J %N 9 %P 1315 %V 36 %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Int Hlth %D 1998 %T Possible dengue sequential infection : dengue spread in a neighbourhood during the 1996/97 dengue-2 epidemic in French Polynesia. %A Deparis, X %A Roche, C %A Murgue, B %A Chungue, E %N 11 %P 866-871 %V 3 %X A DEN-2 epidemic occurred in French Polynesia from August 1996 to April 1997 after 7 years of DEN-3 circulation. The susceptible population constituted all expatriates and Polynesians under 21. In August 1996, two successive DEN-2 cases occurred in Teroma, a Tahitian neighbourhood close to the international airport of Tahiti. A serological prospective study of persons < 21 years living in Teroma was conducted. The study population was bled in September 1996, October 1996 and June 1997. Analysis of dengue spread in Teroma confirmed that dengue transmission occurs primarily in the house, thus vector control campaigns should incorporate focal insecticide spraying and systematic daily use of insecticide in houses. The evolution in time of the disease demonstrated that among a susceptible population, prevalence and incidence rates are related to the time of exposure, and consequently to age. Comparison of dengue incidence or dengue prevalence between populations therefore requires adjusted age rates. Most studies did not adjust for age, leading to the conclusion that DHF is more frequent during secondary than during primary dengue infection. Prospective studies taking into account the time of dengue exposure are necessary to confirm the sequential infection hypothesis. %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 1998 %T Plasma levels of TNF-a and TGF-b1 among 52 laboratory-confirmed children hospitalized during the 1996-1997 dengue-2 outbreak in French Polynesia. %A Laur, F %A Murgue, B %A Deparis, X %A Roche, C %A Cassar, O %A Chungue, E %N 6 %P 654-656 %V 92 %X The pathogenesis of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) is not well understood. In the absence of predictive clinical or biological criteria, the management of DHF patients remains difficult. The role played by cytokines in the occurrence of DHF has been suggested by several authors. In this study, we determined the plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF beta-1) in 52 children with laboratory-confirmed dengue virus infection admitted to hospital during the recent dengue 2 outbreak in French Polynesia. Thirty-three children were classified as having dengue fever (DF) and 19 as DHF. The plasma of both DF and DHF patients contained similar levels of TNF alpha. By contrast, plasma obtained from children with DHF had significantly higher levels of TGF beta-1 than plasma from children with DF, especially from days 1 to 3 after the onset of fever. %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1998 %T Phycotoxins and related heath problems : ciguatoxins and ciguatera fish poisoning. %A Legrand, A-M %A Chinain, M %A Pauillac, S %A Benoit, E %A Molgo, J %N 9 %P 1315 %V 36 %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Int Hlth %D 1998 %T Possible dengue sequential infection : dengue spread in a neighbourhood during the 1996/97 dengue-2 epidemic in French Polynesia. %A Deparis, X %A Roche, C %A Murgue, B %A Chungue, E %N 11 %P 866-871 %V 3 %X A DEN-2 epidemic occurred in French Polynesia from August 1996 to April 1997 after 7 years of DEN-3 circulation. The susceptible population constituted all expatriates and Polynesians under 21. In August 1996, two successive DEN-2 cases occurred in Teroma, a Tahitian neighbourhood close to the international airport of Tahiti. A serological prospective study of persons < 21 years living in Teroma was conducted. The study population was bled in September 1996, October 1996 and June 1997. Analysis of dengue spread in Teroma confirmed that dengue transmission occurs primarily in the house, thus vector control campaigns should incorporate focal insecticide spraying and systematic daily use of insecticide in houses. The evolution in time of the disease demonstrated that among a susceptible population, prevalence and incidence rates are related to the time of exposure, and consequently to age. Comparison of dengue incidence or dengue prevalence between populations therefore requires adjusted age rates. Most studies did not adjust for age, leading to the conclusion that DHF is more frequent during secondary than during primary dengue infection. Prospective studies taking into account the time of dengue exposure are necessary to confirm the sequential infection hypothesis. %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 1998 %T Plasma levels of TNF-a and TGF-b1 among 52 laboratory-confirmed children hospitalized during the 1996-1997 dengue-2 outbreak in French Polynesia. %A Laur, F %A Murgue, B %A Deparis, X %A Roche, C %A Cassar, O %A Chungue, E %N 6 %P 654-656 %V 92 %X The pathogenesis of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) is not well understood. In the absence of predictive clinical or biological criteria, the management of DHF patients remains difficult. The role played by cytokines in the occurrence of DHF has been suggested by several authors. In this study, we determined the plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF beta-1) in 52 children with laboratory-confirmed dengue virus infection admitted to hospital during the recent dengue 2 outbreak in French Polynesia. Thirty-three children were classified as having dengue fever (DF) and 19 as DHF. The plasma of both DF and DHF patients contained similar levels of TNF alpha. By contrast, plasma obtained from children with DHF had significantly higher levels of TGF beta-1 than plasma from children with DF, especially from days 1 to 3 after the onset of fever. %8 1998 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Harmful Algae. Reguera B, Blanco J, Fernandez ML, Wyatt T (Eds). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Xunta de Galicia (Spain), pp 563-566 %D 1998 %T Production of monoclonal antibodies to CTX using a tetracyclic synthetic fragment (JKLM) conjugated to carrier proteins and cross-reactivity studies towards related polyether compounds. %A Pauillac, S %A Sasaki, M %A Naar, J %A Inoue, A %A Murata, M %A Tachibana, K %A Chinain, M %A Legrand, A-M %X A conjugate of JKLM ring fragment, a carboxylic derivative of the right-hand tetracyclic terminus portion of CTX-1B, the most potent ciguatoxin, with two carrier proteins has been synthesized. Hapten-carrier amide linkages were promoted using the N-hydroxysuccinimide ester of the carboxylic fragment in the presence of a water soluble carbodiimide according to standard condensation procedure. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) were respectively used for i.p. immunization of two BALB/c mice and antibody screening. Titres of both antisera as determined in an end-point titration ELISA format were found around 1/16,000.A competitive inhibition ELISA was used to assess the specificity of mice polyclonal antibodies (PAbs). PAbs did not significantly cross-react with PbTx-3 or nigericin but did show 133% cross-reaction with CTX-1B. The lower limit of accurate JKLM ring fragment and CTX-1B determinations in competitive ELISA was respectively 50 and 30 picomoles. It was concluded that the competitive ELISA described herein could be further improved to enable direct quantitation of ciguatoxins (CTXs) in crude fish extracts. Moreover 29 monoclonal antibodies to JKLM have been produced but only one seemed to react exclusively with JKLM ring fragment. %8 1998 %0 Conference Paper %D 1998 %T Plantes aromatiques de Polynesie francaise : la vanille tahitienne. %A Lechat-Vahirua, I %A Bessiere, J-M %C Actes des 16emes Journees internationales sur les Huiles essentielles. Digne-les-Bains, France (3,4,5 & 6 septembre 1997) %P 570-578 %X La vanille tahitienne a connu, il y a quelques decennies, un %8 1998 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Harmful Algae. Reguera B, Blanco J, Fernandez ML, Wyatt T (Eds). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Xunta de Galicia (Spain), pp 563-566 %D 1998 %T Production of monoclonal antibodies to CTX using a tetracyclic synthetic fragment (JKLM) conjugated to carrier proteins and cross-reactivity studies towards related polyether compounds. %A Pauillac, S %A Sasaki, M %A Naar, J %A Inoue, A %A Murata, M %A Tachibana, K %A Chinain, M %A Legrand, A-M %X A conjugate of JKLM ring fragment, a carboxylic derivative of the right-hand tetracyclic terminus portion of CTX-1B, the most potent ciguatoxin, with two carrier proteins has been synthesized. Hapten-carrier amide linkages were promoted using the N-hydroxysuccinimide ester of the carboxylic fragment in the presence of a water soluble carbodiimide according to standard condensation procedure. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) were respectively used for i.p. immunization of two BALB/c mice and antibody screening. Titres of both antisera as determined in an end-point titration ELISA format were found around 1/16,000.A competitive inhibition ELISA was used to assess the specificity of mice polyclonal antibodies (PAbs). PAbs did not significantly cross-react with PbTx-3 or nigericin but did show 133% cross-reaction with CTX-1B. The lower limit of accurate JKLM ring fragment and CTX-1B determinations in competitive ELISA was respectively 50 and 30 picomoles. It was concluded that the competitive ELISA described herein could be further improved to enable direct quantitation of ciguatoxins (CTXs) in crude fish extracts. Moreover 29 monoclonal antibodies to JKLM have been produced but only one seemed to react exclusively with JKLM ring fragment. %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1998 %T Sodium channel activating toxins which bind to receptor site 5 increase nodal volume of myelinated axons. %A Mattei, C %A Dechraoui, M Y %A Molgo, J %A Meunier, F A %A Legrand, A-M %A Benoit, E %N 12 %P 1742 %V 36 %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1998 %T Strategy for the development of antibody-based assays to marine phycotoxins. %A Naar, J %A Branaa, P %A Pauillac, S %A Dechraoui, M Y %A Chinain, M %A Legrand, A-M %N 12 %P 1743-1744 %V 36 %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Int Hlth %D 1998 %T Surveillance epidemiologique specifique de la dengue en Polynesie francaise en 1996. Methode et interet lors de l'epidemie de dengue 2 en Polynesie francaise en 1996. %A Deparis, X %A Chungue, E %A Pauck, S %A Roche, C %A Murgue, B %A Gleize, L %N 7 %P 566-570 %V 3 %X La dengue est une arbovirose presente dans toute la zone intertropicale. Son extension geographique et l'augmentation simultanee de sa letalite sont preoccupantes. En zone d'endemie ou d'epidemie, une surveillance epidemiologique specifique de la dengue permet d'identifier et de confirmer au plus vite la circulation d'un nouveau serotype viral de la dengue: avec un delai d'alerte epidemique raccourci, l'efficacite des strategies de lutte est renforcee. En Polynesie francaise, alors que seul le serotype 3 circulait depuis 1989, la menace d'une epidemie de dengue 4 a declenche la mise en place d'une surveillance epidemiologique specifique en mai 1996. Devant chaque cas suspect de dengue, 18 medecins repartis sur le territoire polynesien effectuaient un prelevement sanguin et redigeaient une fiche de renseignements cliniques. Entre mai et novembre 1996, le laboratoire de virologie de l'Institut Malarde a mis en evidence 21 virus (2 de dengue 3 et 19 de dengue 2) soit par mise en culture, soit par RT-PCR, sur les 302 prelevements traites. La surveillance specifique a demontre la circulation d'un virus dengue 2 et elle a permis de raccourcir de 12 a 16 semaines le delai d'alerte epidemiologique par rapport aux precedentes epidemies. Tenant compte du delai de prelevement, une regression logistique effectuee sur les variables cliniques a montre que seule l'absence de toux etait predictive de la dengue. Construite autour d'objectifs pragmatiques, la performance des systemes epidemiologiques de surveillance specifique de la dengue doit encourager leur mise eb oeuvre dans tous les pays concernes, en passant, si necessaire, par une collaboration avec des laboratoires de reference.Dengue fever is present in tropical and subtropical regions and its geographical extension and the simultaneous increase of its mortality are worrisome. In endemic or epidemic countries, the aim of dengue-specific epidemiological surveillance is to confirm as soon as possible the circulation of a new viral dengue serotype, i.e. the beginning of an epidemic. The efficiency of the control strategy is improved by an earlier epidemic alert. In French Polynesia, dengue-3 virus circulated since 1989 at low level and, in May 1996, a specific epidemiological surveillance was undertaken because of the threat of a dengue-4 epidemic. From each suspected dengue case reported by 18 Polynesian physicians located in the Societe Islands, a blood sample was taken for virological assay and clinical data were reported. Between May and November 1996, the virology unit of the Institut Malarde isolated 21 viruses (2 dengue-3 and 19 dengue-2) from 302 suspected cases. The dengue-specific epidemiological surveillance confirmed that dengue-2 virus was circulating and reduced the time of the epidemiological alert by 2 or 3 months compared to previous epidemics. Taking into account the day of illness, a logistic regression undertaken on the clinical data showed that the absence of cough was the only predictive sign of dengue diagnosis. The performance of this dengue-specific epidemiological surveillance system led us to consider its implementation in all concerned countries. A collaboration with international reference laboratories could be a solution for the developing countries. %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1998 %T Sodium channel activating toxins which bind to receptor site 5 increase nodal volume of myelinated axons. %A Mattei, C %A Dechraoui, M Y %A Molgo, J %A Meunier, F A %A Legrand, A-M %A Benoit, E %N 12 %P 1742 %V 36 %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1998 %T Strategy for the development of antibody-based assays to marine phycotoxins. %A Naar, J %A Branaa, P %A Pauillac, S %A Dechraoui, M Y %A Chinain, M %A Legrand, A-M %N 12 %P 1743-1744 %V 36 %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Int Hlth %D 1998 %T Surveillance %A Deparis, X %A Chungue, E %A Pauck, S %A Roche, C %A Murgue, B %A Gleize, L %N 7 %P 566-570 %V 3 %X La dengue est une arbovirose pr %8 1998 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Harmful Algae. Reguera B, Blanco J, Fernandez ML, Wyatt T (Eds). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Xunta de Galicia (Spain), pp 594-597 %D 1998 %T Sodium-dependent alterations of synaptic transmission mechanisms by brevetoxins and ciguatoxins. %A Molgo, J %A Meunier, F A %A Dechraoui, M Y %A Benoit, E %A Mattei, C %A Legrand, A-M %X The present article briefly reviews some aspects of the actions of brevetoxins (PbTx-n) and ciguatoxins (CTX-n) on synaptic transmission mechanisms in a model of chemical synapse, the vertebrate neuromuscular junction. It is emphasized that activation of voltage-sensitive Na+ channels by these toxins induces Na+ entry into nerve endings which leads to several effects : i) increased excitability, ii) spontaneous and repetitive synchronous acetylcholine (ACh) release, iii) increased spontaneous quantal asynchronous neurotransmitter release, iv) depletion of synaptic vesicles and v) swelling of nerve endings. All these sodium-dependent changes markedly alter synaptic transmission. %8 1998 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Harmful Algae. Reguera B, Blanco J, Fernandez ML, Wyatt T (Eds). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Xunta de Galicia (Spain), pp 594-597 %D 1998 %T Sodium-dependent alterations of synaptic transmission mechanisms by brevetoxins and ciguatoxins. %A Molgo, J %A Meunier, F A %A Dechraoui, M Y %A Benoit, E %A Mattei, C %A Legrand, A-M %X The present article briefly reviews some aspects of the actions of brevetoxins (PbTx-n) and ciguatoxins (CTX-n) on synaptic transmission mechanisms in a model of chemical synapse, the vertebrate neuromuscular junction. It is emphasized that activation of voltage-sensitive Na+ channels by these toxins induces Na+ entry into nerve endings which leads to several effects : i) increased excitability, ii) spontaneous and repetitive synchronous acetylcholine (ACh) release, iii) increased spontaneous quantal asynchronous neurotransmitter release, iv) depletion of synaptic vesicles and v) swelling of nerve endings. All these sodium-dependent changes markedly alter synaptic transmission. %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Infect Immunity %D 1998 %T The immunodominant Brugia malayi paramyosin as a marker of current infection with Wuchereria bancrofti adult worms. %A Langy, S %A Plichart, C %A Luquiaud, P %A Williams, S A %A Nicolas, L %N 6 %P 2854-2858 %V 66 %X The full-length cDNA sequence encoding Brugia malayi L3 paramyosin has been isolated by immunoscreening a cDNA library with a mouse antiserum raised against Wuchereria bancrofti L3 infective larvae. A recombinant truncated form of paramyosin was expressed as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein and used to evaluate humoral responses of adults from a W. bancrofti-endemic area in French Polynesia according to their parasitological status. Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) preferentially bound to paramyosin in W. bancrofti-parasitized individuals, in contrast to unparasitized individuals, who harbored neither microfilaria nor Og4C3 adult worm circulating antigen. Reduction of the anti-paramyosin IgG4 titer following combined chemotherapy with diethylcarbamazine and ivermectin was significantly correlated with a reduction in the adult worm burden. This indicates that the presence of paramyosin-reactive IgG4 is associated with the presence of parasites and that reduction can be used as an immunological marker for W. bancrofti clearance. %8 1998 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Harmful Algae. Reguera B, Blanco J, Fernandez ML, Wyatt T (Eds). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Xunta de Galicia (Spain), pp 473-475 %D 1998 %T Two structural types of ciguatoxins involved in ciguatera fish poisoning of French Polynesia. %A Legrand, A-M %A Teai, T %A Cruchet, P %A Satake, M %A Murata, M %A Yasumoto, T %X Previously the structure of ciguatoxin (CTX) was established to be a C60 polycyclic ether. Based on the chromatographic and structural characteristics, a new acronym CTX1B was proposed for ciguatoxin. A ciguatoxin congener isolated from wild specimens of the epiphytic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus had the same polycyclic ether skeleton as that of CTX1B. The congener was given a new acronym CTX4B. The third compound of the ciguatera toxins, coded CTX3C, was isolated from a culture of G. toxicus obtained from Rangiroa atoll. CTX3C lacked the C1-C4 side chain of CTX1B, and the 7-membered E-ring in CTX1B was expanded to a 8-membered ring in CTX3C.Because knowledge of the structures and occurrence of ciguatoxin congeners is essential for future application of more sophisticated determination methods such as fluorometric HPLC and ELISA assays, we carried out extensive analysis on various fish and dinoflagellate samples. The presence of CTX3C and CTX4A in fish muscles was clearly shown. Moreover, a congener previously coded CTX2A1 was found to be 2,3-dihydroxyCTX3C by spectral data (MS, 2D'H NMR). Occurrence of other congeners in fish was demonstrated by both chromatographic and mass spectral studies. %8 1998 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Harmful Algae. Reguera B, Blanco J, Fernandez ML, Wyatt T (Eds). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Xunta de Galicia (Spain), pp 473-475 %D 1998 %T Two structural types of ciguatoxins involved in ciguatera fish poisoning of French Polynesia. %A Legrand, A-M %A Teai, T %A Cruchet, P %A Satake, M %A Murata, M %A Yasumoto, T %X Previously the structure of ciguatoxin (CTX) was established to be a C60 polycyclic ether. Based on the chromatographic and structural characteristics, a new acronym CTX1B was proposed for ciguatoxin. A ciguatoxin congener isolated from wild specimens of the epiphytic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus had the same polycyclic ether skeleton as that of CTX1B. The congener was given a new acronym CTX4B. The third compound of the ciguatera toxins, coded CTX3C, was isolated from a culture of G. toxicus obtained from Rangiroa atoll. CTX3C lacked the C1-C4 side chain of CTX1B, and the 7-membered E-ring in CTX1B was expanded to a 8-membered ring in CTX3C.Because knowledge of the structures and occurrence of ciguatoxin congeners is essential for future application of more sophisticated determination methods such as fluorometric HPLC and ELISA assays, we carried out extensive analysis on various fish and dinoflagellate samples. The presence of CTX3C and CTX4A in fish muscles was clearly shown. Moreover, a congener previously coded CTX2A1 was found to be 2,3-dihydroxyCTX3C by spectral data (MS, 2D'H NMR). Occurrence of other congeners in fish was demonstrated by both chromatographic and mass spectral studies. %8 1998 %0 Journal Article %J Med Vet Entomol %D 1997 %T Aedes polynesiensis in the Society Islands : environmental correlates of isoenzyme differentiation. %A Shiu, S %A Mercer, D R %A Martin, P M V %A Rodhain, F %A Raymond, M %A Failloux, A-B %N 4 %P 349-354 %V 11 %X Isoenzyme genetic differentiation of Aedes polynesiensis mosquitoes in Raiatea island, French Polynesia, was evaluated by two models of population structure based on seven gene-enzyme systems: Ak, Est, Got, Gpi, Hk, Mdh and Pgm. The ecological model tested whether genetic differentiation is congruent with habitat differences. The isolation model evaluated whether genetic differentiation is proportional to geographical distribution. The ecological model found no significant differentiation between populations of Ae.polynesiensis from beach and forest ecotopes, whereas the isolation model was consistent with the data. However, incipient speciation is opposed by the source-sink system of population dynamics in such small neighbouring islands, where Ae.polynensiensis extinction is readily followed by reinvasion causing considerable gene flow between island populations. %8 1997 %0 Journal Article %J Parasite %D 1997 %T A universally applicable internal standard for PCR detection of Wuchereria bancrofti in biological samples. %A Nicolas, L %A Plichart, C %N 3 %P 253-257 %V 4 %X A PCR-based assay have been previously described to detect Wuchereria bancrofti in mosquitoes and in human blood samples. However, the efficiency of PCR amplification may vary between samples depending on the presence of PCR inhibitors, leading sometimes to false negative results. To overcome this drawback, an internal standard plasmid (pWB11) was constructed. It can be added to each PCR reaction for coamplification along with the target W. bancrofti DNA (Sspl DNA repeat) using the same pair of primers. PCR products from W. bancrofti DNA or from pWB11 are 34 bp different in size and can be visualized either on agarose gel or by DNA ELISA using two different oligonucleotides probes. %8 1997 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Inst Pasteur %D 1997 %T Bancroftian filariasis : new understanding and strategies for control. %A Nicolas, L %P 237-246 %V 95 %X Plus de 120 individus vivant en zone tropicale sont parasites par Wuchereria bancrofti et, dans une moindre mesure, par Brugia malayi, les deux agents de la filariose lymphatique. Alors que cette parasitose a ete longtemps negligee, on reconna %8 1997 %0 Journal Article %J J Infect Dis %D 1997 %T Dengue virus inhibits the human hematopoietic progenitor growth in vitro. %A Murgue, B %A Cassar, O %A Guigon, M %A Chungue, E %N 6 %P 1497-1501 %V 175 %X Dengue disease, whether it be classical dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome (DSS), is frequently associated with hematologic disorders. The underlying cause of these abnormalities is unknown. To determine if an inhibitory effect on human hematopoietic progenitor growth can be observed, normal cord blood mononuclear cells were exposed tolow-passaged clinical isolates from DF, DHF, and DSS patients and to the prototype strain of dengue-3 virus (H-87). In primary methylcellulose cultures, there was no inhibition of colony formation. After an initial 8-day liquid culture, inhibition was observed with the isolates, but strain H-87 had no effect. Furthermore, isolates from patients with DSS showed a more potent inhibitory effect. These data represent the first documented study of in vitro impaired progenitor cell growth by dengue virus and suggest that this inhibition could be dependent upon the isolate tested. %8 1997 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Entomol %D 1997 %T Density of larval Culicoides belkini (Diptera : Ceratopogonidae) in relation to physicochemical variables in different habitats. %A Lardeux, F %A Ottenwaelder, T %N 4 %P 387-394 %V 34 %X Immature density and population size of the biting midge Culicoides belkini (Wirth & Arnaud) were estimated for habitats on Moorea Island, French Polynesia, by means of random, 2- and 3-stage sampling designs. Samples were taken in March 1993 from 5 strata of a large larval habitat: a sandy-mud surface of approximately 5,000 m2 (stratum 1) in which approximately 12,000 land crab burrows (stratum 2) were counted, a small pond surrounded by approximately 300 m2 of muddy bank (stratum 3), and a high organic muddy area (Kopara) of approximately 1,200 m2 (stratum 4) with approximately 3,500 crab burrows (stratum 5). Larval density was usually higher in the mud of crab burrows, especially those in the Kopara stratum. Larval density was significantly lower in the sediment of the sandy area as compared with pond banks or Kopara surface. The sampling designs and techniques were logistically adequate, statistically relevant, and were recommended for future studies on C. belkini larval density. Larval habitats were characterized by means of multivariate analysis. Comparison of larval densities with selected environmental variables indicated that larvae density was higher in wet sediments with high levels of organic matter (approximately 8% of dry weight of sediment) and low salinity (approximately 0.5-1.5% NaCl equivalents). These variables were considered significant if larval control by means of habitat modification has to be achieved. Nevertheless, C. belkini can tolerate a broad spectrum of variation in the other environmental variables measured and breed in a variety of ecological situations. Therefore, it has a high potential for colonizing new habitats. %8 1997 %0 Journal Article %J J Infect Dis %D 1997 %T Dengue virus inhibits the human hematopoietic progenitor growth in vitro. %A Murgue, B %A Cassar, O %A Guigon, M %A Chungue, E %N 6 %P 1497-1501 %V 175 %X Dengue disease, whether it be classical dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome (DSS), is frequently associated with hematologic disorders. The underlying cause of these abnormalities is unknown. To determine if an inhibitory effect on human hematopoietic progenitor growth can be observed, normal cord blood mononuclear cells were exposed tolow-passaged clinical isolates from DF, DHF, and DSS patients and to the prototype strain of dengue-3 virus (H-87). In primary methylcellulose cultures, there was no inhibition of colony formation. After an initial 8-day liquid culture, inhibition was observed with the isolates, but strain H-87 had no effect. Furthermore, isolates from patients with DSS showed a more potent inhibitory effect. These data represent the first documented study of in vitro impaired progenitor cell growth by dengue virus and suggest that this inhibition could be dependent upon the isolate tested. %8 1997 %0 Conference Paper %B Rivista italiana EPPOS. Actes des 15emes Journees internationales sur les Huiles essentielles. Digne-les-bains, France (5,6 & 7 septembre 1996) %D 1997 %T Etudes chimiques des huiles essentielles de quelques labiees de Polynesie francaise. %A Lechat-Vahirua, I %A Menut, C %A Lamaty, G %A Bessiere, J-M %X Dans le cadre d'une etude systematique des huiles essentielles de plantes aromatiques medicinales polynesiennes, nous avons procede a l'analyse de plusieurs echantillons d'huiles essentielles issues des feuilles et des sommites fleuries de trois especes de plantes aromatiques medicinales appartenant aux genres ocinum, hyptis et plectranthus et relevant de la famille des labiees. Globalement, la majorite des plantes etudiees presentent des compositions chimiques classiques, avec des mono et sesquiterpenes couramment rencontres dans les huiles essentielles. %8 1997 %0 Journal Article %J Mar Freshwater Res %D 1997 %T Field study of compensatory changes in UV-absorbing compounds in the mucus of the solitary coral Fungia repanda (Scleractinia : Fungiidae) in relation to solar UV radiation, sea-water temperature, and other coincident physico-chemical parameters. %A Drollet, J H %A Teai, T %A Faucon, M %A Martin, P M V %P 329-333 %V 48 %X The relationship between coral UV-absorbing compounds (mycosporine-like amino acids, or MAAs) and solar UV radiation in the shallow coral reef environment has been much debated. The presence of these compounds in the mucus of Fungiidae allowed the measurement of weekly compensatory changes in the amount and composition of these compounds together with shifts in the wavelength of maximum absorbance (lmax) in the mucus of 11 specimens of Fungia repanda (Scleractinia : Fungiidae) during 18 months of monitoring in situ in Tahiti. The corals received full sunlight within a topless cage (specimen depth, 1 m) located at the Arue lagoon (northern coast of Tahiti). The amount of UV-absorbing compounds was found to be significantly and positively related to solar UV radiation, with a lag time of one week and with a corresponding long-wavelength shift in the maximum absorbance without lag, but was not significantly related to sea-water temperature or to the volume of mucus secreted. Analysis of mucus MAAs by high-performance liquid chromatography showed that the shift in lmax could be related to an increase in three components : mycosporine-2-glycine, palythine and mycosporine-glycine. %8 1997 %0 Journal Article %J Neurosc Letters %D 1997 %T Gambiertoxin (CTX-4B), purified from wild Gambierdiscus toxicus dinoflagellates, induces Na+ -dependent swelling of single frog myelinated axons and motor nerve terminals in situ. %A Mattei, C %A Benoit, E %A Juzans, P %A Legrand, A-M %A Molgo, J %N 2-3 %P 75-78 %V 234 %X The effects of gambiertoxin (CTX-4B), purified from the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, were assessed on the morphology of both frog myelinated axons and motor nerve terminals, using confocal laser scanning microscopy. During the action of the toxin (24 and 30 nM), a marked swelling of nodes of Ranvier and motor nerve terminals was observed. The CTX-4B-induced swelling could be prevented by blocking voltage-dependent Na+ channels with tetrodotoxin, and could be partly reversed by an external hyperosmotic solution containing 100 mM D-mannitol. The results suggest that CTX-4B, by modifying voltage-dependent Na+ channels, increases internal Na+ concentration of axons and nerve terminals and consequently induces water influx to compensate such an increase. It is suggested that stimulated transmitter release by CTX-4B, as well as by hyperosmotic dmannitol, contribute also to the swelling of the terminals through an increase in their surface area. %8 1997 %0 Journal Article %J Biol J Linn Soc %D 1997 %T Genetic differentiation associated with commercial traffic in the polynesian mosquito, Aedes polynesiensis Mark 1951. %A Failloux, A-B %A Raymond, M %A Ung, A %A Chevillon, C %A Pasteur, N %P 107-118 %V 60 %X The population structure of the Polynesian mosquito Aedes polynesiensis was investigated using electrophoretic data from two polymorphic protein loci. Considerable differentiation was observed both within and between islands in different archipelagos (Society, Tuamotu, Austral). Gene flow evaluated by Fst estimates was independant of geographic distance between islands but related to commercial traffic intensity. The results are discussed in view of recent findings on the variability of susceptibility to insecticides and of suitability as a vector for the nematode Wuchereria bancrofti. %8 1997 %0 Journal Article %J Neurosc Letters %D 1997 %T Gambiertoxin (CTX-4B), purified from wild Gambierdiscus toxicus dinoflagellates, induces Na+ -dependent swelling of single frog myelinated axons and motor nerve terminals in situ. %A Mattei, C %A Benoit, E %A Juzans, P %A Legrand, A-M %A Molgo, J %N 2-3 %P 75-78 %V 234 %X The effects of gambiertoxin (CTX-4B), purified from the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, were assessed on the morphology of both frog myelinated axons and motor nerve terminals, using confocal laser scanning microscopy. During the action of the toxin (24 and 30 nM), a marked swelling of nodes of Ranvier and motor nerve terminals was observed. The CTX-4B-induced swelling could be prevented by blocking voltage-dependent Na+ channels with tetrodotoxin, and could be partly reversed by an external hyperosmotic solution containing 100 mM D-mannitol. The results suggest that CTX-4B, by modifying voltage-dependent Na+ channels, increases internal Na+ concentration of axons and nerve terminals and consequently induces water influx to compensate such an increase. It is suggested that stimulated transmitter release by CTX-4B, as well as by hyperosmotic dmannitol, contribute also to the swelling of the terminals through an increase in their surface area. %8 1997 %0 Journal Article %J J Phycol %D 1997 %T Intraspecific variation in the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus (Dinophyceae). I. Isozyme analysis. %A Chinain, M %A Germain, M %A Sako, Y %A Pauillac, S %A Legrand, A-M %P 36-43 %V 33 %X Intraspecific variation among 19 isolates of the ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus Adachi & Fukuyo (Dinophyceae) collected from French Polynesia, New Caledonia, and the French West Indies was investigated by isozyme analysis. Comparison of their cell sizes and growth rates revealed that significant variation exists among these clones. Comparison of electrophoretic patterns for seven enzyme systems indicated that G. toxicus is comprised of numerous biochemically distinct strains. Isolates from Tubuai and Hao appeared to be the most distantly related. Tahitian strains of G. toxicus also showed a remarkably low degree of similarity with the Tubuai isolates. The latter, which were taken from the same locale in Tubuai, also exhibited highly heterogeneous electrophoretic profiles when compared to each other, suggesting a multiclonal origin. This single isolate analyzed from the Atlantic Ocean was most closely related to Tahitian isolates, despite their geographic separation. Finally, no clear relationship was found between the electrophoretic profiles of these isolates and their capacity to produce ciguatoxic compounds. %8 1997 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1997 %T Intraspecific variation in the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. %A Chinain, M %A Germain, M %A Seguin, F %A Pauillac, S %A Legrand, A-M %N 12 %P 1662 %V 35 %8 1997 %0 Journal Article %J Biosci Biotech Biochem %D 1997 %T Isolation and structure of ciguatoxin-4A, a new ciguatoxin precursor, from cultures of dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus and parrotfish Scarus gibbus. %A Satake, M %A Ishibashi, Y %A Legrand, A-M %A Yasumoto, T %N 12 %P 2103-2105 %V 60 %X A new ciguatoxin congener, ciguatoxin-4A (CTX4A), was isolated from cultures of marine dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, and its structure was elucidated to be 52-epiciguatoxin-4B on the basis of spectroscopic data. Chromatographic and spectral comparisons indicated that CTX4A was identical with a structurally unelucidated congener known as scaritoxin or SG1. %8 1997 %0 Journal Article %J J Phycol %D 1997 %T Intraspecific variation in the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus (Dinophyceae). I. Isozyme analysis. %A Chinain, M %A Germain, M %A Sako, Y %A Pauillac, S %A Legrand, A-M %P 36-43 %V 33 %X Intraspecific variation among 19 isolates of the ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus Adachi & Fukuyo (Dinophyceae) collected from French Polynesia, New Caledonia, and the French West Indies was investigated by isozyme analysis. Comparison of their cell sizes and growth rates revealed that significant variation exists among these clones. Comparison of electrophoretic patterns for seven enzyme systems indicated that G. toxicus is comprised of numerous biochemically distinct strains. Isolates from Tubuai and Hao appeared to be the most distantly related. Tahitian strains of G. toxicus also showed a remarkably low degree of similarity with the Tubuai isolates. The latter, which were taken from the same locale in Tubuai, also exhibited highly heterogeneous electrophoretic profiles when compared to each other, suggesting a multiclonal origin. This single isolate analyzed from the Atlantic Ocean was most closely related to Tahitian isolates, despite their geographic separation. Finally, no clear relationship was found between the electrophoretic profiles of these isolates and their capacity to produce ciguatoxic compounds. %8 1997 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1997 %T Intraspecific variation in the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. %A Chinain, M %A Germain, M %A Seguin, F %A Pauillac, S %A Legrand, A-M %N 12 %P 1662 %V 35 %8 1997 %0 Journal Article %J Biosci Biotech Biochem %D 1997 %T Isolation and structure of ciguatoxin-4A, a new ciguatoxin precursor, from cultures of dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus and parrotfish Scarus gibbus. %A Satake, M %A Ishibashi, Y %A Legrand, A-M %A Yasumoto, T %N 12 %P 2103-2105 %V 60 %X A new ciguatoxin congener, ciguatoxin-4A (CTX4A), was isolated from cultures of marine dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, and its structure was elucidated to be 52-epiciguatoxin-4B on the basis of spectroscopic data. Chromatographic and spectral comparisons indicated that CTX4A was identical with a structurally unelucidated congener known as scaritoxin or SG1. %8 1997 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Entomol %D 1997 %T Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for detection of Dirofilaria immitis (Filariidea : onchocercidae) and Wuchereria bancrofti (Filarioidea : dipetalonematidae) in their common vector Aedes polynesiensis (Diptera : culicidae). %A Nicolas, L %A Scoles, G A %N 6 %P 741-744 %V 34 %X In French Polynesia, Aedes polynesiensis (Marks) is the vector of the human filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti (Cobbold) and dog heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy). A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed to screen pools of field-collected Ae. polynesiensis for the presence of both parasites simultaneously using primers specific for each parasite. The sensitivity of detection on purified DNA was 1 and 10 pg, equivalent to 0.1 and 1 L3 larva per pool for W. bancrofti and D. immitis, respectively. Codetection was performed at an hybridization temperature of 58 degrees C to avoid competition between heterologous DNA and primers that was observed at 55 degrees C. In addition, D. immitis was detected by PCR in the blood of infected dogs. %8 1997 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Factors in the emergence of arbovirus diseases. J.F. Saluzzo, B. Dodet (Eds), Elsevier, pp 93-101 %D 1997 %T Molecular epidemiology of dengue viruses. %A Chungue, E %X All four dengue viruses are distributed in Asia and the Pacific islands. Emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the Pacific and the Americas is being considered a major public health problem. Studies on the molecular evolution and epidemiology of all four dengue viruses (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4) using genome-sequence relatedness have demonstrated the occurrence of genotype groupings among these viruses. Distinct genotypes within each serotype have become distributed worldwide over time and geographically. Furthermore, certain genotypes of the viruses have been associated with severe disease potential. Since the 1960s, dengue has continuously been transmitted in French Polynesia during almost four decades as successive epidemics caused generally by a different virus serotype. Apart from the overlapping circulation of both endemic virus and newly introduced virus at the beginning of the current epidemic, only one serotype was transmitted during the interepidemic intervals. Each time, genetic analysis of the causative viruses showed that the current epidemics were due to the introduction of a genotype different from the viruses recovered from the past epidemics. Moreover, emergence of DHF in the Pacific region during the recent epidemics of DEN-3 was associated with the introduction of a new genotype from Indonesia. These observations emphasize the need for active clinical and virological surveillance to prevent and control epidemics together with molecular characterization of the viruses as part of the investigation of a dengue epidemic. At present, a new genotype of DEN-2 is being transmitted on Tahiti. %8 1997 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Factors in the emergence of arbovirus diseases. J.F. Saluzzo, B. Dodet (Eds), Elsevier, pp 93-101 %D 1997 %T Molecular epidemiology of dengue viruses. %A Chungue, E %X All four dengue viruses are distributed in Asia and the Pacific islands. Emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the Pacific and the Americas is being considered a major public health problem. Studies on the molecular evolution and epidemiology of all four dengue viruses (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4) using genome-sequence relatedness have demonstrated the occurrence of genotype groupings among these viruses. Distinct genotypes within each serotype have become distributed worldwide over time and geographically. Furthermore, certain genotypes of the viruses have been associated with severe disease potential. Since the 1960s, dengue has continuously been transmitted in French Polynesia during almost four decades as successive epidemics caused generally by a different virus serotype. Apart from the overlapping circulation of both endemic virus and newly introduced virus at the beginning of the current epidemic, only one serotype was transmitted during the interepidemic intervals. Each time, genetic analysis of the causative viruses showed that the current epidemics were due to the introduction of a genotype different from the viruses recovered from the past epidemics. Moreover, emergence of DHF in the Pacific region during the recent epidemics of DEN-3 was associated with the introduction of a new genotype from Indonesia. These observations emphasize the need for active clinical and virological surveillance to prevent and control epidemics together with molecular characterization of the viruses as part of the investigation of a dengue epidemic. At present, a new genotype of DEN-2 is being transmitted on Tahiti. %8 1997 %0 Journal Article %J J Infect Dis %D 1997 %T Reduction of Wuchereria bancrofti adult worm circulating antigen after annual treatments of diethylcarbamazine combined with ivermectin in French Polynesia. %A Nicolas, L %A Plichart, C %A Nguyen, N L %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %N 2 %P 489-492 %V 175 %X Circulating filarial antigen (CFA), determined with Og4C3 ELISA, is a marker of Wuchereria bancrofti adult worm infection. The reduction of CFA over 2 years was determined in 185 microfilaremic and 111 amicrofilaremic but CFA+ adults given an annual dose of either diethylcarbamazine (DEC) or ivermectin or the two combined. Reduction of CFA level was good with DEC but weak with ivermectin and followed the same pattern in amicrofilaremic and microfilaremic groups. Combinations and DEC alone had a similar impact on CFA level. CFA clearance was observed in amicrofilaremic but not in microfilaremic persons in all DEC-containing treatments. However, the highest clearance rate was observed in persons treated with DEC at 6 mg/kg combined with ivermectin. Continuous reduction of CFA level after repeated treatments shows that elimination of W. bancrofti infection, monitored by CFA clearance, might be achieved within a few years with annual treatments of DEC combined with ivermectin. %8 1997 %0 Journal Article %J Parasitology %D 1997 %T Temperature thresholds and statistical modelling of larval Wuchereria bancrofti (Filariidea : onchocercidae) development rates. %A Lardeux, F %A Cheffort, J %P 123-134 %V 114 %X Developmental rates for Wuchereria bancrofti larvae maturing in the vector Aedes polynesiensis were estimated by analysing stage-frequency data consisting of counts of larval stages in mosquitoes reared at 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5, 30 and 32 degrees C. Base temperatures (i.e. low temperature thresholds) for W. bancrofti development were estimated by the x-intercept method and the model of Lactin et al. (1995). Resulting values were similar with both methods and were approximately 12.5 degrees C for microfilariae (mf) in thorax, approximately 17 degrees C for L1, 15.5 degrees C for L2 and 16.5 degrees C for L3. Upper thresholds estimated by the Lactin et al. model were 29.3 degrees C for mf, 29.1 degrees C for L1, 32.2 degrees C for L2 and 31.5 degrees C for L3. In addition, an original method was devised for computing the L3 upper threshold, by modelling L3 length shrinkage with temperature. It gave a value of 31.4 degrees C. At 32 degrees C, L2 and L3 stages exhibited altered morphology, larvae being shorter and wider than expected. The model of Lactin et al. described adequately the non-linear relationship between developmental rate and temperature, but a linear degree-day approach may be applied for temperatures below 27-28 degrees C. %8 1997 %0 Journal Article %J Exp Clin Immunogenet %D 1997 %T Tumor necrosis factor-alpha interleukin-1-Beta and immunoglobulin (GM and KM) polymorphisms in leprosy. %A Levee, G %A Schurr, E %A Pandey, J P %N 2 %P 160-165 %V 14 %X In order to determine the genetic components of susceptibility to leprosy in 6 multiplex French Polynesian families, linkage analysis was carried out between a putative disease gene and 6 polymorphic loci : G1M, G2M, KM, IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha (1,2) and TNF-alpha (A,G) using the lod score method. The three modes of inheritance, assuming a full penetrance value or reduced penetrance values (80 and 40%) for the susceptible allele, as well as with affected ones only, were tested. The results of this study provide no evidence for linkage between leprosy and the markers tested. %8 1997 %0 Journal Article %J Coral Reefs %D 1997 %T Widespread occurence of mycosporine-like amino acid compounds in scleractinians from French Polynesia. %A Teai, T %A Drollet, J H %A Bianchini, J-P %A Cambon, A %A Martin, P M V %P 169-176 %V 16 %X A survey of 23 species of scleractinians, belonging to seven families and 8 genera, collected from two different areas in French Polynesia, showed that all specimens possessed between four and seven UV-absorbing compounds, identified as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). In all, 11 different MAAs molecules were found, of which two were previously unknown. Palythine and mycosporine-glycine were the most abundant MAAs in the corals. With few exceptions, most specimens of each species possessed the same pattern of MAAs. Similarly, species from the same genus also had very similar qualitative composition of MAAs, although quantities of individuals MAAs varied from specimen to specimen. This suggests that MAAs are ancient and evolutionarily well conserved. %8 1997 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 1996 %T A polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Wuchereria bancrofti in blood samples from French Polynesia. %A Williams, S A %A Nicolas, L %A Lizotte-Waniewski, M %A Plichart, C %A Luquiaud, P %A Nguyen, N L %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %N 4 %P 384-387 %V 90 %X A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on a highly repeated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence found in Wuchereria bancrofti (the SspI repeat) has been developed to address the shortcomings of traditional diagnostic methods. In this field study in a W. bancrofti endemic region of French Polynesia, 373 human blood samples were collected and 100 microL of blood were screened by the SspI PCR assay and 1 microL by membrane filtration. The SspI PCR assay detected 99 of 113 blood samples in which microfilariae had been detected by filtration (sensitivity of 88%) with a specificity of 100%. All the samples missed by the SspI PCR assay had less than 8 microfilariae per mL of blood. To evaluate the efficacy of screening larger blood samples by PCR, both 100 microL and 500 microL samples from 50 patients with very low-level microfilaraemia were screened by the SspI PCR assay; the sensitivity increased from 60% to 84% when using the larger volume of blood. Finally, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based version of the SspI PCR assay was used to screen blood from 12 patients following treatment with diethylcarbamazine, ivermectin, or both. These results showed that the PCR assay closely paralleled the presence or absence of microfilariae in the blood and that no increase in the DNA level was seen immediately following drug treatment. %8 1996 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 1996 %T A polymerase chain reaction assay to determine infection Aedes polynesiensis by Wuchereria bancrofti. %A Nicolas, L %A Luquiaud, P %A Lardeux, F %A Mercer, D R %N 2 %P 136-139 %V 90 %X The sensitivity of a previously described polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was improved to detect a single mosquito, infected by as few as 1-2 microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti, among 20-50 uninfected mosquitoes. Wild-caught Aedes polynesiensis were used to compare assessment of infection by dissection of individuals with the PCR assay of pools of mosquitoes. The PCR assay was at least as sensitive as dissection for detection of mosquitoes infected with W. bancrofti. %8 1996 %0 Journal Article %J Parasite %D 1996 %T Associations de l'ivermectine et de la diethylcarbamazine pour obtenir un meilleur contr %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Nguyen, N L %A Hascoet, H %A Nicolas, L %N 1 %P 45-48 %V 3 %X Depuis 1993, une etude en double aveugle a ete organisee en Polynesie francaise pour comparer l'efficacite de doses uniques annuelles de diethylcarbamazine 6 mg/kg (DEC 6), d'ivermectine 400 microgrammes/kg (IV 400) et de l'association IVR 400 + DEC 6 dans le traitement de la filariose lymphatique ; 57 porteurs de microfilaires ont ete repartis en 3 groupes de traitement de 19 sujets chacun. Douze mois apres le premier puis le deuxieme traitements (M12 puis M 24) respectivement, 3 (16%) puis 10 (53%), 3 (16%) puis 5 (26%), 7 (37%) puis 10 (53%) des porteurs se sont negatives dans les groupes DEC 6, IVR 400 et IVR 400 + DEC 6. La microfilaremie residuelle est significativement plus basse dans le groupe IVR + DEC (2% a M12 puis a M24) que dans le groupe DEC 6 (15% a M12 puis 4% a M24) et le groupe IVR 400 (12% a M12 puis 10% a M24). L'association IVR + DEC en doses annuelles repetees permettra un meilleur contr %8 1996 %0 Journal Article %J Am J Trop Med Hyg %D 1996 %T A polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti in human blood samples. %A Zhong, M %A McCarthy, J %A Bierwert, L %A Lizotte-Waniewski, M %A Chanteau, S %A Nutman, T B %A Ottesen, E A %A Williams, S A %N 4 %P 357-363 %V 54 %X To identify Wuchereria bancrofti DNA sequences that could be used as the basis for a simple and rapid parasite detection assay, a genomic library of W. bancrofti was constructed and screened for highly repeated DNA. The repeat found with the highest copy number was 195 basepairs (bps) long, 77% AT, and 300 copies per haploid genome. This sequence was designated the Ssp I repeat because it has a unique recognition site for that restriction endonuclease in all or most of the repeat copies. The Ssp I repeat DNA family is dispersed, genus-specific, and exists in all of the different geographic isolates of W. bancrofti tested. Based on DNA sequence analysis of this repeat, we have developed an assay to detect very small quantities of W. bancrofti DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). With this PCR assay, the Ssp I repeat was detected in as little as 1 pg of W. bancrofti genomic DNA (about 1% of the DNA in one microfilaria) added to 100 microliters of human blood. The PCR assay also amplified Ssp I repeat DNA from geographic isolates of W. bancrofti from around the world but not from other species of filariae or from human or mosquito DNA. Microfilaria-positive human blood samples collected in Mauke, Cook Islands were shown to be Ssp I PCR-positive, while microfilaria-negative samples were PCR-negative. The specificity and sensitivity of the Ssp I PCR assay indicates that this approach has significant potential for improved screening of large human populations for active W. bancrofti infection. %8 1996 %0 Journal Article %J J Essent Oil Res %D 1996 %T Aromatic plants of French Polynesia : II- Composition of the essential oils of Zingiber spectabile Griffith. %A Lechat-Vahirua, I %A Menut, C %A Lamaty, G %A Bessiere, J-M %N 6 %P 671-673 %V 8 %X Six samples of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of stems and leaves of Zingiber spectabile were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The mean oil yields were 0.027% for the leaves and 0.01% for the stems. The oils contained homogeneous qualitative compositions with high percentages of monoterpene hydrocarbons. The major components of the leaf and stem oils were a-pinene (7.44-11.42% and 10.78-13.69%), b-pinene (35.85-49.35% and 23.52-26.17%) and b-phellandrene (16.59-18.45% and 23.11-38.05%), respectively. %8 1996 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Entomol %D 1996 %T Behavior of Wuchereria bancrofti (Filariidae : Onchocercidae) infective larvae in the vector Aedes polynesiensis (Diptera : Culicidae) in relation to parasite transmission. %A Lardeux, F %A Cheffort, J %N 4 %P 516-524 %V 33 %X In French Polynesia, Aedes Polynesiensis Marks is the major vector of human filariasis caused by subperiodic Wuchereria bancrofti (Cobbold). Factors affecting transmission of infective larvae from vector to humans were assessed. The 66-100% loss of infective larvae during a blood meal was independant of the initial vector parasite burden. Infective larvae were able to migrate to the mouthparts during a blood meal. Blood feeding by mosquitoes to repletion was one important aspect in the escape of larvae. Infective larvae were not transmitted (lost) without a blood meal and may move in the vector's body. Ae. polynesiensis may retain infectivity potential during several days and may infect several hosts during one blood meal session or on several gonotrophic cycles. In terms of parasite transmission, theses findings were interpreted as efficcient adaptations of the filaria to the Ae. polynesiensis biting habits. %8 1996 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Entomol %D 1996 %T Behavior of Wuchereria bancrofti (Filariidae : onchocercidae) infective larvae in the vector Aedes Polynesiensis (Diptera : culicidae) in relation to parasite transmission. %A Lardeux, F %A Cheffort, J %N 4 %P 516-524 %V 33 %X In French Polynesia, Aedes polynesiensis Marks is the major vector of human filariasis caused by subperiodic Wuchereria bancrofti (Cobbold). Factors affecting transmission of infective larvae from vector to humans were assessed. The 66-100% loss of infective larvae during a blood meal was independent of the initial vector parasite burden. Infective larvae were able to migrate to the mouthparts during a blood meal. Blood feeding by mosquitoes to repletion was one important aspect in the escape of larvae. Infective larvae were not transmitted (lost) without a blood meal and may move in the vector's body. Ae. polynesiensis may retain infectivity potential during several days and may infect several hosts during one blood meal session or on several gonotrophic cycles. In terms of parasite transmission, these findings were interpreted as efficient adaptations of the filaria to the Ae. polynesiensis biting habits. %8 1996 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 1996 %T Control of bancroftian filariasis in an endemic area of Polynesia by ivermectin 400 micrograms/kg. %A Nguyen, N L %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Cartel, J-L %N 6 %P 689-691 %V 90 %X Community treatment with ivermectin was implemented in Opoa, French Polynesia from April 1991 to October 1993. All consenting inhabitants aged 3 years or more were treated with twice-yearly single doses of ivermectin, pregnant women excepted. A dosage of 100 microgram/kg was used for the 3 first treatments and then abandoned because it did not reduce the prevalence of microfilariae (mf) carriers. With a dosage of 400 micrograms/kg dosage, this prevalence decreased dramatically from 21% to 7%, and the mf level in carriers dropped to only 0.5% of its initial value after 3 treatments. The 400 micrograms/kg dosage was well tolerated and compliance was excellent. The twice-yearly single dose strategy with ivermectin at 400 micrograms/kg is safe and highly effective for filariasis control in an endemic area. %8 1996 %0 Journal Article %J BEH %D 1996 %T Epidemie d'hepatite A en Polynesie francaise en 1995-1996. %A Martin, P M V %A Gleize, L %A Demirtas, G %A Schneider, M %A Baudet, J-M %A Biarez, P %A Cardines, R %A Chungue, E %N 44 %P 191-192 %8 1996 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1996 %T Interaction between gambiertoxin, a dinoflagellate toxin, and ionic channels of myelinated nerve fibers. %A Benoit, E %A Legrand, A-M %N 10 %P 1083 %V 34 %8 1996 %0 Journal Article %J Phytochemistry %D 1996 %T Isoprene related esters, significant components of Pandanus tectorius. %A Lechat-Vahirua, I %A Menut, C %A Roig, B %A Bessiere, J-M %A Lamaty, G %N 6 %P 1277-1279 %V 43 %X Isopentenyl and dimethylallyl acetates and cinnamates have been found in large amounts in an essential oil obtained from the ripe fruit of Pandanus tectorius, their identification has been confirmed by synthesis. This is the first time that these esters, apart from one, have been found in the plant kingdom and, generally speaking, that monoterpene precursors predominate in an essential oil. %8 1996 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1996 %T Interaction between gambiertoxin, a dinoflagellate toxin, and ionic channels of myelinated nerve fibers. %A Benoit, E %A Legrand, A-M %N 10 %P 1083 %V 34 %8 1996 %0 Journal Article %J Biosci Biotech Biochem %D 1996 %T Isolation and structure of ciguatoxin-4A, a new ciguatoxin precursor, from cultures of dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus and parrotfish Scarus gibbus. %A Satake, M %A Ishibashi, Y %A Legrand, A-M %A Yasumoto, T %N 12 %P 2103-5 %V 60 %X A new ciguatoxin congener, ciguatoxin-4A (CTX4A), was isolated from cultures of marine dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, and its structure was elucidated to be 52-epiciguatoxin-4B on the basis of spectroscopic data. Chromatographic and spectral comparisons indicated that CTX4A was identical with a structurally unelucidated congener known as scaritoxin or SG1. %8 1996 %0 Journal Article %J Cah Sante %D 1996 %T Lutte contre l'hepatite B en Polynesie francaise par un programme de vaccination systematique des nouveau-nes avec le vaccin Genhevac B. %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Spiegel, A %A Excler, J-L %A Martin, P M V %A Roux, J %A Boutin, J-P %A Blondeau, C %A Saliou, P %N 1 %P 11-15 %V 6 %X Depuis 1988, un programme de prevention et de vaccination contre l'hepatite B, utilisant un vaccin recombinant produit sur cellules de mammiferes (Genhevac B) a ete mis en place au benefice des nouveau-nes de l'archipel des Australes, zone pilote de la lutte contre l'hepatite B en Polynesie francaise. Trois calendriers vaccinaux ont ete utilises : l'un a quatre doses aux mois M0 (jour de naissance), M1, M2, M12 et les deux autres a trois doses M0, M1, M6, ou M0, M1, M12. L'evaluation serologique de ce programme a ete effectuee annuellement durant 5 ans. Parmi les 837 enfants ayant recu au moins une dose de vaccin, 5 sont porteurs de l'antigene HBs. Apres une ou deux doses de vaccin, respectivement 88 et 97% des enfants avaient des taux seroprotecteurs d'anticorps anti-HBs et/ou d'anticorps anti-PreS2. Apres trois doses de vaccin, les taux de seroprotection et les moyennes geometriques des anticorps anti-HBs etaient respectivement de 95% et de 217 mUI/ml avec le calendrier M0, M1, M2 ; 92% et 389 mUI/ml avec le calendrier M0, M1, M6 et 93% et 344 mUI/ml avec le calendrier M0, M1, M12. Apres quatre doses de vaccin (M0, M1, M2, M12), les donnees correspondantes sont de 100% et 1228 mUI/ml. Parmi les 18 enfants vaccines nes de mere double porteuse AgHBs-AgHBe, un seul etait porteur de l'AgHBs permettant d'evaluer le taux de protection de la transmission perinatale a 94%. Ces resultats suggerent que, dans les conditions de terrain, une vaccination systematique des nouveau-nes avec le Genhevac B sans utilisation d'immunoglobulines specifiques confere une protection efficace, precoce et durable. Le calendrier vaccinal recommande en Polynesie francaise est M0, M1, M6-M12 (3e dose entre M6 et M12), suivi d'une injection de rappel a l' %8 1996 %0 Journal Article %J J Clin Diag Virol %D 1996 %T Multicentre evaluation of dengue IgM dot enzyme immunoassay. %A Lam, S K %A Fong, M Y %A Chungue, E %A Doraisingham, S %A Igarashi, A %A Mar Aye, K %A Nisalak, A %A Roche, C %A Vaughn, D %A Vorndam, V %A Zin Thant, K %N 2 %P 93-98 %V 7 %X BACKGROUND: The traditional methods used in the diagnosis of dengue infection do not lend themselves to field application. As such, clinical specimens have to be sent to a central laboratory for processing which invariably leads to delay. This affects patient management and disease control. The development of the dengue IgM dot enzyme immunoassay has opened up the possibility of carrying out the test in peripheral health settings. OBJECTIVES: This multicentre study was conducted to evaluate a new, commercial nitrocellulose membrane based IgM capture enzyme immunoassay. STUDY DESIGN: The sensitivity and specificity of the test were compared with in-house dengue IgM enzyme-linked immunoassays routinely performed by each of the selected centres. Known positive and negative dengue specimens, as well as specimens from non-dengue cases, were included in the evaluation. RESULTS: Based on 402 specimens tested by the six centres, the sensitivity was 92.1% and specificity 88.1%, with an overall agreement of 92.8% when compared with IgM EIA assays performed on microplates. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that this commercial kit has a role to play in the diagnosis of dengue infection, especially in peripheral health settings. %8 1996 %0 Journal Article %J J Clin Diag Virol %D 1996 %T Multicentre evaluation of dengue IgM dot enzyme immunoassay. %A Lam, S K %A Fong, M Y %A Chungue, E %A Doraisingham, S %A Igarashi, A %A Mar Aye, K %A Nisalak, A %A Roche, C %A Vaughn, D %A Vorndam, V %A Zin Thant, K %N 2 %P 93-98 %V 7 %X BACKGROUND: The traditional methods used in the diagnosis of dengue infection do not lend themselves to field application. As such, clinical specimens have to be sent to a central laboratory for processing which invariably leads to delay. This affects patient management and disease control. The development of the dengue IgM dot enzyme immunoassay has opened up the possibility of carrying out the test in peripheral health settings. OBJECTIVES: This multicentre study was conducted to evaluate a new, commercial nitrocellulose membrane based IgM capture enzyme immunoassay. STUDY DESIGN: The sensitivity and specificity of the test were compared with in-house dengue IgM enzyme-linked immunoassays routinely performed by each of the selected centres. Known positive and negative dengue specimens, as well as specimens from non-dengue cases, were included in the evaluation. RESULTS: Based on 402 specimens tested by the six centres, the sensitivity was 92.1% and specificity 88.1%, with an overall agreement of 92.8% when compared with IgM EIA assays performed on microplates. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that this commercial kit has a role to play in the diagnosis of dengue infection, especially in peripheral health settings. %8 1996 %0 Journal Article %J Neurosci %D 1996 %T Nodal swelling produced by ciguatoxin-induced activation of sodium channels in myelinated nerve fibers. %A Benoit, E %A Juzans, P %A Legrand, A-M %A Molgo, J %N 4 %P 1121-1131 %V 71 %X Ciguatoxin-1b, the major toxin involved in ciguatera fish poisoning, and D-mannitol were examined on frog nodes of Ranvier using confocal laser scanning microscopy and conventional current- and voltage-clamp techniques. During the action of 10 nM ciguatoxin-1b, an increase in nodal volume was observed as determined by digital image processing and three-dimensional reconstruction of axons. The increase was prevented by blocking Na+ channels with tetrodotoxin. Ciguatoxin-1b (10 nM) induced high frequency action potential discharges up to 70-100 Hz. Analysis of Na+ current revealed that the toxin modified a current fraction which was activated at resting membrane potential and failed to inactivate. Increasing the osmolality of the external solution by about 50% with D-mannitol restored the nodal volume to its control value and suppressed spontaneous action potentials. In addition, D-mannitol affected unmodified and ciguatoxin-1b-treated Na+ currents in a similar manner causing a reduction of maximum conductance, negative shifts of current reversal potential and modification of the voltage-dependence of current activation and inactivation. In conclusion, ciguatoxin-1b induced a tetrodotoxin-sensitive swelling of nodes of Ranvier and selectively affected the Na+ current of myelinated axons. It is proposed that ciguatoxin-1b, by modifying Na+ current, increased intracellular Na+ concentration which caused water influx and nodal swelling. This may explain some of the reported symptoms of ciguatera fish poisoning. D-mannitol, an agent used for ciguatera treatment, was found to reverse the effects of ciguatoxin-1b by reducing Na+ entry and increasing the efflux of water through its osmotic action. It is the first time that osmotic changes produced by the selective activation of ionic channels, i.e. Na+ channels, are reported. %8 1996 %0 Journal Article %J Neurosci %D 1996 %T Nodal swelling produced by ciguatoxin-induced activation of sodium channels in myelinated nerve fibers. %A Benoit, E %A Juzans, P %A Legrand, A-M %A Molgo, J %N 4 %P 1121-1131 %V 71 %X Ciguatoxin-1b, the major toxin involved in ciguatera fish poisoning, and D-mannitol were examined on frog nodes of Ranvier using confocal laser scanning microscopy and conventional current- and voltage-clamp techniques. During the action of 10 nM ciguatoxin-1b, an increase in nodal volume was observed as determined by digital image processing and three-dimensional reconstruction of axons. The increase was prevented by blocking Na+ channels with tetrodotoxin. Ciguatoxin-1b (10 nM) induced high frequency action potential discharges up to 70-100 Hz. Analysis of Na+ current revealed that the toxin modified a current fraction which was activated at resting membrane potential and failed to inactivate. Increasing the osmolality of the external solution by about 50% with D-mannitol restored the nodal volume to its control value and suppressed spontaneous action potentials. In addition, D-mannitol affected unmodified and ciguatoxin-1b-treated Na+ currents in a similar manner causing a reduction of maximum conductance, negative shifts of current reversal potential and modification of the voltage-dependence of current activation and inactivation. In conclusion, ciguatoxin-1b induced a tetrodotoxin-sensitive swelling of nodes of Ranvier and selectively affected the Na+ current of myelinated axons. It is proposed that ciguatoxin-1b, by modifying Na+ current, increased intracellular Na+ concentration which caused water influx and nodal swelling. This may explain some of the reported symptoms of ciguatera fish poisoning. D-mannitol, an agent used for ciguatera treatment, was found to reverse the effects of ciguatoxin-1b by reducing Na+ entry and increasing the efflux of water through its osmotic action. It is the first time that osmotic changes produced by the selective activation of ionic channels, i.e. Na+ channels, are reported. %8 1996 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Harmful and toxic algal blooms, Yasumoto T, Oshima Y, Fukuyo Y (Eds), Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, pp 443-446 %D 1996 %T Phylogenetic relationship of ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus with 18S ribosomal DNA sequence comparison. %A Sako, Y %A Yagi, M %A Chinain, M %A Legrand, A-M %A Nakahara, H %A Kurokawa, T S %A Uchida, A %A Ishida, Y %A Inoue, A %X To analyze the molecular phylogeny of ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus Adachi et Fukuyo, as a first step we established the method of extraction and purification of total DNA. Cell grinding in liquid nitrogen was the best way for extracting total DNA from G. toxicus, and further purification of DNA with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was essential for polymerase chain reaction (PCR).The 18S ribosomal DNA(18S rDNA) from seven isolates of G. toxicus from French Polynesia, Japan and the West Indies were amplified by PCR and partially sequenced to investigate phylogenetic relationship within Dinophyceae. Phylogeny inferred from the sequence comparison revealed the specific phylogenetic position of the genus Gambierdiscus. The genetic distance values between isolates of G. toxicus and other five species of dinoflagellate were quite high, although distance values within isolates of G. toxicus were very low except for one isolate from the West Indies. Partial sequence analysis of 18S rDNA could not discriminate the population of G. toxicus, but the 5.8S rDNA and flanking internal transcribed spacer (ITSs) regions had a possibility to discriminate intraspecific difference. %8 1996 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Harmful and toxic algal blooms, Yasumoto T, Oshima Y, Fukuyo Y (Eds), Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, pp 443-446 %D 1996 %T Phylogenetic relationship of ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus with 18S ribosomal DNA sequence comparison. %A Sako, Y %A Yagi, M %A Chinain, M %A Legrand, A-M %A Nakahara, H %A Kurokawa, T S %A Uchida, A %A Ishida, Y %A Inoue, A %X To analyze the molecular phylogeny of ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus Adachi et Fukuyo, as a first step we established the method of extraction and purification of total DNA. Cell grinding in liquid nitrogen was the best way for extracting total DNA from G. toxicus, and further purification of DNA with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was essential for polymerase chain reaction (PCR).The 18S ribosomal DNA(18S rDNA) from seven isolates of G. toxicus from French Polynesia, Japan and the West Indies were amplified by PCR and partially sequenced to investigate phylogenetic relationship within Dinophyceae. Phylogeny inferred from the sequence comparison revealed the specific phylogenetic position of the genus Gambierdiscus. The genetic distance values between isolates of G. toxicus and other five species of dinoflagellate were quite high, although distance values within isolates of G. toxicus were very low except for one isolate from the West Indies. Partial sequence analysis of 18S rDNA could not discriminate the population of G. toxicus, but the 5.8S rDNA and flanking internal transcribed spacer (ITSs) regions had a possibility to discriminate intraspecific difference. %8 1996 %0 Journal Article %J Ann NY Acad Sci %D 1996 %T Reversed Mode Na+-Ca2+ exchange activated by ciguatoxin (CTX-1b) enhances acetylcholine release from Torpedo cholinergic synaptosomes. %A Morot Gaudry-Talarmain, Y %A Molgo, J %A Meunier, F A %A Moulian, N %A Legrand, A-M %P 404-406 %V 779 %8 1996 %0 Journal Article %J Ann NY Acad Sci %D 1996 %T Reversed Mode Na+-Ca2+ exchange activated by ciguatoxin (CTX-1b) enhances acetylcholine release from Torpedo cholinergic synaptosomes. %A Morot Gaudry-Talarmain, Y %A Molgo, J %A Meunier, F A %A Moulian, N %A Legrand, A-M %P 404-406 %V 779 %8 1996 %0 Journal Article %J Physiol Res %D 1996 %T The role of macroalgae in epiphytism of the toxic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus (Dinophyceae). %A Nakahara, H %A Sakami, T %A Chinain, M %A Ishida, Y %P 113-117 %V 44 %8 1996 %0 Journal Article %J Physiol Res %D 1996 %T The role of macroalgae in epiphytism of the toxic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus (Dinophyceae). %A Nakahara, H %A Sakami, T %A Chinain, M %A Ishida, Y %P 113-117 %V 44 %8 1996 %0 Journal Article %J Eur J Haematol %D 1995 %T a-Thalassaemia and globin gene rearrangements in French Polynesia. %A Philippon, G %A Martinson, J-J %A Rugless, M J %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Plichart, R %A Roux, J %A Martin, P M V %A Clegg, J B %N 3 %P 171-177 %V 55 %X The prevalence of alpha-thalassaemia and various globin gene rearrangements was determined in 1992 individuals living on 11 islands in French Polynesia. The gene frequencies for alpha(+)-thalassaemia (almost exclusively the -alpha 3.7III deletion form) range from 5.3% to 19.2%. Haematological indices on 177 heterozygotes and 27 homozygotes for the -alpha 3.7III variant showed considerable overlap with indices of normal individuals; although there was a broad correlation of average indices with alpha-globin genotype, individual values were a poor indication of genotype. A non-deletion form of alpha(+)-thalassaemia (alpha alpha Th), triplicated alpha genes (alpha alpha alpha) and single zeta gene (-zeta) chromosomes were present at low frequencies (< 1%), whereas triplicated gamma gene (gamma gamma gamma) and triplicated zeta (zeta zeta zeta) arrangements were more common (1.1-16.3%). alpha 0-thalassaemia, probably introduced from Southeast Asia in the early part of this century, was observed in a number of individuals of Chinese and Chinese/Polynesian ancestry. Because of the high frequency of alpha(+)-Thalassaemia on some islands, it therefore seems likely that haemoglobin H disease (resulting from the interaction between alpha 0 and alpha(+)-thalassaemia) must occur in parts of French Polynesia. %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 1995 %T Advantages of an annual single dose of ivermectin 400 %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A NGuyen, L %A Hascoet, H %A Luquiaud, P %A Nicolas, L %N 6 %P 682-685 %V 89 %X In 1994 and 1995, 2 supervised single dose treatments for bancroftian filariasis were given to all inhabitants ( > 3500) aged > or = 3 years on a Polynesian island. This island is divided into 4 political zones. Each zone was treated with a different dosage of the combination ivermectin (IVR) and diethylcarbamazine (DEC) as follows: (1) IVR 400 micrograms/kg plus DEC 6mg/kg, (2) IVR 400 micrograms/kg alone, (3) DEC 6 mg/kg alone (4) IVR 400 micrograms/kg plus DEC 3 mg/kg. 1717 inhabitants (aged > or = 20 years) had venous blood sampled when treated. The reductions in microfilaraemia prevalence rates one year after treatment were, respectively, 32%, 11%, 14% and 32%. The reductions in microfilaraemia levels one year after treatment were, respectively, 96%, 80%, 82% and 95%. Stool specimens from 82 children aged 6 years were examined for intestinal nematodes just before and just after treatment. IVR 400 micrograms/kg significantly reduced the prevalence and intensity of trichiuriasis. The combination IVR + DEC is a powerful tool for the control of lymphatic filariasis. Further studies are required to determine the appropriate presentation of DEC (salt and/or tablets), the frequency of treatment, and the duration of the control programme necessary to eradicate this disease. %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J Can J Zool %D 1995 %T Black flies (Diptera : simuliidae) of the Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia : redescriptions and new species. %A Craig, D A %A Fossati, O %A Sechan, Y %P 775-800 %V 73 %X On trouvera ici une nouvelle description de tous les stades de Simulium buissoni Roubaud, 1906. Des larves, nymphes et m %8 1995 %0 Book Section %B In: Meier J, White A (Eds), Handbook of toxicology of animal venoms and poisons, CRC Press Inc, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, Chapter 5, pp 59-74. %D 1995 %T Clinical toxicology of ciguatera poisoning. %A Glaziou, P %A Chinain, M %A Legrand, A-M %8 1995 %0 Book Section %B In: Meier J, White A (Eds), Handbook of toxicology of animal venoms and poisons, CRC Press Inc, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, Chapter 5, pp 59-74. %D 1995 %T Clinical toxicology of ciguatera poisoning. %A Glaziou, P %A Chinain, M %A Legrand, A-M %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1995 %T Ciguatoxins, a group of polyether neurotoxins which interact with sodium channel. %A Legrand, A-M %A Benoit, E %A Chinain, M %A Pauillac, S %A Molgo, J %N 6 %P 717-718 %V 33 %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Parasitol %D 1995 %T Combination ivermectin plus diethylcarbamazine, a new effective tool for control of lymphatic filariasis. %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Glaziou, P %A Weil, G J %A Nguyen, N L %A Gaxotte, P %A Nicolas, L %N 1 %P 9-12 %V 46 %X In 1993, a three arm double-blind controlled trial was implemented in French Polynesia, to compare the tolerance and efficacy of single doses of the combination ivermectin (IVR) 400 micrograms.kg-1 plus diethylcarbamazine (DEC) 6mg.kg-1 vs IVR 400 micrograms.kg-1 or DEC 6 mg.kg-1 alone, for treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti carriers. Of the 57 treated male patients in whom microfilaremia (mf) densities ranged from 22 to 4,709 mf/ml, three groups of 19 were randomly selected, and allocated to one of the three treatments. Twelve months after treatment 37%, 16% and 16% of patients were mf negative in groups DEC, IVR and IVR plus DEC respectively. Mf percent return to pretreatment level was significantly lower in the group IVR + DEC (1.9%) than for DEC 6 (14.7%) or IVR 400 (11.6%). Antigenemia percent return to pretreatment level was lower in the groups IVR + DEC or DEC 6 than for IVR 400. The combination IVR + DEC proved to be the most effective on macrofilariae and microfilariae (antigenemia and mf negative patients). The combination will be a very powerful tool for control of lymphatic filariasis. An annual filariasis day could be the most cost-effective strategy for administration of the drugs. %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J J Clin Microbiol %D 1995 %T Chromosomal DNA fingerprinting analysis using the insertion sequence IS6110 and the repetitive element DR as strain-specific markers for epidemiological study of tuberculosis in French Polynesia. %A Torrea, G %A Levee, G %A Grimont, P %A Martin, C %A Chanteau, S %A Gicquel, B %N 7 %P 1899-1904 %V 33 %X The polymorphism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains was evaluated in French Polynesia, an area with a low incidence of tuberculosis and a population which has been geographically stable during recent decades. Non repetitive strains isolated from 64 patients during 1991 and 1992 were subjected to DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, using the insertion sequence IS6110 and the repetitive element DR as probes. Thirty-eight different IS6110 RFLP types were identified. They could be clustered in 11 groups. All the members of each group are identical or differ by one to three bands. All the other strains are gathered in the miscellaneous group. In some cases, transmission of strains with identical RFLP types between patients of the same family or between patients living in the same area was identified. Strains exhibiting similar IS6110 RFLP types also exhibited identical DR RFLP patterns, confirming that strains with similar types were genetically linked. Strains belonging to two different IS6110 clusters exhibited the same DR RFLP type. These data may also indicate a common origin for these strains and evolution to new IS6110 types. The result obtained in this study suggest that not only reactivation of latent tuberculous infections but also active transmissions are still occurring in French Polynesia. %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1995 %T Ciguatoxins, a group of polyether neurotoxins which interact with sodium channel. %A Legrand, A-M %A Benoit, E %A Chinain, M %A Pauillac, S %A Molgo, J %N 6 %P 717-718 %V 33 %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J Blood %D 1995 %T Dengue virus inhibits the in vitro growth of human hematopoietic progenitors. %A Murgue, B %A Chungue, E %A Cassar, O %A Guigon, M %P 2691 %V 81 %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J Psychiatric Genetics %D 1995 %T D2 receptor gene PCR polymorphism, alcohol and cannabis users. Abstracts of the 1995 World Congress on Psychiatric genetics. %A Amadeo, S %A Fourcade, M L %A Nicolas, L %A Brugiroux, M-F %A Tetaria, C %A Chaal, S %A Sinjoux, I %A Paul, M %A Zhang, X %A Ritchie, T %A Noble, E %A Mallet, J %P S76 %V 5 %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J Blood %D 1995 %T Dengue virus inhibits the in vitro growth of human hematopoietic progenitors. %A Murgue, B %A Chungue, E %A Cassar, O %A Guigon, M %P 2691 %V 81 %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1995 %T Effects of ciguatoxin on the electrical activity and the contraction of the frog heart muscle. %A Sauviat, M P %A Legrand, A-M %N 9 %P 1131-1132 %V 33 %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J J Amer Mosquito Contr Assoc %D 1995 %T Evaluation of entomopathogenic bacteria against Aedes polynesiensis, the vector of lymphatic filariasis in French Polynesia. %A Mercer, D R %A Nicolas, L %A Thiery, I %N 4 %P 485-488 %V 11 %X Thirteen strains among 3 species of entomopathogenic bacteria were tested against 3 medically important mosquito species in French Polynesia. Two strains of Bacillus thuringiensis were highly toxic to Aedes polynesiensis, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Six of 7 strains of Bacillus sphaericus tested were highly toxic to Cx. quinquefasciatus but not to the Aedes spp. Clostridium bifermentans serovar. malaysia was more toxic to Ae. polynesiensis than to the other 2 species. Entomopathogenic bacteria merit field testing for larval mosquito control in French Polynesia. %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J Mar Freshwater Res %D 1995 %T Elevated sea-water temperature and solar UV-B flux associated with two successive coral mass bleaching events in Tahiti. %A Drollet, J H %A Faucon, M %A Martin, P M V %P 1153-1157 %V 46 %X After a minor coral bleaching event in 1993, a more dramatic episode occured in Tahiti from March to July 1994. Coral bleaching was recorded along four continuous 25-m-long line transects. Physico-chemical parameters of the sea (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH) were noted once a week, and solar UV-B flux was recorded daily before and during the bleaching episode.Results emphasized the importance of the taxonomic position of coral in susceptibility to bleaching. The evolution of bleaching through time was related to mean daily solar UV-B flux and sea-water temperature. Moreover, comparison of the 1993 and 1994 data suggested temperature and/or UV-B thresholds that may elicit minor or severe bleaching events. %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1995 %T Effects of ciguatoxin on the electrical activity and the contraction of the frog heart muscle. %A Sauviat, M P %A Legrand, A-M %N 9 %P 1131-1132 %V 33 %8 1995 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Hokama Y, Scheuer PJ, Yasumoto T (Eds), Proceedings of the nternational Symposium on Ciguatera and Marine Natural Products, South Kohala, Hawaii, pp 91-98 %D 1995 %T Effects of an artificial medium and axenic culturing on toxicity of cultured Gambierdiscus toxicus. %A Chinain, M %A Laurent, N %A Pauillac, S %A Legrand, A-M %X Gambierdiscus toxicus Adachi and Fukuyo is presumed to be the origin of ciguatera in most reef ecosystems. But questions about the precise origin of the toxins involved in this disease have recently arisen. In particular, the role of unknown compounds presents in natural seawater may be speculated in inducing toxicity in G. toxicus cells. The possibke role of associated bacteria is also a matter of current debate.Two potentially toxic strains of G. toxicus isolated from French Polynesia (GTP1), and the West Indies (StB1), were mass-cultured and extracted for ciguatoxins and maitotoxins. Growth rate and toxicity of GTP1 were compared in natural seawater supplemented with f10k nutrient medium (Nf10) vs. Hf10 artificial medium modified from Harrison et al. (1980). Preliminary results indicate that both 'natural' and artificial media equally support GTP1 growth and toxicity, suggesting that it is very unlikely that there is a CTX-inducing compound in natural seawater. Axenization of strain StB1 was archieved using ultrasonication combined with a mild detergent treatment. Axenic and non-axenic cultures of StB1 yielded similar amounts of ciguatoxins, thus clearly demonstrating that CTX-production by G. toxicus doesn't require a dinoflagellate/bacteria symbiosis. The variability in toxicity observed among various strains of G. toxicus or between cultures of single isolates is also briefly discussed. %8 1995 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Hokama Y, Scheuer PJ, Yasumoto T (Eds), Proceedings of the nternational Symposium on Ciguatera and Marine Natural Products, South Kohala, Hawaii, pp 91-98 %D 1995 %T Effects of an artificial medium and axenic culturing on toxicity of cultured Gambierdiscus toxicus. %A Chinain, M %A Laurent, N %A Pauillac, S %A Legrand, A-M %X Gambierdiscus toxicus Adachi and Fukuyo is presumed to be the origin of ciguatera in most reef ecosystems. But questions about the precise origin of the toxins involved in this disease have recently arisen. In particular, the role of unknown compounds presents in natural seawater may be speculated in inducing toxicity in G. toxicus cells. The possibke role of associated bacteria is also a matter of current debate.Two potentially toxic strains of G. toxicus isolated from French Polynesia (GTP1), and the West Indies (StB1), were mass-cultured and extracted for ciguatoxins and maitotoxins. Growth rate and toxicity of GTP1 were compared in natural seawater supplemented with f10k nutrient medium (Nf10) vs. Hf10 artificial medium modified from Harrison et al. (1980). Preliminary results indicate that both 'natural' and artificial media equally support GTP1 growth and toxicity, suggesting that it is very unlikely that there is a CTX-inducing compound in natural seawater. Axenization of strain StB1 was archieved using ultrasonication combined with a mild detergent treatment. Axenic and non-axenic cultures of StB1 yielded similar amounts of ciguatoxins, thus clearly demonstrating that CTX-production by G. toxicus doesn't require a dinoflagellate/bacteria symbiosis. The variability in toxicity observed among various strains of G. toxicus or between cultures of single isolates is also briefly discussed. %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1995 %T Filariose lymphatique : vers une meilleure utilisation de la diethylcarbamazine. %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Nguyen, N L %A Cartel, J-L %N 1 %P 103 %V 55 %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J J Am Mosquito Contr Assoc %D 1995 %T Genetic differentiation of Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue virus in French Polynesia. %A Failloux, A B %A Darius, H T %A Pasteur, N %N 4 %P 457-462 %V 11 %X In recent years the incidence of dengue fever epidemics has increased and transmission has tended to be established over a geographically expanding area, including French Polynesia. An increase in air transportation contributes to the diffusion of the dengue virus from Southeast Asia, a region considered to be a hyperendemic dengue zone, to the Pacific region. Presently, little is known about the role of the vector (Aedes aegypti) in the diffusion of the dengue fever virus. A study on the genetic structure of vector populations was conducted using allozyme polymorphism. This study showed a low level of genetic exchange between mosquito populations on different islands. It is concluded that the occurrence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in French Polynesia during the last few years was likely due to the dispersal of the dengue virus via viremic people rather than via infected vectors. %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J J Am Mosquito Contr Assoc %D 1995 %T Genetic differentiation of Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue virus in French Polynesia. %A Failloux, A B %A Darius, H T %A Pasteur, N %N 4 %P 457-462 %V 11 %X In recent years the incidence of dengue fever epidemics has increased and transmission has tended to be established over a geographically expanding area, including French Polynesia. An increase in air transportation contributes to the diffusion of the dengue virus from Southeast Asia, a region considered to be a hyperendemic dengue zone, to the Pacific region. Presently, little is known about the role of the vector (Aedes aegypti) in the diffusion of the dengue fever virus. A study on the genetic structure of vector populations was conducted using allozyme polymorphism. This study showed a low level of genetic exchange between mosquito populations on different islands. It is concluded that the occurrence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in French Polynesia during the last few years was likely due to the dispersal of the dengue virus via viremic people rather than via infected vectors. %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J Mosquito Systematics %D 1995 %T Larval growth of Aedes polynesiensis and Aedes aegypti (Diptera : Culicidae). %A Lardeux, F %A Tetuanui, A %N 2 %P 118-124 %V 27 %X Head capsule widths of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes polynesiensis Marks were measured on larvae reared individually in the laboratory. Instars could be identified unambiguously by means of their head capsule widths or by simple examination of peaks in the frequency distribution of widths. Aedes aegypti exhibits no sexual differences in development sizes, whereas in Ae. polynesiensis third- and fourth-instar widths were significantly smaller in males than in females. Larval growth can be modeled by linear regression of head widths on instar, for both species. The growth rate of Ae. polynesiensis females is greater than that of males. Although Ae. aegypti always has greater head capsule widths than Ae. polynesiensis males, their growth rates are identical. We suggest the use of a method for statistically analyzing mixtures of Gaussian populations. The method is tested on the Ae. polynesiensis instar 3 and 4 data set, the aim being to identify the subpopulations of males and females. For instar 4, it gave results identical to the simple measurements previously done, but failed when the subpopulations widely overlap, as in instar 3. %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J J Gen Virol %D 1995 %T Molecular epidemiology of dengue-1 and dengue-4 viruses (erratum in J. Gen. Virol. 1996 Mars; 77 (Pt 3) : 565-566) %A Chungue, E %A Cassar, O %A Drouet, M T %A Guzman, M G %A Laille, M %A Rosen, L %A Deubel, V %N Pt 7 %P 1877-1884 %V 76 %X Genetic variation between geographically and temporally distinct isolates of dengue-1 (DEN-1) and dengue-4 (DEN-4) viruses was investigated. The nucleotide sequences of a fragment of the envelope protein gene encoding amino acids 28 to 87 of 35 DEN-1 isolates and 28 DEN-4 isolates were determined. Maximum nucleotide sequence variation was 6.9% and 4.9% for DEN-1 and DEN-4 viruses, respectively. Taking a divergence of 6% between the nucleotide sequences as the cut-off value, three genotype groups were defined for DEN-1 viruses, whereas only one was observed for DEN-4 viruses. Molecular analysis of isolates from the South Pacific permits the classification of the recent strains of DEN-1 (1988-1989 epidemics) into a genotype distinct from the genotype which comprises earlier strains. This observation suggests that the recent epidemics were due to the introduction of a new genotype rather than to the re-emergence of the earlier strain. %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J J Gen Virol %D 1995 %T Molecular epidemiology of dengue-1 and dengue-4 viruses (erratum in J. Gen. Virol. 1996 Mars; 77 (Pt 3) : 565-566) %A Chungue, E %A Cassar, O %A Drouet, M T %A Guzman, M G %A Laille, M %A Rosen, L %A Deubel, V %N Pt 7 %P 1877-1884 %V 76 %X Genetic variation between geographically and temporally distinct isolates of dengue-1 (DEN-1) and dengue-4 (DEN-4) viruses was investigated. The nucleotide sequences of a fragment of the envelope protein gene encoding amino acids 28 to 87 of 35 DEN-1 isolates and 28 DEN-4 isolates were determined. Maximum nucleotide sequence variation was 6.9% and 4.9% for DEN-1 and DEN-4 viruses, respectively. Taking a divergence of 6% between the nucleotide sequences as the cut-off value, three genotype groups were defined for DEN-1 viruses, whereas only one was observed for DEN-4 viruses. Molecular analysis of isolates from the South Pacific permits the classification of the recent strains of DEN-1 (1988-1989 epidemics) into a genotype distinct from the genotype which comprises earlier strains. This observation suggests that the recent epidemics were due to the introduction of a new genotype rather than to the re-emergence of the earlier strain. %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J Med Mal Infect %D 1995 %T Nouvelles techniques diagnostiques de la dengue. %A Chungue, E %N Special %P 696-701 %V 25 %X Parmi les arbovirus les plus importants et capables d'infecter l'homme, les virus de la dengue etaient les plus difficiles a isoler et a propager en laboratoire. Or le diagnostic rapide constitue la cle d'une prise en charge adaptee du patient en cas de suspicion de dengue hemorragique/dengue avec syndrome de choc. Par ailleurs, la detection precose d'un risque epidemique est basee en partie sur un diagnostic precoce et rapide des cas suspects. Depuis 1990, de nombreuses techniques de RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction) pour la detection des virus de la dengue ont ete decrites et ameliorees afin d'obtenir des resultats en quelques heures. Sensible et plus rapide que la culture, la RT-PCR est un outil de diagnostic. Une revue de ces nouvelles techniques est presentee. Leurs limites et leurs applications en diagnostic et en epidemiologie moleculaire sont discutees. Enfin des perspectives pour de nouvelles techniques virologiques et serologiques seront abordees. %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J Med Mal Infect %D 1995 %T Nouvelles techniques diagnostiques de la dengue. %A Chungue, E %N Special %P 696-701 %V 25 %X Parmi les arbovirus les plus importants et capables d'infecter l'homme, les virus de la dengue %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1995 %T Place de l'invermectine dans la prophylaxie de la filariose lymphatique. %A Cartel, J-L %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Nguyen, N L %A Spiegel, A %A Roux, J %N 3 sup %P 30-33 %V 55 %8 1995 %0 Book Section %B In: Harmful Marine Algal Blooms, Lassus P, Arzul G, Erard P, Gentien P, Marcaillou C (Eds), Technique et Documentation, Lavoisier Intercept Ltd., pp 801-808 %D 1995 %T Recent advances in detection of ciguatoxins in French Polynesia. %A Pauillac, S %A Blehaut, J %A Cruchet, P %A Lotte, C %A Legrand, A-M %X Recent advances in the understanding of ciguatoxin family (CTXs) chemistry opened the way to research programs for the detection of hazardous fish. The primary hydroxyl group on the side chain of the main toxin (CTX, coded CTX-1B) was used to prepare a fluorescent derivative with 1-anthroylnitrile which is the basis for detection. Trace amounts of CTX-1B have been identified by fluorometric HPLC and eleven minor CTXs have been screened and classified as either containing (6) or lacking (5) a primary hydroxyl group. Binding studies using rat brain synaptosomes showed that CTX-1B and two less polar CTXs competitively inhibit the binding of the brevetoxin [3H]PbTx-3 which is well known to interact with site 5 of the sodium channel protein. Binding experiments were used to evaluate the toxicity of crude fish extracts. These preliminary results are promising for the practical monitoring of fish toxicity. %8 1995 %0 Book Section %B In: Harmful Marine Algal Blooms, Lassus P, Arzul G, Erard P, Gentien P, Marcaillou C (Eds), Technique et Documentation, Lavoisier Intercept Ltd., pp 801-808 %D 1995 %T Recent advances in detection of ciguatoxins in French Polynesia. %A Pauillac, S %A Bl %X Recent advances in the understanding of ciguatoxin family (CTXs) chemistry opened the way to research programs for the detection of hazardous fish. The primary hydroxyl group on the side chain of the main toxin (CTX, coded CTX-1B) was used to prepare a fluorescent derivative with 1-anthroylnitrile which is the basis for detection. Trace amounts of CTX-1B have been identified by fluorometric HPLC and eleven minor CTXs have been screened and classified as either containing (6) or lacking (5) a primary hydroxyl group. Binding studies using rat brain synaptosomes showed that CTX-1B and two less polar CTXs competitively inhibit the binding of the brevetoxin [3H]PbTx-3 which is well known to interact with site 5 of the sodium channel protein. Binding experiments were used to evaluate the toxicity of crude fish extracts. These preliminary results are promising for the practical monitoring of fish toxicity. %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Virol %D 1995 %T Rapid and sensitive streptavidin-biotin amplified fluorogenic enzyme-linked immunosorbent-assay (F-ELISA) for the direct detection and identification of dengue viral antigens in serum specimens. %A Malergue, F %A Chungue, E %N 1 %P 43-47 %V 47 %X Each of the four serotypes of dengue viruses is responsible for a spectrum of illnesses that range from nonspecific febrile syndrome with good prognosis to dengue haemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome. Definite diagnosis of dengue is provided by the detection of virus in acute-phase sera of patients. Virus isolation can be accomplished with mosquito cell lines or mosquito inoculations. However, these methods are time consuming and labour intensive. The reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) provides a potential means of rapid diagnosis but requires specialised facilities and equipment and is expensive. Therefore a rapid, simple, sensitive, and economical method for direct detection of viral antigens in viraemic sera is needed for clinical and epidemiological investigations. An amplified fluorogenic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (F-ELISA) is described for the detection and identification of dengue-3 viruses in serum specimens. This assay utilizes biotinylated mouse IgG antibody directed against dengue antigens captured by anti-dengue monoclonal antibody coated onto polystyrene microplate wells. It takes advantage of the high affinity of biotin for the multivalent binding sites of streptavidin-labelled beta-galactosidase, and combines the amplification effect of biotin-streptavidin interaction with the high sensitivity of fluorogenic detection methods. Following optimisation of the procedure by reducing non-specific binding of proteins and enhancing the specific binding of antigens, F-ELISA was tested on 259 sera submitted routinely to our laboratory for confirmation of dengue diagnosis. The sensitivity of the F-ELISA was 90%, the specificity was 99% and the agreement rate was 98% between F-ELISA and virusisolation results. %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Virol %D 1995 %T Rapid and sensitive streptavidin-biotin amplified fluorogenic enzyme-linked immunosorbent-assay (F-ELISA) for the direct detection and identification of dengue viral antigens in serum specimens. %A Malergue, F %A Chungue, E %N 1 %P 43-47 %V 47 %X Each of the four serotypes of dengue viruses is responsible for a spectrum of illnesses that range from nonspecific febrile syndrome with good prognosis to dengue haemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome. Definite diagnosis of dengue is provided by the detection of virus in acute-phase sera of patients. Virus isolation can be accomplished with mosquito cell lines or mosquito inoculations. However, these methods are time consuming and labour intensive. The reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) provides a potential means of rapid diagnosis but requires specialised facilities and equipment and is expensive. Therefore a rapid, simple, sensitive, and economical method for direct detection of viral antigens in viraemic sera is needed for clinical and epidemiological investigations. An amplified fluorogenic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (F-ELISA) is described for the detection and identification of dengue-3 viruses in serum specimens. This assay utilizes biotinylated mouse IgG antibody directed against dengue antigens captured by anti-dengue monoclonal antibody coated onto polystyrene microplate wells. It takes advantage of the high affinity of biotin for the multivalent binding sites of streptavidin-labelled beta-galactosidase, and combines the amplification effect of biotin-streptavidin interaction with the high sensitivity of fluorogenic detection methods. Following optimisation of the procedure by reducing non-specific binding of proteins and enhancing the specific binding of antigens, F-ELISA was tested on 259 sera submitted routinely to our laboratory for confirmation of dengue diagnosis. The sensitivity of the F-ELISA was 90%, the specificity was 99% and the agreement rate was 98% between F-ELISA and virusisolation results. %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J Southeast Asian J Trop Med Pub Hlth %D 1995 %T Single doses of ivermectin 400 %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Glaziou, P %A Nguyen, N L %A Cartel, J-L %N 1 %P 124-127 %V 26 %X Forty-three Wuchereria bancrofti carriers were given four successive semi-annual single doses of ivermectin 100 micrograms.kg-1 (IVER 100). The geometric mean microfilaremia (mf) recurrence percentage as compared to the pre-initial treatment mf level was 35%, 21%, 17% and 17% at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, respectively. However, the recurrence of mf 6 months after the fourth treatment remained high in several individuals: 15 have been considered as 'bad responders' and 28 as 'good responders' individuals. At month 24 (M 24), they were randomly allocated into 2 groups. A first group was treated with a fifty and a sixth dose of IVER 100, at M24 and M30, respectively; the second one was treated, at the same time, with single doses of IVER 400 micrograms.kg-1 (IVER 400). At M 36, the mf recurrence percentage (mf M36/mf M0) was significantly higher in patients treated with IVER 100 than IVER 400 (11% vs 1%, p < 10(-4). From the group IVER 100, 6 out of the 8 'bad responders' remained 'bad responders' whereas there were none of the 7 in the group IVER 400. Moreover, there were only 2 more patients in the group IVER 100 showing sustained complete zero mf, whereas they were 13 in the group IVER 400. Single doses of IVER 400 were effective on 'bad responders'; IVER 400 must be recommended for semi-annual mass treatment in bancroftian filariasis. %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J Genet Res %D 1995 %T The role of passive migration in the dispersal of resistance genes in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus within French Polynesia. %A Pasteur, N %A Marquine, M %A Rousset, F %A Failloux, A-B %A Chevillon, C %A Raymond, M %P 139-146 %V 66 %X We have investigated the distribution of resistance genes in relation to genetic structure and gene flow between various islands of French Polynesia in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus. We show that (1) resistance to organophosphorous insecticides, mediated by A2-B2 esterases, is present in all islands, (2) A2-B2 frequency decreases as distance from Tahiti increases, and (3) genetic differentiation (measured as estimates of the Fst parameter from allozyme polymorphism) between islands is significantly correlated to geographic distances which is also correlated to air or sea commercial traffic. These data are discussed in relation to A2-B2 invasion of French Polynesian islands. %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J Parasitology %D 1995 %T Variation in the vector competence of Aedes polynesiensis for Wuchereria bancrofti. %A Failloux, A-B %A Raymond, M %A Ung, A %A Glaziou, P %A Martin, P M V %A Pasteur, N %N Pt 1 %P 19-29 %V 111 %X The vector competences of 6 geographic strains of Aedes polynesiensis for Wuchereria bancrofti were studied using two types of experimental infections. Experimental infection of laboratory-bred mosquitoes fed on the carriers' forearms with different levels of microfilaraemia showed that microfilariae (mf) uptake was directly proportional to the carrier's mf density and, as mf densities decreased, concentration capacity of Ae. polynesiensis increased. It was also shown that infection has an important effect on mosquito mortality, and that the mortality rate differed among mosquito strains. In infections using artificial feeders, the mf uptake was closely regulated, thus showing differences in the vectorial efficiency of Ae. polynesiensis related to the geographic origin of the mosquito strain. The mosquitoes from the Society archipelago were more efficient intermediate hosts than geographically distant strains when infected with W. bancrofti from an island within the archipelago (Tahiti). Mosquito strains from the Society archipelago developed the highest proportion of infective-stage larvae and exhibited the lowest mortality rate when infected with sympatric Tahitian W. bancrofti. %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J Parasitology %D 1995 %T Variation in the vector competence of Aedes polynesiensis for Wuchereria bancrofti. %A Failloux, A-B %A Raymond, M %A Ung, A %A Glaziou, P %A Martin, P M V %A Pasteur, N %N Pt 1 %P 19-29 %V 111 %X The vector competences of 6 geographic strains of Aedes polynesiensis for Wuchereria bancrofti were studied using two types of experimental infections. Experimental infection of laboratory-bred mosquitoes fed on the carriers' forearms with different levels of microfilaraemia showed that microfilariae (mf) uptake was directly proportional to the carrier's mf density and, as mf densities decreased, concentration capacity of Ae. polynesiensis increased. It was also shown that infection has an important effect on mosquito mortality, and that the mortality rate differed among mosquito strains. In infections using artificial feeders, the mf uptake was closely regulated, thus showing differences in the vectorial efficiency of Ae. polynesiensis related to the geographic origin of the mosquito strain. The mosquitoes from the Society archipelago were more efficient intermediate hosts than geographically distant strains when infected with W. bancrofti from an island within the archipelago (Tahiti). Mosquito strains from the Society archipelago developed the highest proportion of infective-stage larvae and exhibited the lowest mortality rate when infected with sympatric Tahitian W. bancrofti. %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Entomol %D 1995 %T Wuchereria bancrofti (Filariidae : Dipetalonematidae) and its vector Aedes polynesiensis (Diptera : Culicidae) in a french polynesian village. %A Lardeux, F %A Nguyen, N L %A Cartel, J-L %N 3 %P 346-352 %V 32 %X In March 1991, a study on Wuchereria bancrofti (Cobbold, 1887) infection rates in its vector, Aedes polynesiensis Marks, was carried out in a village of French Polynesia. Our data were collected 10 yr after the suspension of human mass chemoprophylaxis and served as a baseline for pending ivermectin treatment scheduled in 1991-1993. In total, 1.789 biting females were collected, of which 1.740 were dissected and 1.183 (68%) were parous. Among these, 106 (8,96%) were infected with W. bancrofti and 34 (2,87%) harbored infective L3 larvae. The mean number of larvae per infected mosquito was 2,69, and the mean number of L3 larvae per L3 positive mosquito was 1,44. The Ae. polynesiensis biting index was 4,7 bites per 15 min, but varied significantly among habitats. The highest parous biting rates occurred in fields and peridomestic gardens and the lowest was close to houses. The proportion of parous infected and infective mosquitoes was higher in peridomestic habitats (0,25 infective bites per 15 min) than in domestic habitats (0,09) or in fields (0,11). %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J Int J Parasitol %D 1995 %T Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis in French Polynesia : age-specific patterns of microfilaremia, circulating antigen, and specific IgG and IgG4 responses according to transmission level. %A Chanteau, S %A Glaziou, P %A Plichart, C %A Luquiaud, P %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Nguyen, N L %A Cartel, J-L %N 1 %P 81-85 %V 25 %X The age-specific patterns of microfilaremia, Og4C3 antigenemia, anti-Brugia malayi IgG and IgG4 were assessed in 3 villages of low, medium and high transmission level for Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis. The prevalence rates for each of the 4 markers were clearly age dependent and their patterns strongly associated with the transmission level. The antigenemia prevalence rate was consistently higher than the microfilaremia prevalence rate, in all age groups. The prevalences of anti-B. malayi IgG and IgG4 responses were very similar and much higher than those of microfilaremia or antigenemia. Antibody responses reached the plateau at an earlier age and at a higher prevalence with increased intensity of transmission. For all the markers, the prevalence rates were significantly higher in males than in females. %8 1995 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 1994 %T Advantages of ivermectin at a single dose of 400 %A Nguyen, N L %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Glaziou, P %A Martin, P M V %A Cartel, J-L %N 4 %P 461-464 %V 88 %X In April and October in 1991-1993, 5 supervised single doses of ivermectin were given to inhabitants aged > or = 3 years in a Polynesian district: the first 3 treatments were with 100 micrograms/kg and the 2 latter with 400 micrograms/kg. At each treatment, about 97% of the eligible population (899) were treated and blood samples were collected just before treatment from 96% of the 613 inhabitants aged > or = 15 years. Following the 5 successive treatments, adverse reactions were observed in, respectively, 23.8, 13, 6.2, 13.6 and 7.9% of the microfilariae (mf) carriers, and in less than 1% of amicrofilaraemic subjects.Neither the frequency nor the intensity of adverse reactions was significantly different between single doses of 100 micrograms/kg and 400 micrograms/kg. Although the geometric mean microfilaraemia (GMM) was reduced, the mf carrier prevalence remained unchanged before and after 3 mass treatments with 100 micrograms/kg (21.4 and 20.7% respectively), and the mf recurrence rate 6 months after each dose of 100 micrograms/kg was roughly stable (respectively, 34.3%, 21.6% and 31.2% of the initial GMM). In contrast, after one dose round of 400 micrograms/kg, the mf carrier prevalence decreased significantly to 14.9% (P < 10(-6)), and the mf recurrence rate dropped to 9.9% (P < 10(-3)) of the initial GMM. These results confirm the safety and the effectiveness of 400 micrograms/kg of ivermectin for lymphatic filariasis control. %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J Vaccine %D 1994 %T A 5-year immunization field trial against hepatitis B using a Chinese hamster ovary cell recombinant vaccine in French Polynesian newborns : results at 3 yaers. %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Spiegel, A %A Martin, P M V %A Cardines, R %A Boutin, J-P %A Roux, J %A Excler, J-L %A Saliou, P %N 6 %P 499-502 %V 12 %X A hepatitis immunization field trial, using a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell recombinant vaccine, was implemented for newborns in the Austral archipelago of French Polynesia in 1988. Three different schedules were used: (1) four vaccine doses at months (M) M0, M1, M2 and M12; (2) three vaccine doses at M0, M1 and M6; and (3) three vaccine doses at M0, M1 and M12. The programme evaluation was performed yearly at fixed dates, i.e. October-November 1989, 1990 and 1991. After the third year, of the 582 children who received one or more doses of vaccine, four were HBsAg carriers. After one or two doses, 88 and 98%, respectively, had seroconverted for at least one of the two measured antibodies, anti-HBs or anti pre-S2. After three doses, seroconversion rates and geometric mean anti-HBs titres were, respectively, 94% and 187 mIU ml-1 using schedule M0, M1, M2; 95% and 507 mIU ml-1 using schedule M0, M1, M6 and 96% and 476 mIU ml-1 using schedule M0, M1, M12. After four doses (M0, M1, M2, M12) the corresponding results were 99% and 1518 mIU ml-1. One of the 16 vaccinated neonates born to HBsAg/HBeAg-positive mothers was an HBsAg carrier, implying a protective rate for the prevention of perinatal transmission of 93%. Overall, these results indicate that, in field conditions, indiscriminate vaccination of newborns with a CHO-recombinant vaccine without hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HiBG) resulted in high immunogenicity. Final evaluation in 1993-1994 will permit confirmation of the effectiveness of the two three-dose vaccine schedules. %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J Aust J Mar Freshwater Res %D 1994 %T A survey of environmental physico-chemical parameters during a minor coral mass bleaching event in Tahiti in 1993. %A Drollet, J H %A Faucon, M %A Maritorena, S %A Martin, P M V %P 1149-1156 %V 45 %X Hermatypic corals along two continuous 25-m-long line transects on the northern and eastern coasts of the island of Tahiti (Arue, outer reef slope, and Hitia'a, fringing reef, respectively) were monitored during a minor episode of coral bleaching in April and May 1993. From early February to the end of May, the physico-chemical parameters of the sea water (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH and total solar irradiance) were noted once a week, and solar UV-B radiation was recorded from 1100 to 1400 hours every day. The result are consistent with a synergistic interaction between temperature and UV-B radiation, possibly associated with total solar irradiance. The interval of hour weeks between peaks in solar UV-B radiation and seawater temperature may explain why the 1993 bleaching in Tahiti was minor. Different patterns of bleaching occured in different species, and all corals recovered within four to six weeks.Hermatypic corals appear to have multiform reactions in response to environmental stresses. %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J Memoirs of the Queensland Museum %D 1994 %T Confocal laser scanning microscopy : a new tool for syudying the effects of ciguatoxin (CTX-1B) and D-Mannitol at motor nerve terminals of the neuromuscular junction in situ. %A Molgo, J %A Juzans, P %A Legrand, A-M %N 3 %P 579-585 %V 34 %X The confocal laser scanning microscope was used in cinjunction with the fluorescent probe FM1-43 to study the effects of ciguatoxin (CTX-1B) and D-Mannitol at motor nerve terminals of the neuromuscular junction in situ. CTX-1B caused time-dependent changes in the surface area of motor nerve terminals and perisynaptic Schwann cell at living neuromuscular junctions. These changes were completely prevented by tetrodotoxin indicating that they are related to both entry of Na+ and increased quantal acetylcholine release. D-Mannitol at concentrations reported to exert an effective hydrosyl radical scavenger action neither prevented the action of CTX-1B nor antagonized its effects. However, at higher concentrations D-Mannitol exerted osmotic effects that caused shrinkage of both motor nerve terminals and Schwann cell somata previously swollen by the action of CTX-1B probably by shifting water from the intracellular compartment. %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J J Infect Dis %D 1994 %T Correlation between detection of plasminogen cross-reactive antibodies and hemorrage in dengue virus infection. %A Chungue, E %A Poli, L %A Roche, C %A Gestas, P %A Glaziou, P %A Markoff, L J %N 5 %P 1304-1307 %V 170 %X Although dengue fever (DF) is usually self-limited, some patients experience severe and prolonged illness characterized by capillary leakage, which may progress to hypovolemic shock (dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome; DHF/DSS) with hemorrhage of unknown etiology. Development of antibodies potentially cross-reactive to plasminogen has been reported in a high percentage of Thai patients with DF and DHF/DSS. Correlation between detection of plasminogen cross-reactive antibodies and hemorrhage was evaluated in 88 Tahitian children with dengue virus type 3 infection who presented with (n = 59) or without (n = 29) hemorrhage. Plasminogen cross-reactive antibodies were found in acute and convalescent sera of 33 and 11 children, respectively (56% vs. 31%, P < .05), and closely paralleled antibodies to the cross-reactive site in dengue virus E protein. Antibodies were more frequent in children with secondary than primary infections (60% vs. 32%, P < .05). Plasminogen cross-reactive antibodies did not correlate with occurrence of DHF/DSS or thrombocytopenia. These results are consistent with the possibility that plasminogen cross-reactive antibodies play a role in the etiology of hemorrhage in dengue virus infection. %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J Memoirs of the Queensland Museum %D 1994 %T Confocal laser scanning microscopy : a new tool for syudying the effects of ciguatoxin (CTX-1B) and D-Mannitol at motor nerve terminals of the neuromuscular junction in situ. %A Molgo, J %A Juzans, P %A Legrand, A-M %N 3 %P 579-585 %V 34 %X The confocal laser scanning microscope was used in cinjunction with the fluorescent probe FM1-43 to study the effects of ciguatoxin (CTX-1B) and D-Mannitol at motor nerve terminals of the neuromuscular junction in situ. CTX-1B caused time-dependent changes in the surface area of motor nerve terminals and perisynaptic Schwann cell at living neuromuscular junctions. These changes were completely prevented by tetrodotoxin indicating that they are related to both entry of Na+ and increased quantal acetylcholine release. D-Mannitol at concentrations reported to exert an effective hydrosyl radical scavenger action neither prevented the action of CTX-1B nor antagonized its effects. However, at higher concentrations D-Mannitol exerted osmotic effects that caused shrinkage of both motor nerve terminals and Schwann cell somata previously swollen by the action of CTX-1B probably by shifting water from the intracellular compartment. %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J J Infect Dis %D 1994 %T Correlation between detection of plasminogen cross-reactive antibodies and hemorrage in dengue virus infection. %A Chungue, E %A Poli, L %A Roche, C %A Gestas, P %A Glaziou, P %A Markoff, L J %N 5 %P 1304-1307 %V 170 %X Although dengue fever (DF) is usually self-limited, some patients experience severe and prolonged illness characterized by capillary leakage, which may progress to hypovolemic shock (dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome; DHF/DSS) with hemorrhage of unknown etiology. Development of antibodies potentially cross-reactive to plasminogen has been reported in a high percentage of Thai patients with DF and DHF/DSS. Correlation between detection of plasminogen cross-reactive antibodies and hemorrhage was evaluated in 88 Tahitian children with dengue virus type 3 infection who presented with (n = 59) or without (n = 29) hemorrhage. Plasminogen cross-reactive antibodies were found in acute and convalescent sera of 33 and 11 children, respectively (56% vs. 31%, P < .05), and closely paralleled antibodies to the cross-reactive site in dengue virus E protein. Antibodies were more frequent in children with secondary than primary infections (60% vs. 32%, P < .05). Plasminogen cross-reactive antibodies did not correlate with occurrence of DHF/DSS or thrombocytopenia. These results are consistent with the possibility that plasminogen cross-reactive antibodies play a role in the etiology of hemorrhage in dengue virus infection. %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J Memoirs of the Queensland Museum %D 1994 %T Detection of ciguatoxic fish by using the binding property of ciguatoxins to voltage-dependent sodium channels. %A Legrand, A-M %A Lotte, C %N 3 %P 576 %V 34 %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 1994 %T Double-blind controlled trial of a single dose of the combination ivermectin 400 %A Glaziou, P %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Nguyen, N L %A Chanteau, S %A Martin, P M V %A Cartel, J-L %N 6 %P 707-708 %V 88 %X In 1993, a three-arm double-blind controlled trial was implemented in French Polynesia to compare the tolerance and efficacy of a single dose of the combination ivermectin (IVR) 400 micrograms/kg plus diethylcarbamazine (DEC) 6 mg/kg vs. IVR 400 micrograms/kg alone vs. DEC 6 mg/kg alone, for treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti carriers. Of the 57 treated male patients in whom microfilaria (mf) densities ranged from 22 to 4709 mg/mL, 3 groups of 19 were randomly selected and allocated to one of the 3 treatments. Side effects were experienced by 34 patients (60%), but none suffered a severe reaction. Grade of reaction did not differ between treatment group, but was significantly correlated with the pretreatment mf density. Six months after treatment, 26%, 32% and 53% of patients were amicrofilaraemic in the DEC, IVR and IVR+DEC groups, respectively. Mf levels were 6.3%, and 3.1% and 1.0% of the pretreatment level, respectively, significantly lower in the IVR+DEC group than in both the IVR and DEC comparison groups. The combination IVR+DEC showed promise in term of sustained mf decrease, and could be an effective alternative for lymphatic filariasis control programmes. %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 1994 %T Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti larvae in pools of mosquitoes by the polymerase chain reaction. %A Chanteau, S %A Luquiaud, P %A Failloux, A-B %A Williams, S A %N 6 %P 665-666 %V 88 %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J Memoirs of the Queensland Museum %D 1994 %T Detection of ciguatoxic fish by using the binding property of ciguatoxins to voltage-dependent sodium channels. %A Legrand, A-M %A Lotte, C %N 3 %P 576 %V 34 %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Parasitol %D 1994 %T Efficacy of ivermectin for the treatment of head lice (Pediculosis capitis). %A Glaziou, P %A Nguyen, N L %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Cartel, J-L %A Martin, P M V %N 3 %P 253-254 %V 45 %X Twenty six male and female patients aged 5 to 17 years who had head lice infestation confirmed by eggs presence and received treatments with a single 200 m/kg oral dose of ivermectin in open fashion. At day 14 after treatment, 20 responded to the treatment (77%), and 6 patients (23%) presented with a complete disappearence of eggs and all clinical symptoms. At day 28, 7 patients were healed (27%), but 4 patients of the 6 healed at day 14 presented with signs of reinfestation. This study suggests that ivermectin is a promising treatment of head lice, and a second dose at day 10 should be appropriate for a further comparative trial. %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J Verh Internat Verein Limnol %D 1994 %T Freshwater invertebrate fauna of Nuku Hiva Island (French Polynesia) : comparison between wet and dry season. %A Fossati, O %A Wendling, B %A Danigo, A-H %P 1841-1843 %V 25 %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J Verh Internat Verein Limnol %D 1994 %T Freshwater invertebrate fauna of Nuku Hiva island (French Polynesia) : comparison between wet and dry season. %A Fossati, O %A Wendling, B %A Danigo, A-H %P 1841-1843 %V 25 %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J Res Microbiol %D 1994 %T Follow-up of tuberculosis patients undergoing standard anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy by using a polymerase chain reaction. %A Levee, G %A Glaziou, P %A Gicquel, B %A Chanteau, S %N 1 %P 5-8 %V 145 %X We have analysed the clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum specimens from pulmonary tuberculosis patients undergoing 6-month chemotherapy, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and standard microbiological methods. In a groupof 19 patients, 11 (58%) were smear- or culture-positive and 13 (74%) were PCR-positive before treatment. Of the 16 patients followed from 2 months after the start of treatment and thereafter, all became smear-negative and culture-negative, whereas, with PCR, 4 (27%), 2 (13%) and 1 (7%) of these patients remained positive after 2, 3 and 6 months, respectively. These results suggest the possible usefulness of PCR in monitoring the efficacy of treatment when bacteriological tests are negative, so as to identify patients with a high risk of relapse. %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J Verh Internat Verein Limnol %D 1994 %T Freshwater invertebrate fauna of Nuku Hiva island (French Polynesia) : comparison between wet and dry season. %A Fossati, O %A Wendling, B %A Danigo, A-H %P 1841-1843 %V 25 %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J Memoirs of the Queensland Museum %D 1994 %T Gambiertoxin-induced modifications of the membrane potential of myelinated nerve fibres. %A Benoit, E %A Legrand, A-M %N 3 %P 461-464 %V 34 %X The effects of external application of 1.2-24nM of gambiertoxin (CTX-4B), extracted from the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, were studied on the membrane potential of myelinated nerve fibres isolated from the frog. At concentrations of 12 and 24nM, CTX-4B induced spontaneous action potential discharge at a frequency of 30-100 Hz. In the presence of 24nM of CTX-4B, the amplitude and duration of these spontaneous action potentials were respectively decreased and increased compared to control action potentials. Toxin-induced spontaneous action potentials were suppressed by increasing the external calcium concentration or by lidocaine. It is concluded that the action of CTX-4B on membrane potential, in some respects, resembles that of moray-eel ciguatoxin previously reported (Benoit et al., 1986). %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J Int J Lepr Mycobact Dis %D 1994 %T Genetic control of susceptibility to leprosy in French Polynesia ; no evidence for linkage with markers on telomeric human chromosome 2. %A Levee, G %A Liu, J %A Gicquel, B %A Chanteau, S %A Schurr, E %N 4 %P 499-511 %V 62 %X Several lines of evidence have suggested a role of genetic factors in susceptibility to leprosy. In the mouse, natural susceptibility to infection with mycobacteria is controlled by the chromosome 1 Bcg locus, a region which is syntenic with a fragment of the human chromosome 2q, region q31-q37. It has been postulated that a human homolog of the Bcg gene controls susceptibility to leprosy per se, and may be located on chromosome 2q. In order to test the influence of this putative gene on leprosy per se, we performed linkage analyses in a set of seven multicase French Polynesian pedigrees, using an affected sib pair method and the LOD score method employing different modes of inheritance. Family members were typed for eight polymorphic loci on chromosome 2q : CRYGP1, FN, TNP1, VIL, DES, INH, PAX3, and UGT1A1. Our data provide evidence against the presence of a gene controlling susceptibility to leprosy per se on human chromosome 2q in the French Polynesian population.Divers indices ont suggere un r %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J Memoirs of the Queensland Museum %D 1994 %T Gambiertoxin-induced modifications of the membrane potential of myelinated nerve fibres. %A Benoit, E %A Legrand, A-M %N 3 %P 461-464 %V 34 %X The effects of external application of 1.2-24nM of gambiertoxin (CTX-4B), extracted from the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, were studied on the membrane potential of myelinated nerve fibres isolated from the frog. At concentrations of 12 and 24nM, CTX-4B induced spontaneous action potential discharge at a frequency of 30-100 Hz. In the presence of 24nM of CTX-4B, the amplitude and duration of these spontaneous action potentials were respectively decreased and increased compared to control action potentials. Toxin-induced spontaneous action potentials were suppressed by increasing the external calcium concentration or by lidocaine. It is concluded that the action of CTX-4B on membrane potential, in some respects, resembles that of moray-eel ciguatoxin previously reported (Benoit et al., 1986). %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Entomol %D 1994 %T Insecticide susceptibility in mosquitoes (Diptera : Culicidae) from French Polynesia. %A Failloux, A-B %A Ung, A %A Raymond, M %A Pasteur, N %N 5 %P 639-644 %V 31 %X Susceptibility to six organophosphate (OP), two pyrethroid (PY), and one carbamate (C) insecticides was investigated in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say, Aedes aegypti (L.), and Aedes polynesiensis Marks larvae from the island of Tahiti. Cx. p. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti were compared with susceptiblereference strains treated simultaneously. A low, but significant, resistance to bromophos (4.6x), chlorpyrifos (5.7x), fenthion (2.4x), fenitrothion (5.0x), temephos (4.3x) and permethrin (2.1x) was found in Cx. p. quinquefasciatus, and to malathion (1.5x), temephos (2.3x), permethrin (1.8x) and propoxur (1.7x) in Ae. aegypti. Cx. p. quinquefasciatus was shown to possess over-produced esterases A2 and B2, which are known to be involved in resistance to OPs in other countries. Ae. polynesiensis was less resistant than the Ae. aegypti reference strain to all insecticides except temephos (1.8x) and permethrin (6.7x). To determine whether Ae. polynesiensis had developed resistance to these insecticides in Tahiti, a geographical survey covering 12 islands of the Society, Tuamotu, Tubuai, Marquesas, and Gambier archipelagoes was undertaken with three insecticides (temephos, deltamethrin, and permethrin). Two- to threefold variations in LC50S were observed among collections. Results are discussed in relationship to the level of insecticide exposure on the different islands. %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J Am J Trop Med Hyg %D 1994 %T Ivermectin plus diethylcarbamazine : an additive effect on early microfilarial clearance. %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Nguyen, N L %A Glaziou, P %A Chanteau, S %A Ottesen, E A %A Cardines, R %A Martin, P M V %A Cartel, J-L %N 2 %P 206-209 %V 50 %X The effects of ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and the combination of both drugs on levels of microfilaremia (mf) were studied in 30 male Polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers. Microfilarial densities were measured 30 min (H1/2), 1 hr (H1), and 2, 4, 8, 24, and 96 hr (H2, H4, H8, H24, and H96) after supervised single doses of ivermectin plus DEC (400 micrograms/kg plus 1 mg/kg, respectively, 400 micrograms/kg plus 3 mg/kg, respectively, and 400 micrograms/kg plus 6 mg/kg, respectively), DEC (6 mg/kg) alone, and ivermectin (400 micrograms/kg and 100 micrograms/kg, respectively) alone given to six groups of five patients each. The results showed that 1) DEC alone or combined with ivermectin induced a rapid clearance of mf after drug intake; at H1/2, the number of circulating microfilariae was reduced to 16%, 8%, 28%, and 31%, respectively, of pretreatment values in the groups receiving ivermectin plus DEC (400 micrograms/kg plus 1 mg/kg, 400 micrograms/kg plus 3 mg/kg, and 400 micrograms/kg plus 6 mg/kg) and DEC (6 mg/kg) alone; 2) ivermectin alone induced a rapid increase of mf densities during the first 2 hr, followed by a sharp decrease from H4 to H96; and 3) between H8 and H96, mf clearance was almost complete with the combination of ivermectin and DEC. A comparison among groups did not show any synergistic interaction between ivermectin and DEC on the clearance of microfilaria, with the effect of each drug being additive to each another. %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 1994 %T Ivermectin 400 %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Glaziou, P %A Nguyen, N L %A Chanteau, S %A Plichart, R %A Beylier, I %A Martin, P M V %A Cartel, J-L %N 1 %P 107-109 %V 88 %X Forty-three Wuchereria bancrofti carriers were given 4 successive semi-annual single doses of vermectin 100 micrograms/kg (IVER 100). The geometric mean microfilaremia (mf) recurrence percentages, compared to the pre-initial treatment mf level, were 35%, 21%, 17% and 17% at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months respectively. However, the recurrence of mf 6 months after the fourth treatment remained high in 15 individuals, considered as 'bad responders'. At month 24, the subjects were randomly allocated into 2 groups: the first group was treated with a fifth dose of IVER 100 and the second with a first, single dose of 400 micrograms/kg of ivermectin (IVER 400). At month 30, the mf recurrence percentage was significantly higher in patients treated with IVER 100 than in those receiving IVER 400 (61% vs. 8%, P < 0.05). In the IVER 100 group, 6 of the 8 'bad responders' remained 'bad responders', whereas only 2 of 7 did so in the IVER 400 group. Only 3 additional patients in the IVER 100 group became consistently amicrofilaraemic, whereas 9 did so in the IVER 400 group. Two 'good responders' in the IVER 100 group became 'bad responders'. A single dose of 400 micrograms/kg of ivermectin has been demonstrated to be efficient for the treatment of carriers refractory to repeated doses of 100 micrograms/kg and to result in better long-term mf suppression. These results suggest a possible effect of 400 micrograms/kg of ivermectin on macrofilaria. %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 1994 %T Low positive predictive value of anti-Brugia malayi IgG and IgG4 serology for the diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti. %A Chanteau, S %A Glaziou, P %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Plichart, C %A Luquiaud, P %A Cartel, J-L %N 6 %P 661-662 %V 88 %X Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for anti-Brugia malayi immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgG4 were evaluated on sera from 1561 subjects in French Polynesia for the serodiagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis, compared with the test for Onchocerca gibsoni circulating antigen (Og4C3) as a 'gold standard'. The sensitivity of the ELISA-IgG and ELISA-IgG4 assays was 90.8% and 94.5%, and the specificity was 45.9% and 50.7%. The positive predictive values were 41% and 45% respectively for an antigen prevalence rate of 30%. Thus antibody prevalences exceeded by two-fold the antigen prevalence, which itself exceeded by two-fold the prevalence of microfilaraemia. %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J J Infect Dis %D 1994 %T Og4C3 Circulating Antigen : a marker of infection and adult worm burden in Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis. %A Chanteau, S %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Glaziou, P %A Nguyen, N L %A Luquiaud, P %A Plichart, R %A Martin, P M V %A Cartel, J-L %N 1 %P 247-250 %V 170 %X Og4C3 circulating filarial antigen was detected in the sera of 94.5% (259/274) of microfilaremic patients, 32% (239/751) of persons with presumption of filariasis, and 23% (11/48) of chronic filariasis patients. The antigen level was correlated with the microfilariae (Mf) density and patient age (P < .01). It remained stable in patients treated with microfilaricidal drugs. Og4C3 antigen, undetectable in Mf culture media, was demonstrated to be a rare somatic Mf antigen. It appears to be an excreted or secreted antigen from adult filaria. It could be used as a marker of infection and an indicator of adult worm burden. %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Parasitol %D 1994 %T Og4C3 circulating antigen, anti-Brugia malayi IgG and IgG4 titers in Wuchereria bancrofti infected patients, according to their parasitological status. %A Chanteau, S %A Glaziou, P %A Luquiaud, P %A Plichart, C %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Cartel, J-L %N 3 %P 255-257 %V 45 %X This study involved 221 microfilaremic (Mf+), 302 amicrofilaremic (Mf-) antigen positive (AG+) and 1454 Mf-antigen negative (AG-) individuals living in endemic villages. Whatever the group considered, antigen and antibody titers were widely distributed. Og4C3 antigen, detected both in Mf- and Mf+ patients, was significantly higher in Mf+ patients. The Mf parasitological status did not significantly influence the antifilarial antibodies levels in the infected AG+ individuals, although IgG4 was more discriminant. In the supposedly uninfected individuals (Mf-AG-), anti-filarial IgG and IgG4 could be detected in a large proportion of the group. Og4C3 circulating antigen test was confirmed to be a good marker of active Wuchereria bancrofti infection. %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1994 %T The epidemiology of ciguatera fish poisoning. %A Glaziou, P %A Legrand, A-M %N 8 %P 863-873 %V 32 %X Ciguatera is a toxin-related disease caused by ingestion of a variety of toxic fish living in tropical or subtropical areas. This article aims to look at the epidemiology of the disease, from both the descriptive and analytical points of view, and to discuss them in relation to environmental aspects and socioeconomic impact. %8 1994 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1994 %T The epidemiology of ciguatera fish poisoning. %A Glaziou, P %A Legrand, A-M %N 8 %P 863-873 %V 32 %X Ciguatera is a toxin-related disease caused by ingestion of a variety of toxic fish living in tropical or subtropical areas. This article aims to look at the epidemiology of the disease, from both the descriptive and analytical points of view, and to discuss them in relation to environmental aspects and socioeconomic impact. %8 1994 %0 Book Section %B In: Toxic Phytoplankton Blooms in the Sea. Smayda TJ, Shimizu Y (Eds), Elsevier Science Publishers BV, pp 455-461 %D 1993 %T A turning point in ciguatera study. %A Yasumoto, T %A Satake, M %A Fukui, M %A Nagai, M %A Murata, M %A Legrand, A-M %X The extremely limited availability of ciguatoxin and related toxins has been the major obstacle in ciguatera research. To overcome the difficulty, we explored both biological and chemical ways of obtaining the toxins. One strain of Gambierdiscus toxicus produced a ciguatoxin analog in laboratory cultures, promising a future supply of the toxins by culturing. The absolute stereochemistry of a ciguatoxin analog, GT4b, was determined and thus laid the basis for synthetic studies. Prospects of developing sensitive assay methods for the toxins are briefly discussed. %8 1993 %0 Book Section %B In: Toxic Phytoplankton Blooms in the Sea. Smayda TJ, Shimizu Y (Eds), Elsevier Science Publishers BV, pp 455-461 %D 1993 %T A turning point in ciguatera study. %A Yasumoto, T %A Satake, M %A Fukui, M %A Nagai, M %A Murata, M %A Legrand, A-M %X The extremely limited availability of ciguatoxin and related toxins has been the major obstacle in ciguatera research. To overcome the difficulty, we explored both biological and chemical ways of obtaining the toxins. One strain of Gambierdiscus toxicus produced a ciguatoxin analog in laboratory cultures, promising a future supply of the toxins by culturing. The absolute stereochemistry of a ciguatoxin analog, GT4b, was determined and thus laid the basis for synthetic studies. Prospects of developing sensitive assay methods for the toxins are briefly discussed. %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J Mar Biol %D 1993 %T A study of mucus from the solitary coral Fungia fungites (Scleractinia : Fungiidae) in relation to photobiological UV adaptation. %A Drollet, J H %A Glaziou, P %A Martin, P M V %P 263-266 %V 115 %X The ultraviolet(UV)-absorbance spectrum (300 to 360 nm) of mucus obtained from Fungia fungites (L. 1758, collected in Tahiti in 1991) after being exposed to air for up to 5 min was measured, and UV-absorbing compounds were demonstrated to be present in the mucus, with a peak at 332 nm. The concentration of these UV-absorbing compounds was at a maximum in the first 2 min of secretion and decreased thereafter. Concentration was significantly related to the weight of the coral. Also, as corals were adapted to bathymetric levels of UV radiation, mucus concentration of UV-absorbing compounds decreased significantly with increasing depth. %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J Cahiers d'Ethologie %D 1993 %T Asymetrie et anomalies morphologiques dans la zone hybride de la Lergue (sud de la France). Barbus barbus x Barbus meridionalis. %A Darius, H T %A Berrebi, P %N 2 %P 243-244 %V 13 %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J J Essent Oil Res %D 1993 %T Aromatic plants of French Polynesia. I- Constituents of the essential oils of rhizomes of three zingiberaceae : Zingiber zerumbet Smith, Hedychium coronarium Koenig and Etlingera cevuga Smith. %A Lechat-Vahirua, I %A Francois, P %A Menut, C %A Lamaty, G %A Bessiere, J-M %P 55-59 %V 5 %X The essential oils from the rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet, Hedychium coronarium and Etlingera cevuga from Tahiti Island were studied by capillary GC and GC/MS. The oil of Z. zerumbet wad found to be rich in oxygenated derivatives of a-humulene, in particular zerumbone (65.3%), while H. coronium oil contained b-pinene (24.8%) and 1,8-cineole (40.2%) as major constituents. The oil of E. cevuga possessed a characteristic chemical composition where methyl eugenol (47.4%) and (Z)-and (E)-methyl isoeugenol (18.8%) together accounted for more than 60% of the oil. %8 1993 %0 Book Section %B In: Algal Toxins in seafood and drinking water, Academic Press Ltd (Eds), Chapter 6, pp105-115 %D 1993 %T Ciguatera fish poisoning. %A Bagnis, R %8 1993 %0 Book Section %B In: Algal Toxins in seafood and drinking water, Academic Press Ltd (Eds), Chapter 6, pp105-115 %D 1993 %T Ciguatera fish poisoning. %A Bagnis, R %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J Neurosc Letters %D 1993 %T Ciguatoxin extracted from poisonous morays eels, causes sodium-dependent calcium mobilization in NG108-15 neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells. %A Molgo, J %A Shimahara, T %A Legrand, A-M %N 2 %P 147-150 %V 158 %X Measurement of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in cultured mouse NG108-15 neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells, using the fluorescent probe fura-2, revealed that 5-25 nM ciguatoxin (CTX) increased [Ca2+]i either in cells bathed in standard medium or after removal of external Ca2+ by a Ca2+-free medium supplemented with EGTA. Tetrodotoxin prevented the CTX increased [Ca2+]i suggesting that CTX-induced mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ depends on Na+ influx through voltage-gated Na channels. CTX-induced Ca2+ mobilization prevented subsequent action of bradykinin (1 mM) suggesting that CTX stimulates the ionositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-releasable Ca2+ store. %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J Neurosc Letters %D 1993 %T Ciguatoxin extracted from poisonous moray eels Gymnothorax javanicus triggers acetylcholine release from Torpedo cholinergic synaptosomes via reversed Na+-Ca2+. %A Molgo, J %A Morot Gaudry-Talarmain, Y %A Legrand, A-M %A Moulian, N %P 65-68 %V 160 %X Ciguatoxin (CTX) (0.1 pM to 10 nM) added to a suspension of Torpedo synaptosomes incubated in Ca(2+)-free medium caused no detectable acetylcholine (ACh) release. However, subsequent addition of Ca2+ caused a large ACh release that depended on time of exposure, dose of CTX and on [Ca2+]. Tetrodotoxin completely prevented CTX-induced Ca(2+)-dependent ACh release. Simultaneous blockade of Ca2+ channel subtypes by FTX, a toxin extracted from the venom of the spider Agelenopsis aperta, omega-conotoxin and Gd3+ did not prevent ACh release caused by CTX, upon addition of Ca2+. These results suggest that CTX activates the reversed operation of the Na+/Ca2+ exchange system allowing the entry of Ca2+ in exchange for Na+. It is concluded that Torpedo synaptosomes are endowed with Na+ channels sensitive to pico- to nanomolar concentrations of CTX. %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Parasitol %D 1993 %T Comparison of ivermectin and benzyl benzoate for treatment of scabies. %A Glaziou, P %A Cartel, J-L %A Alzieu, P %A Briot, C %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Martin, P M V %N 4 %P 331-332 %V 44 %X A randomized investigator-blinded trial of oral ivermectin 100 micrograms/kg single dose vs. benzyl benzoate 10% application in the treatment of scabies, was conducted in 1992 in French Polynesia. In total, 44 patients aged 5-56 years were included in the study: 23 in the group ivermectin (IVER) and 21 in the group benzyl benzoate (BB). At day 30 after treatment, the cumulative recovery rates were 70% (16/23) in the group IVER, and 48% (10/21) in the group BB, 95% confidence intervals 51-87% and 29-70% respectively. The rates of recovery were greater in the group IVER at day 7, 14 and 30, but the difference was not statistically significant. Our results show that oral ivermectin is a valuable alternative to benzyl benzoate local treatment. %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J Neurosc Letters %D 1993 %T Ciguatoxin extracted from poisonous morays eels, causes sodium-dependent calcium mobilization in NG108-15 neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells. %A Molgo, J %A Shimahara, T %A Legrand, A-M %N 2 %P 147-150 %V 158 %X Measurement of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in cultured mouse NG108-15 neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells, using the fluorescent probe fura-2, revealed that 5-25 nM ciguatoxin (CTX) increased [Ca2+]i either in cells bathed in standard medium or after removal of external Ca2+ by a Ca2+-free medium supplemented with EGTA. Tetrodotoxin prevented the CTX increased [Ca2+]i suggesting that CTX-induced mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ depends on Na+ influx through voltage-gated Na channels. CTX-induced Ca2+ mobilization prevented subsequent action of bradykinin (1 mM) suggesting that CTX stimulates the ionositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-releasable Ca2+ store. %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J Neurosc Letters %D 1993 %T Ciguatoxin extracted from poisonous moray eels Gymnothorax javanicus triggers acetylcholine release from Torpedo cholinergic synaptosomes via reversed Na+-Ca2+. %A Molgo, J %A Morot Gaudry-Talarmain, Y %A Legrand, A-M %A Moulian, N %P 65-68 %V 160 %X Ciguatoxin (CTX) (0.1 pM to 10 nM) added to a suspension of Torpedo synaptosomes incubated in Ca(2+)-free medium caused no detectable acetylcholine (ACh) release. However, subsequent addition of Ca2+ caused a large ACh release that depended on time of exposure, dose of CTX and on [Ca2+]. Tetrodotoxin completely prevented CTX-induced Ca(2+)-dependent ACh release. Simultaneous blockade of Ca2+ channel subtypes by FTX, a toxin extracted from the venom of the spider Agelenopsis aperta, omega-conotoxin and Gd3+ did not prevent ACh release caused by CTX, upon addition of Ca2+. These results suggest that CTX activates the reversed operation of the Na+/Ca2+ exchange system allowing the entry of Ca2+ in exchange for Na+. It is concluded that Torpedo synaptosomes are endowed with Na+ channels sensitive to pico- to nanomolar concentrations of CTX. %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med %D 1993 %T Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever in French Polynesia. Current situation. %A Chungue, E %A Laudon, F %A Glaziou, P %P 209-215 %V 35 %X All four dengue virus serotypes have occurred in French Polynesia. The first epidemic of dengue on Tahiti island of known serotype (dengue 1) occurred in 1944 as part of the Pacific-wide spread of the disease during World War II. The next outbreak of dengue took place in 1964 and was the result of the introduction of dengue 3 virus. With the increase in air travel by humans, dengue has occurred as successive epidemics, especially between 1969 and 1979 with each epidemic involving a different serotype. Each time, the epidemic serotype replaced the unique endemic serotype that had been transmitted during the preceeding inter-epidemic period : dengue type 3 in 1969, dengue 2 in 1971, dengue 1 in 1975-1976 and dengue 4 in 1979. With the exception of the dengue 2 epidemic, during which severe hemorrhagic cases and several deaths were observed on Tahiti on 1971, cases of dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) were not common. Following a long inter-epidemic period involving a low transmission of dengue 4, two back-to-back epidemics of dengue 1 and dengue 3 took place during 1988-1989. Of great interest was the occurrence of DHF/DSS in the latter epidemic (11 fatalities) while mildness characterized the former. Surveillance of both epidemics involved clinically and laboratory-based systems. Public health control measures were instituted. These viruses were throughoutly spread in the Pacific region with varying degrees of disease severity. Molecular epidemiology studies provided new information on geographic distribution, origin, evolution, and strain variation among dengue viruses. %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med %D 1993 %T Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever in French Polynesia. Current situation. %A Chungue, E %A Laudon, F %A Glaziou, P %P 209-215 %V 35 %X All four dengue virus serotypes have occurred in French Polynesia. The first epidemic of dengue on Tahiti island of known serotype (dengue 1) occurred in 1944 as part of the Pacific-wide spread of the disease during World War II. The next outbreak of dengue took place in 1964 and was the result of the introduction of dengue 3 virus. With the increase in air travel by humans, dengue has occurred as successive epidemics, especially between 1969 and 1979 with each epidemic involving a different serotype. Each time, the epidemic serotype replaced the unique endemic serotype that had been transmitted during the preceeding inter- %8 1993 %0 Book Section %B In: Toxic Phytoplankton Blooms in the Sea. Smayda TJ, Shimizu Y (Eds), Elsevier Science Publishers BV, pp 575-579 %D 1993 %T Isolation of a ciguatoxin analog from cultures of Gambierdiscus toxicus. %A Satake, M %A Ishimaru, T %A Legrand, A-M %A Yasumoto, T %X Screening of three strains of Gambierdiscus toxicus collected in French Polynesia and Japan led, for the first time, to the isolation and structural determination of a ciguatoxin analog and a related compound from cultures. %8 1993 %0 Book Section %B In: Toxic Phytoplankton Blooms in the Sea. Smayda TJ, Shimizu Y (Eds), Elsevier Science Publishers BV, pp 575-579 %D 1993 %T Isolation of a ciguatoxin analog from cultures of Gambierdiscus toxicus. %A Satake, M %A Ishimaru, T %A Legrand, A-M %A Yasumoto, T %X Screening of three strains of Gambierdiscus toxicus collected in French Polynesia and Japan led, for the first time, to the isolation and structural determination of a ciguatoxin analog and a related compound from cultures. %8 1993 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Actes des Troisiemes Journees de la Recherche en Polynesie francaise (27-28 octobre 1993, Tahiti, French Polynesia), Institut Mathilde Frebault, pp. 24-27 %D 1993 %T Introduction et dispersion du nono Culicoides belkini dans les %A Lardeux, F %A Reye, E %A Riviere, F %8 1993 %0 Book Section %D 1993 %T La dengue. %A Chungue, E %8 1993 %0 Book Section %D 1993 %T La dengue. %A Chungue, E %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Parasitol %D 1993 %T Long-term efficacy of single-dose treatment with 400 %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Glaziou, P %A Nguyen, N L %A Chanteau, S %A Martin, P M V %A Cartel, J-L %N 4 %P 333-334 %V 44 %X In April 1992, a safety trial was performed with a single dose of ivermectin 400 micrograms.kg-1 (IVER 400). In 37 bancroftian filariasis carriers, 6 and 12 months after IVER 400 treatment, the microfilaremia recurrences were 3.2% and 13.5%, respectively. As compared to results from other studies with diethylcarbamazine and IVER at different dosages and periodicities, the dosage of IVER 400 seems the most effective; but a yearly intake might not be sufficient. %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J Int J Lepr Mycobact Dis %D 1993 %T Low predictive value of PGL-1 serology for the early diagnosis of leprosy in family contacts : results of a 10-year prospective field study in French Polynesia. %A Chanteau, S %A Glaziou, P %A Plichart, C %A Luquiaud, P %A Plichart, R %A Faucher, J-F %A Cartel, J-L %N 4 %P 533-541 %V 61 %X In 1983, a cohort study to follow up the family contacts of leprosy cases was implemented in French Polynesia to assess the usefulness and applicability of phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I) serology in a leprosy control program. A total of 1201 contacts (666 females, 535 males) have been included in the study. The IgM anti-PGL-I seroprevalence determined on the initial sera was 17%. It was significantly higher among females than males (20% vs 15%, p = 0.02). From 1983 to 1992, 4 out of 204 (2%) anti-PGL-I seropositive contacts developed the disease (1 indeterminate, 1 BT, 1 BL, 1 LL) compared with 10 out of 997 (1%) seronegative contacts (4 indeterminate, 3 BT, 1 BB, 2 TT). Of these 10 patients, only 3 (2 indeterminate, 1 BT) converted to seropositivity when leprosy was diagnosed. The risk of developing leprosy was not significantly higher among seropositive than among seronegative groups (2% vs 1%, p = 0.2). A PGL-I circulating antigen test performed on 216 selected sera at entry into the trialshowed a higher antigen prevalence when the antibody level was higher. PGL-I antigen was detectable in 5 of 12 patients tested prior to diagnosis (1 LL, 1 BL, 3 indeterminate). The median time to externalize the disease was not significantly different among antibody-positive and -negative contacts (17 vs 25 months, p = 0.3). The relative risk of developing leprosy for contact individuals was 30.8 times that of noncontacts, and 15% of the total new cases detected between 1983 and 1992 emerged from the study population. En 1983, une etude de cohortes de surveillance des contacts familiaux de malades de la lepre a ete entreprise en Polynesie francaise pour estimer l'utilite et l'applicabilite d'un test serologique base sur le glycolipide phenolique (GLP-I) dans un programme de lutte contre la lepre. Un total de 1201 contacts (666 femmes et 535 hommes) a ete incorpore dans l'etude. Le taux de seroprevalence des anticorps IgM anti-GLP-I determine sur les serums de depart etait de 17%. Il etait significativement plus eleve chez les femmes que chez les hommes (20% contre 15%. p = 0.02). De 1983 a 1992, 4 des 204 (2%) contacts seropositifs vis-a-vis du GLP-I ont developpe la maladie (1 indetermine, 1 BT, 1 BL, 1LL), compares a 10 parmi les 997 (1%) contacts seronegatifs (4 indetermines, 3 BT, 1 BB, 2 TT). Parmi ces 10 patients, seulement 3 (2 indetermines, 1 BT) ont vire vers la seropositivite quand la lepre a ete diagnostiquee. Le risque de developper la lepre n'etait pas significativement plus eleve parmi les seropositifs que parmi les seronegatifs (2% contre 1%, p = 0.2). Un test pour rechercher l'antigene circulant GLP-I realise sur 216 serums selectionnes a l'entree dans l'etude a montre une prevalence plus elevee de l'antigene quand le taux d'anticorps etait plus eleve. L'antigene GLP-I etait detectable chez 5 des 12 patients testes avant le diagnostic (1 LL, 1 BL, 3 indetermines). Le temps median d'exteriorisation de la maladie n'etait pas significativement different entre les contacts positifs pour les anticorps et ceux negatifs (17 contre 25 mois, p = 0.3). Le risque relatif de developper la lepre pour des contacts individuels etait 30.8 fois plus eleve que pour des non-contacts, et 15% du total des nouveaux cas detectes entre 1983 et 1992 provenaient de la population d'etude. En conclusion, cette etude prospective de 10 ans montre clairement que la serologie basee sur les anticorps IgM vis-a-vis du GLP-I n'est pas efficace pour le diagnostic precoce de la lepre dans une population a haut risque. Par consequent, dans la plupart des pays endemiques, ce test ne peut etre recommande dans le cadre d'un programme de lutte contre la lepre. %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J J Gen Virol %D 1993 %T Molecular epidemiology of dengue-3 viruses and genetic relatedness among dengue-3 strains isolated from patients with classical dengue or severe forms of dengue in French Polynesia. %A Chungue, E %A Deubel, V %A Cassar, O %A Laille, M %A Martin, P M V %N Pt 12 %P 2765-2770 %V 74 %X The nucleotide sequences of a short fragment of the envelope protein gene encoding amino acids 25 to 89 of 27 dengue 3 viruses were determined by direct sequencing of PCR-amplified products, and the viruses were compared regarding their time of isolation and geographic distribution. Four distinct genotypic groups were discerned at 6% divergence between nucleotide sequences. The first group contained isolates from the South Pacific (1988 to 1992), Singapore (1973) and Indonesia (1973 to 1991). The second group comprised viruses from Asia (1956 to 1989) including the reference strain H-87. The third was composed of one isolate from Thailand (1971), and the fourth included the early strains from French Polynesia (1964 to 1969) and from Puerto Rico (1963). Furthermore, the difference between early and recent strains from the South Pacific was as high as 12.3%. This observation suggests that the recent epidemics in the South Pacific were probably the consequence of the spread of a new variant that emerged from New Caledonia. However, relatedness between nucleotide sequence and disease severity, or between strains from epidemics with mild disease (New Caledonia) and strains from epidemics with severe disease (French Polynesia) could not be demonstrated. %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 1993 %T Microfilariae recurrence in polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers treated with repeated single doses of 100 %A Cartel, J-L %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Glaziou, P %A Nguyen, N L %A Chanteau, S %A Roux, J %A Spiegel, A %N 4 %P 478-480 %V 87 %X Forty-six Polynesian carriers of Wuchereria bancrofti were treated with 3 successive single doses of ivermectin, 100 micrograms/kg, given every 6 months. Immediate microfilaricidal activity of ivermectin was excellent in all carriers, since residual mean microfilaraemia levels, 2 d after each of the 3 treatments, were less than 1% of pretreatment levels. Before initial treatment, geometric mean microfilaraemia was 500 microfilaria (mf)/ml for the whole group (range 21-6398 mf/ml); 6 months after each successive treatment it was 197, 108 and 87 mg/ml, respectively, 39.4, 21.6 and 17.4% of the pre-initial treatment level. By considering the mean percentage recurrent level at 6 months after the 3rd treatment (36.8%) as a threshold, it was possible to classify the carriers into 2 groups: 17 in whom the percentage recurrent level was > 36.8% and who were considered as 'fast repopulating' individuals, and the remaining 29 who were considered as 'slow repopulating' individuals. In the latter group, 6 months after each of the 3 treatments, the recurrent microfilaremia levels were 22.7%, 8.0% and 4.9% of the pre-initial treatment level, respectively, while they were 95.1%, > 100% and > 100% in the former. The constant recurrence of mf suggests that ivermectin, at a dosage of 100 micrograms/kg, had no effect on adult worms in 'fast repopulating' individuals, whereas the progressive lessening in recurrence of mf suggests some activity (sterilizing or killing) of ivermectin on W. bancrofti macrofilariae in 'slow repopulating' individuals. %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J J Gen Virol %D 1993 %T Molecular epidemiology of dengue-3 viruses and genetic relatedness among dengue-3 strains isolated from patients with classical dengue or severe forms of dengue in French Polynesia. %A Chungue, E %A Deubel, V %A Cassar, O %A Laille, M %A Martin, P M V %N Pt 12 %P 2765-2770 %V 74 %X The nucleotide sequences of a short fragment of the envelope protein gene encoding amino acids 25 to 89 of 27 dengue 3 viruses were determined by direct sequencing of PCR-amplified products, and the viruses were compared regarding their time of isolation and geographic distribution. Four distinct genotypic groups were discerned at 6% divergence between nucleotide sequences. The first group contained isolates from the South Pacific (1988 to 1992), Singapore (1973) and Indonesia (1973 to 1991). The second group comprised viruses from Asia (1956 to 1989) including the reference strain H-87. The third was composed of one isolate from Thailand (1971), and the fourth included the early strains from French Polynesia (1964 to 1969) and from Puerto Rico (1963). Furthermore, the difference between early and recent strains from the South Pacific was as high as 12.3%. This observation suggests that the recent epidemics in the South Pacific were probably the consequence of the spread of a new variant that emerged from New Caledonia. However, relatedness between nucleotide sequence and disease severity, or between strains from epidemics with mild disease (New Caledonia) and strains from epidemics with severe disease (French Polynesia) could not be demonstrated. %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J Mol Microbiol %D 1993 %T Nucleotide sequence of the first cosmid from the Mycobacterium leprae genome project : structure and function of the Rif-Str regions. %A Honore, N %A Bergh, S %A Chanteau, S %A Doucet-Populaire, F %A Eiglmeier, K %A Garnier, T %A Georges, C %A Launois, P %A Limpaiboon, T %A Newton, S %A Niang, K %A Portillo, P %A Ramesh, G R %A Reddi, P %A Ridel, P R %A Sittisombut, N %A Wu-Hunter, S %A Cole, S T %N 2 %P 207-214 %V 7 %X The nucleotide sequence of cosmid B1790, carrying the Rif-Str regions of the Mycobacterium leprae chromosome, has been determined. Twelve open reading frames were identified in the 36716bp sequence, representing 40% of the coding capacity. Five ribosomal proteins, two elongation factors and the %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Parasitol %D 1993 %T Periodicity of Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica filariasis in French Polynesia. %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Glaziou, P %A Chanteau, S %A Nguyen, N L %A Marcet, Y %A Cardines, R %A Martin, P M V %A Cartel, J-L %N 2 %P 83-85 %V 44 %X In 1992, a study on microfilaremia periodicity was carried out on 12 Wuchereria bancrofti carriers in the Marquesas islands. Blood samples were collected simultaneously every 4 hours during a 48 hour period by finger-prick and venipuncture for determination of microfilaremia by both blood film and membrane filtration technique methods, and for determination of antigenemia. The membrane filtration results showed no significant nycthemeral variations between the microfilaria densities at hours 16:00, 20:00, 24:00, 04:00, 08:00 and 12:00. Conversely, the blood film method showed a significant difference between the microfilaria densities: the microfilaremia was higher during the day (12:00-20:00 hours) than during the night (24:00-08:00 hours). As for antigenemia, using Og 4 C3 monoclonal antibody, there was no significant fluctuation during 48 hours. These results confirm that W. bancrofti var. pacifica is subperiodic and diurnal in French Polynesia. In particular, they substantiate the validity of examining venous blood by the membrane filtration technique as the judgment criterion of choice in therapeutic trials and of examining capillary blood during peak hours by the blood film method for evaluating the endemic level in a population. %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1993 %T Study of factors that influence the clinical response to ciguatera fish poisoning in French Polynesia. %A Glaziou, P %A Martin, P M V %N 9 %P 1151-1154 %V 31 %X A 1-year observational study of all standardized medical records of ciguatera fish poisoning notified cases was conducted in French Polynesia. The objective was to determine the factors that influence the clinical response to ciguatera fish poisoning. During the year 1991, there were 551 cases notified on standardized code sheets by physicians (notification rate 276 per 100,000). The mean age was 36.6 years (S.D. 15.6). The largest age group was that between 30 and 49 years old (notification rate 562 per 100,000). The gender ratio (M/F) was 1.6. Of the 551 cases, 257 (47%) presented with a history of a previous attack. A clinical score was calculated to assess the outcome for each case. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for a severe disease (33% with a score greater than 5) was significantly increased when the fish ingested was carnivorous (OR = 1.62, P = 0.02) and when a history of a previous attack was reported (OR = 1.71, P = 0.006). The increased severity of multiple episodes and the increase of the notification rate with age suggest a possible accumulation of toxin in the human organism. %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J Am J Trop Med Hyg %D 1993 %T Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-b (IL-b) in dengue-infected patients. %A Hober, D %A Poli, L %A Roblin, B %A Gestas, P %A Chungue, E %A Granic, G %A Imbert, P %A Pecarere, J L %A Vergez-Pascal, R %A Wattere, P %A Maniez-Montreuil, M %P 324-331 %V 48 %X Sensitive immunoenzymatic assays were used to study the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1 beta in sera from dengue-infected patients obtained during the 1989-1990 outbreak of dengue-3 in Tahiti, French Polynesia. The patients, both children (n = 47) and adults (n = 18), were clinically classified as having dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and graded according to the severity of illness (grade I = fever, grade II = fever with spontaneous hemorrhagic manifestations, grade III = circulatory failure, grade IV = deep shock). The serum samples were obtained from day 1 to day 10 after the onset of the disease. High levels of TNF-alpha were observed in dengue-infected children of all severity grades. The highest values of TNF-alpha were found before day 6 after the onset of the infection, these values decreased from day 6 to day 10. The highest values were observed in sera from grade III and IV patients. High values of IL-6 were observed in serum samples of grade I and II patients on day 1, which decreased on day 4, and by day 5 were similar to those obtained from 25 control children. In grade III and IV patients, the highest values of IL-6 were observed from day 3 to day 5 after the onset of infection; after day 5, these values were very low. %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Parasitol %D 1993 %T Safety trial of single-dose treatments with a combination of ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine in bancroftian filariasis. %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Nguyen, N L %A Glaziou, P %A Chanteau, S %A Gay, V M %A Martin, P M V %A Cartel, J-L %N 2 %P 79-82 %V 44 %X A supervised safety trial of the treatment with a combination of ivermectin 400 micrograms.kg-1 (IVER 400) plus increasing doses of diethylcarbamazine (DEC), given simultaneously in single dose, was performed on five groups of Polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers, 49 males aged 25 to 73 years, in whom microfilaremia ranged from 1 to 6,137 mf/ml. The trial was hospital-based, open, dose-escalating (1 group per week). Safety of an unchanging dose of IVER 400 and ascending doses of DEC were studied in the 5 following groups: group 1- IVER 400 plus DEC 1 mg.kg-1, 12 patients; group 2- IVER 400 plus DEC 3 mg.kg-1, 17 patients; group 3- IVER 400 plus DEC 6 mg.kg-1, 10 patients. Two control groups were included in the study, group 4- DEC 6 mg.kg-1 alone, 5 patients; group 5-: IVER 400 alone, 5 patients. Carriers were examined and questioned regarding their experience of adverse reactions, which were graded 0 to 3 according to severity, at 6, 12 and 24 hours and at 4 days after treatment. Biological examination was performed 4 days before and 4 days after treatment and included determination of microfilaremia, complete blood count, liver function tests and assessment of creatinine and urea levels. Adverse reactions were observed in 51% of 49 carriers (15 of grade 1, 8 of grade 2, 2 of grade 3). None was considered serious and they all disappeared in 2 days. The main symptoms were fever > or = 37.5 degrees C, myalgia, arthralgia, headache, asthenia, anorexia, vertigo and chills. Adverse reactions of patients were not significantly different between the five groups. %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1993 %T Study of factors that influence the clinical response to ciguatera fish poisoning in French Polynesia. %A Glaziou, P %A Martin, P M V %N 9 %P 1151-1154 %V 31 %X A 1-year observational study of all standardized medical records of ciguatera fish poisoning notified cases was conducted in French Polynesia. The objective was to determine the factors that influence the clinical response to ciguatera fish poisoning. During the year 1991, there were 551 cases notified on standardized code sheets by physicians (notification rate 276 per 100,000). The mean age was 36.6 years (S.D. 15.6). The largest age group was that between 30 and 49 years old (notification rate 562 per 100,000). The gender ratio (M/F) was 1.6. Of the 551 cases, 257 (47%) presented with a history of a previous attack. A clinical score was calculated to assess the outcome for each case. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for a severe disease (33% with a score greater than 5) was significantly increased when the fish ingested was carnivorous (OR = 1.62, P = 0.02) and when a history of a previous attack was reported (OR = 1.71, P = 0.006). The increased severity of multiple episodes and the increase of the notification rate with age suggest a possible accumulation of toxin in the human organism. %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J Am J Trop Med Hyg %D 1993 %T Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-b (IL-b) in dengue-infected patients. %A Hober, D %A Poli, L %A Roblin, B %A Gestas, P %A Chungue, E %A Granic, G %A Imbert, P %A Pecarere, J L %A Vergez-Pascal, R %A Wattere, P %A Maniez-Montreuil, M %P 324-331 %V 48 %X Sensitive immunoenzymatic assays were used to study the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1 beta in sera from dengue-infected patients obtained during the 1989-1990 outbreak of dengue-3 in Tahiti, French Polynesia. The patients, both children (n = 47) and adults (n = 18), were clinically classified as having dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and graded according to the severity of illness (grade I = fever, grade II = fever with spontaneous hemorrhagic manifestations, grade III = circulatory failure, grade IV = deep shock). The serum samples were obtained from day 1 to day 10 after the onset of the disease. High levels of TNF-alpha were observed in dengue-infected children of all severity grades. The highest values of TNF-alpha were found before day 6 after the onset of the infection, these values decreased from day 6 to day 10. The highest values were observed in sera from grade III and IV patients. High values of IL-6 were observed in serum samples of grade I and II patients on day 1, which decreased on day 4, and by day 5 were similar to those obtained from 25 control children. In grade III and IV patients, the highest values of IL-6 were observed from day 3 to day 5 after the onset of infection; after day 5, these values were very low. %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J Am J Trop Med Hyg %D 1993 %T The blackfly Simulium buissoni and infection by hepatitis B virus on a holoendemic island of the Marquesas archipelago in French Polynesia. %A Chanteau, S %A Sechan, Y %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Luquiaud, P %A Spiegel, A %A Boutin, J-P %A Roux, J %N 6 %P 763-770 %V 48 %X The hematophagous blackfly Simulium buissoni causes skin lesions on an island in the Marquesas archipelago that is holoendemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV). To test the hypothesis of the possible role of this fly in the transmission of hepatitis B, 506 children (age range 2-11 years) were examined for the presence of skin lesions, and attempts were made to detect HBV DNA in and on blackflies using two polymerase chain reaction methods. The mean number of skin lesions showed a positive correlation with the age of these children (r = 0.12, P < 0.05). Furthermore, it was significantly higher in the rural zone than in the urban zone (mean +/- SD 41.02 +/- 31.71 versus 17.73 +/- 13.43; P < 0.05), and showed a correlation with a higher infection rate (73.9% versus 41.3%). Of the 45 pools of 10 insects tested, HBV DNA was not detectable on the inside of the insect, but was detectable on the flies (1-10 particles/insect in three positive pools). Infection by HBV conveyed by the flies is theoretically possible, but their indirect role via the numerous skin lesions caused on children is likely to explain such a high level of transmission. %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J Int J Lepr Mycobact Dis %D 1993 %T Tuberculosis in leprosy patients detected between 1902 and 1991 in French Polynesia. %A Glaziou, P %A Cartel, J-L %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Chanteau, S %A Plichart, R %A Grosset, J-H %A NGuyen, L %N 2 %P 199-204 %V 61 %X From 1902 onward, notification and follow up of leprosy patients has been systematic in French Polynesia. Since 1960, a tuberculosis control program and a register has also been implemented. From 1902 to 1959, 673 cases of leprosy were detected [346 multibacillary (MB), 138 paucibacillary (PB), and 179 unclassified due to the loss of medical files by the time of classification which was done during the 1980s]. Of these 673 cases, 89 (13.2%) died from tuberculosis, giving a mean annual death rate of tuberculosis in leprosy patients of 232 per 100,000. Mortality from tuberculosis in leprosy patients detected between 1901 and 1930 was 20.7%, and decreased to 8.04% in patients detected from 1931 to 1959. In total, it was estimated that 26.4% of the leprosy cases had developed tuberculosis. From 1960 to 1991, 350 new cases of leprosy were detected (141 MB, 209 PB). Of them, 12 (3.4%) developed tuberculosis (7 before detection of leprosy, 5 after detection of leprosy). The dramatic decrease of the proportion of leprosy patients who developed tuberculosis between the periods 1902-1959 (26.4%) and 1960-1991 (3.4%) might be related to the important decline of the tuberculosis situation since 1960. From 1902 to 1959, mortality from tuberculosis occurred significantly more frequently in MB patients (13%) than in PB patients [4%, relative risk (RR) = 3.21, p = 0.003]. From 1960 to 1991, the incidence of tuberculosis seemed more frequent in MB patients (RR = 2.96, p = 0.07) whatever the sequence of detection of the two diseases. Our study suggests that lepromatous patients could share factors of susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases with patients developing tuberculosis. %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J Int J Lepr Mycobact Dis %D 1993 %T Tuberculosis in leprosy patients detected between 1902 and 1991 in French Polynesia. %A Glaziou, P %A Cartel, J-L %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A NGuyen, L %A Chanteau, S %A Plichart, R %A Grosset, J-H %N 2 %P 199-204 %V 61 %X Depuis 1902, la notification et le suivi des malades de la lepre a ete systematique en Polynesie francaise. Depuis 1960, un programme de lutte contre la tuberculose a egalement ete mis en route, ainsi qu'un registre. De 1902 a 1959, 673 cas de lepre ont ete detectes [346 multibacillaires (MB), 138 paucibacillaires (PB) et 179 sans classification suite a la perte du dossier medical au moment de la classification, qui fut realisee dans les annees 80]. De ces 673 cas, 89 (13,2%) sont morts de tuberculose, donnant un taux annuel moyen de mortalite par tuberculose de 232 pour 100.000 chez les malades de la lepre. La mortalite par tuberculose chez les lepreux detectes entre 1901 et 1903 etait de 20,7% et a diminue a 8,04% chez les patients detectes de 1931 a 1959. Au total, on a estime que 26,4% des malades de la lepre avaient developpe une tuberculose. De 1960 a 1991, 350 nouveaux cas de lepre ont ete detectes (141 MB, 209 PB). Parmi ceux-ci, 12 (3,4%) ont developpe une tuberculose (7 avant et 5 apres la detection de la lepre). La diminution spectaculaire de la proportion des malades de la lepre qui ont developpe une tuberculose entre les periodes 1902-1959 (26,4%) et 1960-1991 (3,4%) pourrait etre liee au declin important de la tuberculose depuis 1960. Entre 1902 et 1959, la mortalite par tuberculose survenait significativement plus souvent chez des patients MB (13%) que chez des patients PB [4%, risque relatif (RR) = 3,21, p = 0,003]. De 1960 a 1991, l'incidence de la tuberculose paraissait plus frequente chez des patients MB (RR = 2,96, p = 0,07) quel que soit l'ordre dans lequel les deux maladies avaient ete detectees. Notre etude suggere que les malades lepromateux pourraient partager avec les patients tuberculeux des facteurs de susceptibilite aux maladies a mycobacteries.From 1902 onward, notification and follow up of leprosy patients has been systematic in French Polynesia. Since 1960, a tuberculosis control program and a register has also been implemented. From 1902 to 1959, 673 cases of leprosy were detected [346 multibacillary (MB), 138 paucibacillary (PB), and 179 unclassified due to the loss of medical files by the time of classification which was done during the 1980s]. Of these 673 cases, 89 (13.2%) died from tuberculosis, giving a mean annual death rate of tuberculosis in leprosy patients of 232 per 100,000. Mortality from tuberculosis in leprosy patients detected between 1901 and 1930 was 20.7%, and decreased to 8.04% in patients detected from 1931 to 1959. In total, it was estimated that 26.4% of the leprosy cases had developed tuberculosis. From 1960 to 1991, 350 new cases of leprosy were detected (141 MB, 209 PB). Of them, 12 (3.4%) developed tuberculosis (7 before detection of leprosy, 5 after detection of leprosy). The dramatic decrease of the proportion of leprosy patients who developed tuberculosis between the periods 1902-1959 (26.4%) and 1960-1991 (3.4%) might be related to the important decline of the tuberculosis situation since 1960. From 1902 to 1959, mortality from tuberculosis occurred significantly more frequently in MB patients (13%) than in PB patients [4%, relative risk (RR) = 3.21, p = 0.003]. From 1960 to 1991, the incidence of tuberculosis seemed more frequent in MB patients (RR = 2.96, p = 0.07) whatever the sequence of detection of the two diseases. Our study suggests that lepromatous patients could share factors of susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases with patients developing tuberculosis. %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Virol %D 1993 %T Ultra-rapid, simple, sensitive, and economical silica method for extraction of dengue viral RNA from clinical specimen and mosquitoes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction method. %A Chungue, E %A Roche, C %A Lefevre, M F %A Barbazan, P %A Chanteau, S %N 2 %P 142-145 %V 40 %X A rapid, simple and efficient single-tube procedure is described for the isolation of dengue virus RNA from small amount of serum (10 microliters) followed by a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Recovery of RNA is based on the lysing and nuclease-inactivating properties of guanidinium thiocyanate in the presence of silica. The silica RT-PCR can be completed within 5 hours starting from RNA extraction to agarose gel electrophoresis. All of the 63 dengue-3 culture-positive sera were RT-PCR-positive (virus titres: < 10(2) to 11(10.69.). Of 33 culture-negative acute sera from serologically confirmed dengue fever patients collected during dengue-3 epidemic, 4 were RT-PCR-positive. RT-PCR was also positive in 29 of 30 dengue-1 culture-positive sera (virus titres range: < 10(2) to 10(8.69). Dengue-1 virus was also detected in field-caught Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by silica RT-PCR. %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Virol %D 1993 %T Ultra-rapid, simple, sensitive, and economical silica method for extraction of dengue viral RNA from clinical specimen and mosquitoes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction method. %A Chungue, E %A Roche, C %A Lef %N 2 %P 142-145 %V 40 %X A rapid, simple and efficient single-tube procedure is described for the isolation of dengue virus RNA from small amount of serum (10 microliters) followed by a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Recovery of RNA is based on the lysing and nuclease-inactivating properties of guanidinium thiocyanate in the presence of silica. The silica RT-PCR can be completed within 5 hours starting from RNA extraction to agarose gel electrophoresis. All of the 63 dengue-3 culture-positive sera were RT-PCR-positive (virus titres: < 10(2) to 11(10.69.). Of 33 culture-negative acute sera from serologically confirmed dengue fever patients collected during dengue-3 epidemic, 4 were RT-PCR-positive. RT-PCR was also positive in 29 of 30 dengue-1 culture-positive sera (virus titres range: < 10(2) to 10(8.69). Dengue-1 virus was also detected in field-caught Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by silica RT-PCR. %8 1993 %0 Journal Article %J Tetrahedon Letters %D 1992 %T 13C NMR assignments of ciguatoxin by inverse-detected 2D spectroscopy and an explanation of NMR signal broadening. %A Murata, M %A Legrand, A-M %A Scheuer, P J %A Yasumoto, T %N 4 %P 525-526 %V 33 %X 13C NMR assignments of ciguatoxic were achieved with 11 mg of the sample 1mmol). 13C-decoupled HMQC and HSQC spectra revealed 1JCH arising from the flexible part of the molecule wich yielded no sharp peaks in the 1D 13C NMR spectrum. These data suggest that contiguous 9- and 7-membered rings (rings F, G) give rise to a slow conformational change, which leads to extreme broadening of both 1H and 13C NMR signals. %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Tetrahedon Letters %D 1992 %T 13C NMR assignments of ciguatoxin by inverse-detected 2D spectroscopy and an explanation of NMR signal broadening. %A Murata, M %A Legrand, A-M %A Scheuer, P J %A Yasumoto, T %N 4 %P 525-526 %V 33 %X 13C NMR assignments of ciguatoxic were achieved with 11 mg of the sample 1mmol). 13C-decoupled HMQC and HSQC spectra revealed 1JCH arising from the flexible part of the molecule wich yielded no sharp peaks in the 1D 13C NMR spectrum. These data suggest that contiguous 9- and 7-membered rings (rings F, G) give rise to a slow conformational change, which leads to extreme broadening of both 1H and 13C NMR signals. %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T Are Streptomyces bacteria involved in the ciguatoxicity of the surgeon fish Ctenochaetus striatus ? %A Chinain, M %A Boiron, P %A Legrand, A-M %A Plichart, R %N 5 bis %P 460-463 %V 85 %X Ctenochaetus striatus est un poisson herbivore ciguatoxique par excellence des eaux polynesiennes. De novembre 1991 a janvier 1992, 88 poissons chirurgiens appartenant a cette espece ont ete peches autour de l' %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Parasitol %D 1992 %T A comparative study of detection methods for evaluation of microfilaremia in lymphatic filariasis control programmes. %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Glaziou, P %A Nguyen, N L %A Cardines, R %A Spiegel, A %A Cartel, J-L %N 3 %P 146-148 %V 43 %X The evaluation of microfilaremia (mf) was performed in 96% of the population aged 15 years or more in a village of Moorea, one of the Society Islands in French Polynesia. Finger-prick and venous blood samples were collected simultaneously from 782 individuals in order to compare the results obtained by the standard blood film method and the membrane filtration technique. Of the 782 blood-sampled inhabitants 69 (8.8%) were found mf positive. 39 (5%) were mf positive by both methods and 30 were mf positive by the membrane filtration technique only. In these latter 30 carriers the geometric mean mf count was 19.7 mf/ml, significantly lower than that of 651.1 mf/ml in the 39 carriers positive by both techniques. Using the membrane filtration technique, the mf carrier prevalence rate increased from 1.9% in the youngest age group (15-19 years) to 16.9% in the oldest (< or = 60 years) while using the blood film method, it increased from 1.3% to 12.7%. Roughly, when using the membrane filtration technique, the mf carrier prevalence rate was 1.77 higher than that found using the blood film method, considering either the whole population or successive age-groups. Moreover, when using the blood film method in the 40 years and more age group, the mf carrier prevalence rate was 10%, a proportion similar to the 8.8% prevalence rate determined by the membrane filtration technique in the whole population. Further studies are planned to assess whether the last finding may be confirmed in other Polynesian populations. %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Int J Lepr Mycobact Dis %D 1992 %T Assessment of the diagnostic value of the native PGLTB1, its synthetic neoglycoconjugate PGLTB0 and the sulfolipid IV antigens for the serodiagnosis of tuberculosis. %A Chanteau, S %A Glaziou, P %A Chansin, R %N 1 %P 1-7 %V 60 %X Un glycolipide phenolique majeur (PGLTB1) de Mycobacterium tuberculosis, qui ressemble au glycolipide phenolique-I (PGL-I) de M. Leprae, et son conjugue diglycosyl terminal synthetique (PGLTB0) ont ete mis en evidence et ont fait na %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Int J Lepr Mycobact Dis %D 1992 %T Assessment of the diagnosis value of the native PGLTB1, its synthetic neoglycoconjugate PGLTB0 and the sulfolipid IV antigens for the serodiagnosis of tuberculosis. %A Chanteau, S %A Glaziou, P %A Chansin, R %N 1 %P 1-7 %V 60 %X Un glycolipide phenolique majeur (PGLTB1) de Mycobacterium tuberculosis, qui ressemble au glyco-lipide phenolique-I (PGL-I) de M. Leprae, et son conjugue diglycosyl terminal synthetique (PGLTB0) ont ete mis en evidence et ont fait na %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T Are Streptomyces bacteria involved in the ciguatoxicity of the surgeon fish Ctenochaetus striatus ? %A Chinain, M %A Boiron, P %A Legrand, A-M %A Plichart, R %N 5 bis %P 460-463 %V 85 %X Ctenochaetus striatus est un poisson herbivore ciguatoxique par excellence des eaux polyn %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T Bursts of ciguatera and endo-upwelling process on coral reef. %A Rougerie, F %A Bagnis, R %N 5 Pt 2 %P 464-466 %V 85 %X Il est propose une relation de cause a effet entre les flambees de ciguatera consecutives a une agression subie par une zone recifale et les sorties d'eaux interstitielles par endo-upwelling riches en nutriments. Ceux-ci n'etant plus utilises par un ecosysteme algo corallien stresse ou elimine, le sont par des planctontes epibenthiques comme Gambierdiscus toxicus dont la population augmente brutalement.We propose a significant relationship between bursts of ciguatera following disturbance on a reef area and seepages of endo-upwelled interstitial waters, rich in nutrients. Such waters cannot continue to be used by a stressed or eliminated algal-coral ecosystem and are taken up by epibenthic planktons i.e. Gambierdiscus toxicus, of which population increases sharply. %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Med Vet Entomol %D 1992 %T Biological control of Culicidae with the copepod Mesocyclops aspericornis and larvivorous fish (Poeciliidae) in a village of French Polynesia. %A Lardeux, F %P 9-15 %V 6 %X The copepod Mesocyclos aspericornis Dady and the larvivorous fishes Gambusia affinis (B. & G.) and Poecilia reticula R. & B., were released into mosquito breeding sites in Tuherahera village. Tikehau atoll, French Polynesia, to control larvae of Aedes aegypti (L.), Ae. polynesiensis Marks, Culex annulirostris Skuse and Cx. quinquefasciatus Say. Treatments were completed within a week, in January 1990.Fish quickly eliminated mosquito larvae from the open breeding sites (ponds, wells). The impact of copepods in water tanks, drums and covered wells was inconsistent, apparently depending on the availability of microfaunal diet for growth of copepod naupili. As the biting rate of adult Ae. aegypti seemed to be unaffected by the biological control of larvae, this village-scale experiment was judged to be unsuccessful as a means of vector control. %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T Bursts of ciguatera and endo-upwelling process on coral reef. %A Rougerie, F %A Bagnis, R %N 5 Pt 2 %P 464-466 %V 85 %X Il est propos %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T Ciguatoxin-induced changes in acetylcholine release and in cytosolic calcium levels. %A Molgo, J %A Shimahara, T %A Morot Gaudry-Talarmain, Y %A Comella, J X %A Legrand, A-M %N 5 Pt 2 %P 486-488 %V 85 %X Cette communication resume nos connaissances actuelles du mode d'action de la ciguatoxine (CTX) sur la liberation de l'acetylcholine (ACh) par les terminaisons motrices ou par des synaptosomes cholinergiques. Les resultats obtenus montrent que la CTX modifie la liberation d'ACh dependante du Ca2+ extracellulaire par des actions diverses dues aux ions Na+ qui modifient l'excitabilite presynaptique et l'influx de Ca2+ que ce soit a travers des canaux potentiels-dependants ou par l'operation inverse de l'echangeur Na+/Ca2+. La liberation de l'ACh independante du Ca2+ extracellulaire provoquee par la CTX au niveau des terminaisons nerveuses motrices semble resulter d'un mecanisme qui met en jeu les ions Na+, qui est sensible a la tetrodotoxine et qui mobilise le Ca2+ de ces sites de fixation intracellulaire, comme cela a ete montre par la microfluorometrie sur une lignee hybride neuronale (neuroblastome de souris x gliome de rat, cellules NG108-15).In this communication we summarize our current knowledge concerning the mode of action of ciguatoxin (CTX) on acetylcholine (ACh) release either from motor nerve terminals or from pure cholinergic synaptosomes. The results obtained indicate that CTX affects Ca(2+)-dependent ACh release via distinct actions mediated by Na+ which alter presynaptic excitability and Ca2+ influx through both voltage-sensitive channels and the reversed operation of the Na+/Ca2+ exchange system. The external calcium-independent ACh release induced by CTX in motor terminals seems to be due to a Na(+)-dependent and tetrodotoxin-sensitive mechanism which mobilizes Ca2+ from intraterminal stores, as determined by fluorometrical recordings in single mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma NG108-15 cells. %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T Coral bleaching as a cause of possible proliferation of Gambierdiscus toxicus. %A Bagnis, R %A Rougerie, F %A Orempuller, J %A Jardin, C %N 5 bis %P 525 %V 85 %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Methods Neurosci %D 1992 %T Ciguatoxin : a tool for research on sodium-dependent mechanisms. %A Molgo, J %A Benoit, E %A Comella, J X %A Legrand, A-M %P 149-164 %V 8 %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Parasitol %D 1992 %T Compared efficacy of repeated annual and semi-annual doses of ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine for prevention of Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis in French Polynesia. Final evaluation. %A Cartel, J-L %A Spiegel, A %A Nguyen, N L %A Cardines, R %A Plichart, R %A Martin, P M V %A Roux, J %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %N 2 %P 91-94 %V 43 %X In October 1989, 58 apparently healthy Polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers, in whom microfilarial (mf) density was greater than or equal to 100 mf/ml, were randomly allocated to treatment groups receiving single doses of either ivermectin at 100 mcg/kg or diethylcarbamazine (DEC) at 3 and 6 mg/kg. Six months later, half of the carriers initially treated with ivermectin 100 mcg/kg or DEC 3 mg/kg were given a second similar dose while the rest were given a placebo. Six months later again, all of the carriers received a last treatment dose similar to the initial one. The results observed during the 12-month period which followed this last treatment have confirmed that (i) in terms of immediate clearance or complete negativation of microfilaremia, the efficacy of ivermectin is higher than that of DEC (at dosage of 3 or 6 mg/kg), (ii) DEC is more effective than ivermectin in sustaining the reduction of microfilaremia over a longer period of time and (iii) the efficacy of repeated single doses of either DEC 3 mg/kg or ivermectin 100 mcg/kg is much higher when given semi-annually than annually. %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Int J Lepr Mycobact Dis %D 1992 %T Chemoprophylaxis of leprosy with a single dose of 25 mg per kg Rifampin in the Southern Marquesas ; Results after four years. %A Cartel, J-L %A Chanteau, S %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Plichart, R %A Glaziou, P %A Boutin, J-P %A Roux, J %A Grosset, J-H %N 3 %P 416-420 %V 60 %X In January-February 1988, a program of chemoprophylaxis for leprosy, using a single 25 mg/kg dose of rifampin, was conducted among 2786 (98.7%) inhabitants of the Southern Marquesas and 3144 South Marquesan 'emigrants' and their families. Among the treated population, during the 4 years which followed the implementation of the program, two leprosy patients were detected, one of whom can be considered as a failure of chemoprophylaxis because she was not known by the leprosy control unit. During the same period (1988-1991), a decrease in detection rates for leprosy in the entire French Polynesian population has beenobserved, an event which makes the interpretation of these findings very difficult. Nevertheless, according to presently available data, the effectiveness of chemoprophylaxis with a single dose of 25 mg/kg rifampin is estimated to be about 40% to 50%. When considering not only the results of the present study but also the financial and logistic constraints raised by such a program, one is led to the conclusion that chemoprophylaxis, even with a single dose of rifampin, is not likely to become an effective component of leprosy control programs. En janvier-fevrier 1988, un programme de chimioprophylaxie de la lepre, utilisant une dose unique de rifampicine de 25 mg/kg, a ete realisee parmi 2786 (98,7%) habitants des %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T Ciguatoxin-induced changes in acetylcholine release and in cytosolic calcium levels. %A Molgo, J %A Shimahara, T %A Morot Gaudry-Talarmain, Y %A Comella, J X %A Legrand, A-M %N 5 Pt 2 %P 486-488 %V 85 %X Cette communication r %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T Coral bleaching as a cause of possible proliferation of Gambierdiscus toxicus. %A Bagnis, R %A Rougerie, F %A Orempuller, J %A Jardin, C %N 5 bis %P 525 %V 85 %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Methods Neurosci %D 1992 %T Ciguatoxin : a tool for research on sodium-dependent mechanisms. %A Molgo, J %A Benoit, E %A Comella, J X %A Legrand, A-M %P 149-164 %V 8 %8 1992 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Tosteson TR (Ed), Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Ciguatera, Lajas, Porto Rico (1990), pp 25-32 %D 1992 %T Characterization of ciguatoxins from different fish species and wild Gambierdiscus toxicus. %A Legrand, A-M %A Fukui, M %A Cruchet, P %A Ishibashi, Y %A Yasumoto, T %X Subsequent to the isolation and structure elucidation of ciguatoxin (CTX) and its congener from the moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus, Bleeker, and the causative dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, Adachi and Fukuyo, we carefully examined all the toxic components in moray eel, parrotfish and G. toxicus. As many as 21 toxins, including the above two toxins, were detected and characterized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectra. These toxins were separate into four groups according to the order of elution from a reversed phase column. Polarities of toxins in G. toxicus and fish suggested that toxins underwent oxidative modifications during the course of the food chain. CTX was the major toxin in the moray eel but was insignificant or absent in the parrotfish and G. toxicus. Detection of CTX in other carnivorous fish such as red snappers and groupers was facilitated by anthroylnitrile. %8 1992 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Tosteson TR (Ed), Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Ciguatera, Lajas, Porto Rico (1990), pp 25-32 %D 1992 %T Characterization of ciguatoxins from different fish species and wild Gambierdiscus toxicus. %A Legrand, A-M %A Fukui, M %A Cruchet, P %A Ishibashi, Y %A Yasumoto, T %X Subsequent to the isolation and structure elucidation of ciguatoxin (CTX) and its congener from the moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus, Bleeker, and the causative dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, Adachi and Fukuyo, we carefully examined all the toxic components in moray eel, parrotfish and G. toxicus. As many as 21 toxins, including the above two toxins, were detected and characterized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectra. These toxins were separate into four groups according to the order of elution from a reversed phase column. Polarities of toxins in G. toxicus and fish suggested that toxins underwent oxidative modifications during the course of the food chain. CTX was the major toxin in the moray eel but was insignificant or absent in the parrotfish and G. toxicus. Detection of CTX in other carnivorous fish such as red snappers and groupers was facilitated by anthroylnitrile. %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 1992 %T Dengue 1 epidemic in French Polynesia, 1988-1989 : surveillance and clinical, epidemiological, virological and serological findings in 1752 documented clinical cases. %A Chungue, E %A Burucoa, C %A Boutin, J-P %A Philippon, G %A Laudon, F %A Plichart, R %A Barbazan, P %A Cardines, R %A Roux, J %N 2 %P 193-197 %V 86 %X An epidemic of dengue 1 occurred in French Polynesia in December 1988 and June 1989. This paper records (i) the trend of the outbreak and its surveillance and (ii) the clinical, epidemiological and virological data obtained from 1752 documented cases. The epidemic reached its peak in February in Tahiti Island, 7 weeks after its recognition. Among 6034 suspect cases reported by sentinel physicians, 60.3% were < 20 years old. The illness was classical dengue. No fatality or case of dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue with shock syndrome was reported. Of 4792 patients subjected to laboratory testing, 41% were confirmed as positive. The serological attack rate was c. 40%. The estimated number of dengue infections in the Windward Islands was about 20,000. Transmission was associated with Aedes aegypti. Study of documented cases showed a higher confirmation rate in both the civilian population < 15 years old (46.5%) and the susceptible French military population (47.6%) than in older civilians (31.1%, P < 0.05). Furthermore, primary dengue infections were predominant in both of the first 2 groups. The diagnosis was mostly confirmed (i) by virus isolation on day < 5 of illness and (ii) by detection of immunoglobulin (Ig) M on day > or = 5 of illness. The study showed that adequate surveillance of an epidemic requires both clinically and laboratory-based systems. %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Southeast Asian J Trop Med Pub Hlth %D 1992 %T Dengue fever and dengue shock syndrome in French Polynesia. %A Glaziou, P %A Chungue, E %A Gestas, P %A Soulignac, O %A Couter, J P %A Plichart, R %A Roux, J %A Poli, L %N 3 %P 531-532 %V 23 %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 1992 %T Dengue 1 epidemic in French Polynesia, 1988-1989 : surveillance and clinical, epidemiological, virological and serological findings in 1752 documented clinical cases. %A Chungue, E %A Burucoa, C %A Boutin, J-P %A Philippon, G %A Laudon, F %A Plichart, R %A Barbazan, P %A Cardines, R %A Roux, J %N 2 %P 193-197 %V 86 %X An epidemic of dengue 1 occurred in French Polynesia in December 1988 and June 1989. This paper records (i) the trend of the outbreak and its surveillance and (ii) the clinical, epidemiological and virological data obtained from 1752 documented cases. The epidemic reached its peak in February in Tahiti Island, 7 weeks after its recognition. Among 6034 suspect cases reported by sentinel physicians, 60.3% were < 20 years old. The illness was classical dengue. No fatality or case of dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue with shock syndrome was reported. Of 4792 patients subjected to laboratory testing, 41% were confirmed as positive. The serological attack rate was c. 40%. The estimated number of dengue infections in the Windward Islands was about 20,000. Transmission was associated with Aedes aegypti. Study of documented cases showed a higher confirmation rate in both the civilian population < 15 years old (46.5%) and the susceptible French military population (47.6%) than in older civilians (31.1%, P < 0.05). Furthermore, primary dengue infections were predominant in both of the first 2 groups. The diagnosis was mostly confirmed (i) by virus isolation on day < 5 of illness and (ii) by detection of immunoglobulin (Ig) M on day > or = 5 of illness. The study showed that adequate surveillance of an epidemic requires both clinically and laboratory-based systems. %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Southeast Asian J Trop Med Pub Hlth %D 1992 %T Dengue fever and dengue shock syndrome in French Polynesia. %A Glaziou, P %A Chungue, E %A Gestas, P %A Soulignac, O %A Couter, J P %A Plichart, R %A Roux, J %A Poli, L %N 3 %P 531-532 %V 23 %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1992 %T Evaluation de l'efficacite du mannitol dans le traitement de la ciguatera. %A Bagnis, R %A Spiegel, A %A Boutin, J-P %A Burucoa, C %A Nguyen, N L %A Cartel, J-L %A Capdevielle, P %A Imbert, P %A Prigent, D %A Gras, C %N 1 %P 67-73 %V 52 %X A ce jour en Polynesie francaise et en Nouvelle-Caledonie, les patients presentant une infection ciguaterique recoivent un traitement standard : calcium + polyvitaminotherapie B + C par voie intraveineuse (IV), auquel le medecin ajoute suivant le tableau clinique diverses medications a visee symptomatique. En 1988, une etude menee a Majuro, aux Iles Marshall, a conclu a l'efficacite du mannitol par voie intraveineuse, dans le traitement d'intoxications graves avec suspicion d'oedeme cerebral. Depuis, ce traitement a ete employe avec succes dans plusieurs regions d'endemie.Le but de cet essai therapeutique etait de determiner si l'efficacite du mannitol est superieure a celle du traitement standard dans les intoxications ciguateriques de gravite moyenne. L'etude multicentrique a ete effectuee en simple aveugle, et a porte sur deux groupes randomises : l'un recevant le mannitol (perfusion IV de 250 cc de mannitol a 20% a passer en 1 heure), l'autre le traitement standard (Perfusion IV de 250 cc de serum glucose contenant : 1 gramme de vitamine C, 250 mg de vitamine B6 et 1 gramme de gluconate de calcium, a passer en 1 heure). La gravite de l'etat clinique a ete evalue par un score (0 a 50) etabli en fonction de l'importance des signes cliniques : paresthesies, algies, asthenie, signes cardio-vasculaires et signes digestifs. Seuls les patients ayant un score au moins egal a 20 ont ete inclus dans l'etude. L'etat clinique etait evalue, pour chaque patient, avant le traitement (score initial), a la fin de la perfusion et a la 24e heure. L'efficacite des traitements a ete jugee sur les differences observees sur ces differents scores. Les tests du Chi2 U de Mann et Whitney ont ete utilises pour l'analyse statistique. La formulation etait unilaterale, c'est-a-dire que l'on cherchait a determiner si le mannitol etait plus efficace que le traitement standard. Le seuil de signification etait de 5%. Les resultats concernent 63 patients (ambulatoires ou hospitalises) intoxiques par des poissons appartenant a differentes familles. 34 ont ete traites par le mannitol et 29 par le traitement standard. Les 2 groupes sont homogenes en ce qui concerne l' %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Southeast Asian J Trop Med Pub Hlth %D 1992 %T Estimation of dengue infection attack rate in a cohort of children during a dengue 3 outbreak in Tahiti (1989-1990). %A Chungue, E %A Glaziou, P %A Spiegel, A %A Martin, P M V %A Roux, J %N 1 %P 157-158 %V 23 %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Epidemiol Sante Publ %D 1992 %T Efficacite comparee de doses annuelles et semestrielles d'ivermectine ou de diethylcarbamazine pour la prevention de la filariose lymphatique %A Cartel, J-L %A Spiegel, A %A NGuyen, L %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Martin, P M V %A Roux, J %N 5 %P 307-312 %V 40 %X Un essai therapeutique en double aveugle a ete realise sur 58 Polynesiens, en bonne sante apparente, bien que porteurs de Wuchereria bancrofti, ils ont ete traites par des doses repetees annuelles ou semestrielles d'ivermectine 100 mcg/kg ou de diethylcarbamazine (DEC) 3 mg/kg ou par doses annuelles de DEC 6 mg/kg. Apres le traitement du 12e mois, une negativation de la microfilaremie a ete observee chez 7 des 23 porteurs traites par ivermectine et chez 3 des 35 traites par DEC. Neuf mois apres ce dernier traitement, la microfilaremie moyenne la plus basse etait observee chez les porteurs ayant recu 3 doses semestrielles de 3 mg/kg de DEC. La frequence et l'intensite des reactions adverses ont ete comparables chez les porteurs traites par ivermectine et DEc dont aucun n'a pu interrompre ses activites.A double blind randomized trial was performed on 58 healthy Polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers, they were randomly allocated to treatments with repeated annual or semi-annual doses of ivermectin 100 mcg/kg or diethylcarbamazine (DEC) 3 mg/kg, or with repeated annual doses of DEC 6 mg/kg. After the 12-month treatment, the clearance of microfilaremia was complete in 7 of the 23 carriers treated with ivermectin and in 3 of the 35 treated with DEC. Nine months after that treatment, the lowest mean microfilaremia was observed in the carriers treated with 3 successive semi-annual doses of DEC 3 mg/kg. Adverse reactions were comparable in carriers treated with ivermectin and in those treated with DEC, and did not interfere with daily activities of treated subjects. %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1992 %T Evaluation de l'efficacit %A Bagnis, R %A Spiegel, A %A Boutin, J-P %A Burucoa, C %A Nguyen, N L %A Cartel, J-L %A Capdevielle, P %A Imbert, P %A Prigent, D %A Gras, C %N 1 %P 67-73 %V 52 %X A ce jour en Polyn %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Southeast Asian J Trop Med Pub Hlth %D 1992 %T Estimation of dengue infection attack rate in a cohort of children during a dengue 3 outbreak in Tahiti (1989-1990). %A Chungue, E %A Glaziou, P %A Spiegel, A %A Martin, P M V %A Roux, J %N 1 %P 157-158 %V 23 %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Parasitol %D 1992 %T IgA immunoassay for the diagnosis of bancroftian filariasis. %A Chanteau, S %A Cartel, J-L %A Martin, P M V %N 2 %P 132-133 %V 43 %X In some parasitic infection such as toxoplasmosis, specific IgA is a highly reliable marker of active infection. In bancroftian filariasis, only 10 of 20 (50%) and 3 of 20 (15%) of the microfilaremic patients were positive for IgA anti-Brugia malayi using respectively indirect ELISA and immunocapture ELISA tests. As regard to these low sensitivities, the detection of specific IGA is unlikely to be a useful test for the diagnosis of active Wuchereria bancrofti infection. %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Oceanis %D 1992 %T In vivo and in vitro techniques for the detection of ciguatoxin. %A Labrousse, H %A Pauillac, S %A Jehl-Martinez, C %A Legrand, A-M %N 2 %P 189 %V 18 %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T La ciguatera dans les %A Bagnis, R %N 5 bis %P 412-414 %V 85 %X Il est presente un bilan des rapports etroits entre la degradation des coraux, l'apparition de poissons ciguateriques et l'atteinte de l'homme, de 1960 a 1990, a partir d'un suivi clinique, epidemiologique et ecologique de l'evolution du phenomene dans l'ensemble de la Polynesie francaise.The links between coral reef disturbances, poisonous fish and sick man during 1960-1990 period are presented from a documented clinical, epidemiological and ecological follow up of the main overall ciguateric events in French Polynesia. %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Lepr Rev %D 1992 %T Leprosy in French Polynesia. Epidemiological trends between 1946 and 1987. %A Cartel, J-L %A Boutin, J-P %A Spiegel, A %A Glaziou, P %A Plichart, R %A Cardines, R %A Grosset, J-H %N 3 %P 211-222 %V 63 %X The analysis of computerized data (OMSLEP system) on patients from French Polynesia followed since 1940 has shown a decrease in the mean annual detection rates for leprosy, all forms combined, from 24.73 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1946 to 8.1 per 100,000 in 1987 (y = -0.49 x + 45.83; p < 0.05). In fact, the decrease was significant (y = -1.18 x + 83.54; p < 0.05) during the first half of the study period (1946-66), but not during the second half (1967-87). Similarly, a significant decrease in all of the specific mean annual detection rates (according to the form of leprosy and to the sex and age of patients), in the proportion of multibacillary patients among the total of newly detected cases, and in the proportion of all patients with disabilities at the onset ofleprosy was observed only during the first half of the study period (1946-66). Nevertheless, when comparing age-specific cumulative detection rates, calculated by 10-year age groups over the period 1946-66, to those of the period 1967-87, an ageing of the leprosy population was noted. Finally, the decrease of mean annual detection rates was greater in the smaller populations of remote islands than in the population of Tahiti, the main island, where 70% of the total population were living during the study period. This decline was shown to correspond to an effective improvement of the leprosy situation which could be attributed, among other factors (such as economic development and systematic BCG vaccination), to the implementation of a control programme for leprosy in 1950. The introduction in 1982 of multidrug therapy for all patients suffering active leprosy has raised the hope of a subsequent decline of leprosy in French Polynesia in the near future. %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Lepr Rev %D 1992 %T Leprosy in French Polynesia. The possible impact of multidrug therapy on epidemiological trends. %A Cartel, J-L %A Spiegel, A %A NGuyen, L %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Martin, P M V %A Grosset, J-H %N 3 %P 223-230 %V 63 %X En 1982, suivant les recommandations d'un groupe d'etude du WHO, la therapeutique multidrogue (MDT) a ete introduite en Polynesie francaise pour traiter tous les patients souffrant de lepre evolutive, et, a leur demande seulement, les patients recevant encore un traitement par la dapsone. Cinq ans apres, on a observe un abaissement net des taux de frequence et de detection annuelle moyenne des cas de lepre (excepte les taux de detection chez les enfants de moins de 15 ans, beaucoup de cas etant deceles t %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T La ciguat %A Bagnis, R %N 5 bis %P 412-414 %V 85 %X Il est pr %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 1992 %T Mass chemoprophylaxis of lymphatic filariasis with a single dose of ivermectin in a polynesian community with a high Wuchereria bancrofti infection rate. %A Cartel, J-L %A Nguyen, N L %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Plichart, R %A Martin, P M V %A Spiegel, A %N 5 %P 537-540 %V 86 %X In April 1991 supervised mass prophylaxis of lymphatic filariasis with a single dose of ivermectin, 100 micrograms/kg, was carried out in a Polynesian village with a high infection rate of Wuchereria bancrofti in humans and active transmission by the vector mosquito, Aedes polynesiensis. Of 876 inhabitants aged 3 years or more (pregnant women excluded), 864 (98.6%) were treated.Simultaneously, venous blood samples were collected from 577 (97.5%) of the 595 inhabitants aged 15 years or more, of whom 122 (21.4%) were found to be microfilaria (mf) carriers (86 males and 36 females). The geometric mean microfilariae (GMM) count was 358.7 mf/ml for the whole group, 387 mf/ml for males (range 1-8160 mf/ml) and 280 mf/ml for females (range 1-7769 mf/ml). Following treatment, 33 (3.8%) of the 864 persons treated experienced some adverse reactions (21 with grade 1 and 12 with grade 2). Of the 33 with reactions, 29 were among the 122 (23.8%) mf carriers and 4 among the 831 (0.5%) non-microfilaraemic persons. Six months later, 123 (21.1%) of 584 inhabitants sampled were microfilaraemic: the GMM count for the whole group was 106 mf/ml (1-8177), with 29 mf/ml (1-3740) in 35 female and 177 mf/ml (1-8177) in 88 male carriers. Of these 123, 15 (whose GMM count was 4.5 mf/ml; range 1-204) were amicrofilaraemic 6 months before, and 19 had a microfilaraemia level higher than that 6 months earlier, before treatment. 117 of the 122 carriers identified in April were resampled: comparison of their GMM counts before and 6 months after mass treatment indicated that treatment with a single dose of 100 micrograms/kg ivermectin resulted in a reduction of microfilaraemia by 69%. %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T Public health features of maitotoxin in Tahiti. %A Bagnis, R %A Spiegel, A %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Plichart, R %N 5 bis %P 519 %V 85 %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T Purified ciguatoxin-induced modifications in excitability of myelinated nerve fiber. %A Benoit, E %A Legrand, A-M %N 5 bis %P 497-499 %V 85 %X Les effets d'applications externes de 0,22-1,12 NM de ciguatoxine purifiee (CTX-1B), extraite de la murene, ont ete etudies sur le noeud de Ranvier de grenouille dans les conditions de courant et de potentiel imposes. CTX-1B induisait des potentiels d'action spontanes a une frequence de 70-100 Hz, supprimes par 50 mM de lidocaine, qui etaient dus a un courant Na entrant maintenu (tardif), induit par la toxine, representant environ 5,5% du pic de courant Na. Le pic de courant et le courant tardif presentaient des caracteristiques differentes vis-a-vis du potentiel mais etaient affectes de facon similaire par 50-500 mM de lidocaine. Il est conclu que les effets de CTX-1B sont qualitativement mais pas quantativement similaires a ceux precedemment etudies de la toxine partiellement purifiee (2).The effects of external applications of 0.22-1.12 nM of purified ciguatoxin (CTX-1B), extracted from the moray-eel, were studied on frog current and voltage clamped node of Ranvier. CTX-1B induced spontaneous action potentials at a frequency of 70-100 Hz, suppressed by 50 microM lidocaine, which resulted from a toxin-induced maintained (late) inward Na current representing about 5.5% of peak Na current. Peak and late currents showed different voltage characteristics but were similarly affected by 50-500 microM lidocaine. It is concluded that the effects of CTX-1B are qualitatively but not quantitatively similar to those previously studied of partially purified toxin (2). %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T Preliminary results on the effects of macroalgal extracts (MAE) on growth of Gambierdiscus toxicus in cultures. %A Laurent, N %A Chinain, M %A Asin, P %A Legrand, A-M %N 5 bis %P 524 %V 85 %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T Progress on chemical knowledge of ciguatoxins. %A Legrand, A-M %A Fukui, M %A Cruchet, P %A Yasumoto, T %N 5 bis %P 467-469 %V 85 %X Les donnees chimiques actuellement etablies sur les ciguatoxines sont resumees et discutees. La multiplicite des composes isoles du materiel toxique pisciaire et algal est decrite. L'inventaire des principales toxines impliquees dans les intoxications de type ciguaterique, actuellement en cours dans les deux laboratoires, a montre que (1) la ciguatoxine de reference est le compose dominant chez les poissons carnivores, (2) des toxines moins polaires sont majoritairement presentes dans les poissons herbivores, (3) des analogues de la ciguatoxine de reference sont produits par le dinoflagelle G. toxicus in natura et in vitro. La polarite croissante observee pour les toxines en fonction des niveaux de la cha %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T Preliminary results towards ciguatoxin immunodetection. %A Pauillac, S %A Labrousse, H %A Legrand, A-M %A Avrameas, S %N 5 Pt 2 %P 500-503 %V 85 %X En raison du manque de ciguatoxine (CTX) pure, la monensine a ete utilisee comme modele pour la mise au point d'un test immunologique de detection de la CTX. Des anticorps polyclonaux de lapins et monoclonaux (MAb) de souris de fortes specificite et affinite ont ete obtenus avec un immunogene produit en grosse quantite. Avec le MAb 2H8, un microtest ELISA de type competitif, en plaques de Terasaki, a permis d'abaisser le seuil de detection de la monensine libre a 75 pg. Aucune reaction croisee avec la CTX n'a ete observee, cependant la miniaturisation de la technique de preparation du conjugue est en cours avec 100 mg de brevetoxine (PbTx-3), toxine marine structuralement tres proche de la CTX.Due to the lack of purified ciguatoxin (CTX), monensin was used as a model for developing an enzyme immunoassay to detect CTX. Specific antibodies directed against monensin have been produced in rabbits and mice using a monensin-protein immunogen obtained in bulk quantities. Rabbit polyclonal and mouse monoclonal (MAb) antibodies of high specificity and affinity have been produced. Using MAb 2H8, in a competitive micro-ELISA performed in Terasaki plates, the detection limit for free monensin was 75 pg. No cross-reactivity was detected against CTX but a procedure requiring only 100 micrograms of hapten is under current investigation with a brevetoxin (PbTx-3), another marine toxin with a polyether backbone structure similar to CTX and recently commercially available. %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T Public health features of maitotoxin in Tahiti. %A Bagnis, R %A Spiegel, A %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Plichart, R %N 5 bis %P 519 %V 85 %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T Purified ciguatoxin-induced modifications in excitability of myelinated nerve fiber. %A Benoit, E %A Legrand, A-M %N 5 bis %P 497-499 %V 85 %X Les effets d'applications externes de 0,22-1,12 NM de ciguatoxine purifi %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T Preliminary results on the effects of macroalgal extracts (MAE) on growth of Gambierdiscus toxicus in cultures. %A Laurent, N %A Chinain, M %A Asin, P %A Legrand, A-M %N 5 bis %P 524 %V 85 %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T Progress on chemical knowledge of ciguatoxins. %A Legrand, A-M %A Fukui, M %A Cruchet, P %A Yasumoto, T %N 5 bis %P 467-469 %V 85 %X Les donn %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T Preliminary results towards ciguatoxin immunodetection. %A Pauillac, S %A Labrousse, H %A Legrand, A-M %A Avram %N 5 Pt 2 %P 500-503 %V 85 %X En raison du manque de ciguatoxine (CTX) pure, la monensine a %8 1992 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Tosteson TR (Eds), Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Ciguatera, Lajas, Porto Rico (1990), pp 157-168 %D 1992 %T Public health, epidemiological and socio-economic patterns of ciguatera in Tahiti. %A Bagnis, R %A Spiegel, A %A Nguyen, N L %A Plichart, R %X The study deals with 30 year follow-up of the number of human cases, clinical features and evolution of the disease, the names of the ciguateric fishes, fishing areas and the social and economic influence of ciguatera on Tahitian life.The evaluation of ciguateric morbidity was carried out by the census of officially recorded cases since 1960, by the analysis of standard clinical and epidemiological questionnaires for each patient, filled out by medical and paramedical staff, and by direct inquiries in the population. A significant increase of the recorded cases occurred in 1965, the yearly number growing suddenly from 64 to 305. Then the incidence rate per 1,000 inhabitants ranged from 4 to 7, with an average of about 480 cases each year, from 1965 to 1989. During the period of the study, nearly 80 species, from 27 fish families, involving various trophic levels were incriminated. they include mainly groupers, snappers, emperor-fish, jacks, surgeonfish, parrotfish, mullets, wrasses and trigger-fish. A great number of the toxic fishes came from other islands than Tahiti, mainly from the Tuamotu archipelago and they were sold on the market place of Papeete. It has been estimated that each year on an average, ciguatera results in the loss of about 4,000 days of work and 3,000 tons of reef fish, that are banned from sale on the market place in the Tahitian community. %8 1992 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Tosteson TR (Eds), Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Ciguatera, Lajas, Porto Rico (1990), pp 157-168 %D 1992 %T Public health, epidemiological and socio-economic patterns of ciguatera in Tahiti. %A Bagnis, R %A Spiegel, A %A Nguyen, N L %A Plichart, R %X The study deals with 30 year follow-up of the number of human cases, clinical features and evolution of the disease, the names of the ciguateric fishes, fishing areas and the social and economic influence of ciguatera on Tahitian life.The evaluation of ciguateric morbidity was carried out by the census of officially recorded cases since 1960, by the analysis of standard clinical and epidemiological questionnaires for each patient, filled out by medical and paramedical staff, and by direct inquiries in the population. A significant increase of the recorded cases occurred in 1965, the yearly number growing suddenly from 64 to 305. Then the incidence rate per 1,000 inhabitants ranged from 4 to 7, with an average of about 480 cases each year, from 1965 to 1989. During the period of the study, nearly 80 species, from 27 fish families, involving various trophic levels were incriminated. they include mainly groupers, snappers, emperor-fish, jacks, surgeonfish, parrotfish, mullets, wrasses and trigger-fish. A great number of the toxic fishes came from other islands than Tahiti, mainly from the Tuamotu archipelago and they were sold on the market place of Papeete. It has been estimated that each year on an average, ciguatera results in the loss of about 4,000 days of work and 3,000 tons of reef fish, that are banned from sale on the market place in the Tahitian community. %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Entomol %D 1992 %T Release of Mesocyclops aspericornis (Copepoda) for control of larval Aedes polynesiensis (Diptera : Culicidae) in land crab burrows on an atoll of French Polynesia. %A Lardeux, F %A Riviere, F %A Sechan, Y %A Kay, B H %N 4 %P 571-576 %V 29 %X On Tereia Island, Rangiroa Atoll, 14,321 land crab burrows were treated with the copepod Mesocyclops aspericornis from January to June 1986, to control larvae of Aedes polynesiensis Marks. In October 1987, the entire island of Tereia was retreated (17,300 burrows), and the neighboring island, Voisin, was left untreated as a control. From 5 to 15 mo after treatment, burrows with M. aspericornis contained an average of 2 Ae. polynesiensis immatures compared with 97 immatures from untreated burrows. Long-term larval control was successful in low-lying areas where burrows remained wet or were reflooded. Although there may have been other contributing factors, the major reason for lack persistence of M. aspericornis in burrows over the entire island appeared to be poor resistance to desiccation. From all treated burrows in October 1987, M. aspericornis subsequently was found in 89.5, 39.1, and 24.1% of burrows sampled 5,8 and 15 mo after treatment, respectively. The broad-scale results for Tereia indicated that there was no reduction of adult biting indices when compared with Voisin. mark-release experiments on four occasions indicated that Ae. polynesiensis had a limited flight range and that the probability for interisland movement was low. %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Parasitol %D 1992 %T Results of a safety trial on single-dose treatments with 400 mcg/kg of ivermectin in bancroftian filariasis. %A Cartel, J-L %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Glaziou, P %A Nguyen, N L %A Chanteau, S %A Roux, J %N 4 %P 263-266 %V 43 %X Two groups of Polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers, 17 females aged 21 to 84 years and 20 males aged 26 to 57 years, in whom microfilaraemia ranged from 1 to 10,121 mf/ml and from 1 to 6,484 mf/ml, respectively, were given a supervised singledose treatment with 400 mcg/kg of ivermectin. Carriers were examined and questioned regarding their experience of adverse reactions, which were graded 0 to 3 according to severity, at 6, 12 and 24 hours and at 4 days after treatment. Biological examinations which included determination of microfilaraemia, complete blood count, liver function tests and assessment of creatinine and urea levels were performed at 4 days before and 4 days after treatment. Adverse reactions were observed in 65% of female and in 70% of male carriers; they were of grade > or = 2 in 35% of carriers in both groups. None as considered serious;they all disappeared in 24-48 hours. The main symptoms were headache, fever > or = 37.5 degrees C and myalgia in females. One male vomited 3 hours after treatment; as a result the drug was not ingested and no decrease of microfilaraemia was noted. Twelve days afterwards, he was given a second 400 mcg/kg dose, he experienced again a grade 1 reaction and his microfilaraemia fell to zero. The 37 carriers in the present study were matched with 37 other Polynesian carriers treated with a 100 mcg/kg single dose of ivermectin in previous trials for pretreatment mf density and sex: no significant difference could be found in adverse reactions between the 2 treatment groups. %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T Study of factors that influence the clinical response to ciguatera fish poisoning. %A Glaziou, P %A Martin, P M V %N 5 bis %P 419-420 %V 85 %X Une etude descriptive de un an portant sur les enregistrements standardises des cas de ciguatera declares a ete conduite en Polynesie francaise. L'objectif etait de determiner les facteurs influencant la reponse clinique a l'intoxication. Durant l'annee 1991, 551 cas ont ete declares par les medecins (taux de notification : 276 pour 100.000). L' %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Acta Leprologica %D 1992 %T Serologie de la lepre : etat actuel des connaissances et avenir. %A Chanteau, S %A Cartel, J-L %A Roux, J %N 2 %P 65-70 %V 8 %X En matiere de lepre, les tests serologiques utilises sont d'une part les tests de detection des anticorps : anti-pheno-glyco-lipide 1 (PGL1), anti-35kD, anti-36kD, anti-Lipo-Arabino-Manane (LAM) et d'autre part les tests de detection de l'antigene phospho-glyco-lipide 1 (PGL1) (serique et urinaire). Les tests de detection des anticorps ont une specificite bonne quoique encore insuffisante pour le diagnostic des malades et une sensibilite generalement satisfaisante pour les multibacillaires mais faible pour les paucibacillaires. Leur valeur predictive positive pour le diagnostic de malades dans une population est tres faible : 2,1% pour ELISA IgM anti-PGL1 et pour une prevalence de 1/1000. Leur utilisation pour la surveillance des groupes a risque et le diagnostic precoce de la lepre s'est revele d'un co %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T Surveillance epidemiologique de la tuberculose en Polynesie francaise de 1960 a 1990. %A Glaziou, P %A Martin, P M V %A Cartel, J-L %N 2 %P 130-135 %V 85 %X En 1960, une politique generale de prevention et de surveillance de la tuberculose a ete adoptee en Polynesie francaise. De 1960 a 1990, le taux de declaration des nouveaux cas de tuberculose a decru de 568 a 30 pour 100 000, soit une regression annuelle de 9,1%. Le taux cumule de declaration sur 30 ans est significativement different entre les 5 archipels du territoire, le plus eleve etant observe aux %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T Study of factors that influence the clinical response to ciguatera fish poisoning. %A Glaziou, P %A Martin, P M V %N 5 bis %P 419-420 %V 85 %X Une %8 1992 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Tosteson TR (Ed), Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Ciguatera, Lajas, Porto Rico (1990), pp 3-11 %D 1992 %T Structure determination of ciguatoxin of moray eels and Gambierdiscus toxicus. %A Yasumoto, T %A Murata, M %A Ishibashi, Y %A Fukui, M %A Legrand, A-M %X Ciguatoxin isolated from viscera of the moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus and its congener (tentative codename CTX-4B) isolated from the causative dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus were subjected to structure elucidation. The molecular formulae of C60H86O19 and C60H84O16 were determined for ciguatoxin and CTX-4B respectively, by HR-FABMS and 1H NMR measurements. 1H NMR signals of protons around a nine-membered ring were broadened or disappeared due to a slow conformational change of the ring, but spectra quality was improved by measuring at low temperature. By extensive use of 1H NMR 2D-correlation and NOE experiments carried out on 0.35 mg of ciguatoxin and 0.74 mg of CTX-4B, the two toxins were found to have brevetoxin-like polyether structures comprised of thirteen rings (7/6/6/7/7/9/7/6/8/6/7/6-spiro-5). CTX-4B was in a form less oxidized than ciguatoxin at two terminals of the molecule. Their relative stereochemistries, except for C2 of ciguatoxin, were clarified by detailed analyses of 1H NMR NOE experiments. The primary alcohol at the terminal of the ciguatoxin molecule suggested its usefulness for preparing a flourescent derivative or a toxin-protein conjugate to be used for immunization. %8 1992 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Tosteson TR (Ed), Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Ciguatera, Lajas, Porto Rico (1990), pp 3-11 %D 1992 %T Structure determination of ciguatoxin of moray eels and Gambierdiscus toxicus. %A Yasumoto, T %A Murata, M %A Ishibashi, Y %A Fukui, M %A Legrand, A-M %X Ciguatoxin isolated from viscera of the moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus and its congener (tentative codename CTX-4B) isolated from the causative dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus were subjected to structure elucidation. The molecular formulae of C60H86O19 and C60H84O16 were determined for ciguatoxin and CTX-4B respectively, by HR-FABMS and 1H NMR measurements. 1H NMR signals of protons around a nine-membered ring were broadened or disappeared due to a slow conformational change of the ring, but spectra quality was improved by measuring at low temperature. By extensive use of 1H NMR 2D-correlation and NOE experiments carried out on 0.35 mg of ciguatoxin and 0.74 mg of CTX-4B, the two toxins were found to have brevetoxin-like polyether structures comprised of thirteen rings (7/6/6/7/7/9/7/6/8/6/7/6-spiro-5). CTX-4B was in a form less oxidized than ciguatoxin at two terminals of the molecule. Their relative stereochemistries, except for C2 of ciguatoxin, were clarified by detailed analyses of 1H NMR NOE experiments. The primary alcohol at the terminal of the ciguatoxin molecule suggested its usefulness for preparing a flourescent derivative or a toxin-protein conjugate to be used for immunization. %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T The survey of G. toxicus abundance in three points around Tahiti island. %A Asin, P %A Chinain, M %A Micouin, L %A Legrand, A-M %N 5 bis %P 523 %V 85 %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T Toxicity of french polynesian strains of Gambierdiscus toxicus in cultures. %A Micouin, L %A Chinain, M %A Asin, P %A Legrand, A-M %N 5 Pt 2 %P 474-477 %V 85 %X Sept souches de G. toxicus, isolees de 3 zones geographiques reputees ciguatoxiques de Tahiti, ont ete cultivees en masse au laboratoire. La presence de composes ciguatoxiques et maitotoxiques a ete recherchee dans ces cultures. Bien que de la MTX ait ete detectee en quantites tres importantes, quoique variables, dans les 7 souches etudiees, seule la souche GTP1 produit des CTXs in vitro, ce qui suggere que cette production de CTXs est probablement limitee a certaines souches genetiques de G. toxicus. Toutefois, ce caractere ne semble pas stable dans le temps, ce qui laisse supposer que d'autres facteurs doivent egalement intervenir dans la toxinogenese de G. toxicus. D'autre part, la ciguatoxicite detectee in vitro (environ 10.10-4 US/1000 cellules) reste 10 fois moins importante que ce qui est note dans la nature, indiquant que la maximum du potentiel ciguatoxinogene de nos souches au sein de nos cultures est loin d'etre atteint.Seven clonal strains of Gambierdiscus toxicus isolated from three ciguateric areas around Tahiti island were mass cultured and extracted for ciguatoxins and maitotoxin. CTX analogs were detected only in one clone (GTP1), suggesting that CTX production may be strain-dependent. However, this in vitro production of CTXs, which remains fairly poor with regards to the toxicity levels encountered in wild G. toxicus, is not a stable temporal characteristic. On the other hand, maitotoxic compounds were detected in all 7 strains in copious amount, especially in clone GTH2. %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T The survey of G. toxicus abundance in three points around Tahiti island. %A Asin, P %A Chinain, M %A Micouin, L %A Legrand, A-M %N 5 bis %P 523 %V 85 %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T Toxicity of french polynesian strains of Gambierdiscus toxicus in cultures. %A Micouin, L %A Chinain, M %A Asin, P %A Legrand, A-M %N 5 Pt 2 %P 474-477 %V 85 %X Sept souches de G. toxicus, isol %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T Utilisation de larves de dipteres pour la detection de poissons ciguatoxiques. %A Labrousse, H %A Pauillac, S %A Legrand, A-M %A Avrameas, S %N 5 bis %P 529 %V 85 %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1992 %T Utilisation de larves de dipt %A Labrousse, H %A Pauillac, S %A Legrand, A-M %A Avram %N 5 bis %P 529 %V 85 %8 1992 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 1992 %T Wuchereria bancrofti infection in human and mosquito populations of a polynesian village ten years after interruption of mass chemoprophylaxis with diethylcarbamazine. %A Cartel, J-L %A NGuyen, L %A Spiegel, A %A Moulia-Pelat, J-P %A Plichart, R %A Martin, P M V %A Manuellan, A B %A Lardeux, F %N 4 %P 414-416 %V 86 %X In 1991, a study on Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae (mf) and infection rates was carried out in the human and mosquito populations of a Polynesian village where, 10 years before, the mf prevalence rate was 6.4% and twice-yearly mass treatment with 3 mg/kg of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) was interrupted. Venous blood samples were collected from 575 (97%) individuals aged 15 years or more, of whom 122 (21.4%) were mf positive. The mf carrier prevalence rate was 27.4% in males, significantly higher than that of 14% in females; it increased from 7-12% in the youngest age group (15-19 years) to 40-50% in the oldest (> or = 60 years) for both males and females. 387 mosquito collections were performed and 1748 female Aedes polynesiensis were dissected, of which 1176 were parous. Among the latter, 114 (9.7%) were infected with Wuchereria bancrofti larvae at L1, L2 or L3 stages. The mean number of larvae per mosquito was 2.46 (range 1-15). Of the 114 infected mosquitoes, 30 harboured L3 larvae, giving a 2.55% infective rate; the mean number of L3 larvae per mosquito was 1.15 (range 1-2). Such findings indicate that the interruption of systematic twice-yearly mass treatment with DEC (3 mg/kg) has resulted, after 10 years, in a substantial increase of microfilarial prevalence in humans, and in high infection rates in mosquitoes. %8 1992 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Actes du 3e Symposium sur les substances naturelles d'interet biologique de la region Pacifique-Asie, Debitus C, Amade P, Laurent D, Cosson JP (Eds), Noumea, New Caledonia, pp 351-355 %D 1991 %T Arising problems in ciguatoxin detection. %A Pauillac, S %A Labrousse, H %A Jehl-Martinez, C %A Legrand, A-M %A Avrameas, S %X La divergence et la faible sensibilite des tests de toxicite pour la detection en routine de la ciguatoxine (CTX) ont conduit au developpement d'une approche immuno-enzymatique. En raison du manque de CTX purifiee, nous avons choisi de travailler avec la monensine, un antibiotique polyether de faible masse moleculaire et de structure chimique proche a celle de certaines toxines marines. Nous avons tout d'abord defini les conditions optimales de preparation de conjugues haptene-proteine en grosse quantite et, ensuite etabli une methode requierant seulement 100 mg d'haptene. Des anticorps polyclonaux de lapins et monoclonaux de souris de haute specificite et affinite ont pu ainsi etre produits. Un microtest ELISA de type competitif a ete mis au point sur plaque de Terasaki, permettant d'abaisser le seuil de detection de la monensine libre a 75 pg. Aucune reaction croisee avec la CTX libre n'a ete decelee. La micromethode de preparation des conjugues est actuellement appliquee a une brevetoxine (BTX), autre toxine marine de structure chimique semblable a la CTX mais commercialement disponible.The discrepancy and low sensitivity of bioassays for routine detection of ciguatoxin (CTX) had led to the development of an immunoassay procedure. Because of the lack of purified CTX, we choose to work with monensin, a low dalton lipid polyether antibiotic chemically related to some marine toxins. We first defined the conditions for the optimal preparation of hapten-protein conjugates in bulk quantities and then, establish a procedure requiring only 100 mg of hapten. The conjugates obtained were used for immunization of rabblits and mice. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies of high specificity and affinity were produced. In a miniaturized competitive ELISA procedure suing Terasaki microtiter plates, the minimum detection limit for free monensin was 75 pg. No cross-reactivity was detected against free CTX. These procedures are now under current investigation with brevetoxin (BTX), another marine toxin with a similar polyether backbone structure to CTX, but commercially available. %8 1991 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Actes du 3e Symposium sur les substances naturelles d'int %D 1991 %T Arising problems in ciguatoxin detection. %A Pauillac, S %A Labrousse, H %A Jehl-Martinez, C %A Legrand, A-M %A Avram %X La divergence et la faible sensibilit %8 1991 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Parasitol %D 1991 %T Cumulative mortality rates in Aedes polynesiensis after feeding on polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers treated with single doses of ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine and placebo. %A Cartel, J-L %A Sechan, Y %A Spiegel, A %A Nguyen, N L %A Barbazan, P %A Martin, P M V %A Genelle, B %A Roux, J %N 4 %P 343-345 %V 42 %X During a therapeutic trial, batches of 672 to 1979 laboratory-bred Aedes polynesiensis, the mosquito vector of lymphatic filariasis in French Polynesia, were fed on Wuchereria bancrofti carriers one, three and six months after they had been treated with either single doses of ivermectin at 100 mcg/kg, diethylcarbamazine (DEC) at 3 and 6 mg/kg or placebo. High mortality rates were observed during the 15-day period following the blood-meal in mosquitoes fed on carriers treated with microfilaricidal drugs and were significantly higher in mosquitoes fed on carriers treated with ivermectin than in those fed on carriers treated with DEC. Though its intensity decreased with the passage of time, the phenomenon was observed in mosquitoes fed on carriers up to six months after treatment, especially in those fed on carriers treated with ivermectin. By decreasing the number of mosquitoes able to transmit the infection, this lethal effect on Ae. polynesiensis might represent an additional advantage of ivermectin in lymphatic filariasis control programs. %8 1991 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Actes du 3e Symposium sur les substances naturelles d'interet biologique de la region Pacifique-Asie, Debitus C, Amade P, Laurent D, Cosson JP (Eds), Noumea, New Caledonia, pp 319-325 %D 1991 %T Ciguatera in French Polynesia. %A Legrand, A-M %A Pauillac, S %A Chinain, M %X La ciguatera est une toxine alimentaire par la consommation de poissons de recif coralliens. Chaque annee, en Polynesie francaise, environ 800 cas d'intoxication font l'objet de declarations medicales. Le terme "ciguatera" est reserve aux empoisonnements par poisson exception faite des intoxications de type histaminique et des intoxications par tetrodotoxine ou par palytoxine. La ciguatera est consideree comme un probleme de sante publique indeniable. Il est aussi et surtout preoccupant a cause de ses repercussions economiques. En effet, l'impact le plus important est lie a son incidence sur le developpement de la peche.L'origine du phenomene a ete associe a la proliferation dans certains conditions ecologiques d'une algue microscopique, le dinoflagelle toxique Gambierdiscus toxicus, Adachi et Fukuyo, et a la transmission de la toxicite aux poissons herbivores et a leurs predateurs carnivores ichtyophages. Deux familles de toxines sont impliquees, l'une liposoluble composee de la ciguatoxine et des toxines qui lui sont apparentees, l'autre hydrosoluble composee de la maitotoxine et de ses analogues eventuels. Une vingtaine de toxines a ete isolee a l'etat pur, deux seulement ont ete completement caracterisees par leur structure moleculaire. Les donnees pharmacologiques indiquent que les ciguatoxines font partie des toxines marines les plus puissantes. Elles agissent de facon specifique sur les canaux sodiques des membranes excitables. Ciguatera is a seafood poisoning provoqued by ingestion of tropical reef fish. Every year, about 800 clinically documented cases of ciguatera fish poisoning are registrered in French Polynesia. The name "ciguatera" is used to qualify the kind of seafood poisoning distinct from histaminic poisonings, tetrodoxin poisonings or palytoxin poisonings. It is considered as an appreciable public health problem and, most of all, as having a high economical incidence. The most important impact is connected with the effects on fishing resource development for local consumption and for export. The origin of the phenomena has been associated with the toxic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, Adachi & Fukuyo, and the transmission of the toxins through a marin food chain. Two groups of toxic compounds have been isolated, one is liposoluble including ciguatoxin and related compounds, the other one is watersoluble including maitotoxine. More than twenty pure toxic fractions have been identified, but molecular structure was determined only for two of them. Pharmacological studies indicate that ciguatoxins are very potent compounds acting on the sodium channels of excitable membranes. The question of the chemical or immunochemical dosage of the ciguatoxns in fish muscle is discussed. The difficulty is dependent on the very low concentration (a few nanograms per one hundred grams) of so potent molecules. %8 1991 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Actes du 3e Symposium sur les substances naturelles d'int %D 1991 %T Ciguatera in French Polynesia. %A Legrand, A-M %A Pauillac, S %A Chinain, M %X La ciguat %8 1991 %0 Journal Article %J Eur J Epidemiol %D 1991 %T Dengue surveillance in French Polynesia : an attempt to use the weekly number of laboratory requests for confirmation of dengue diagnosis as an indicator of dengue activity. %A Chungue, E %A Boutin, J-P %A Roux, J %N 6 %P 616-620 %V 7 %X The excess number of weekly laboratory requests for confirmation of dengue diagnosis over the expected number of requests forecasted by the modified Serfling method is proposed for the surveillance of dengue in French Polynesia, in addition to conventional methods. Retrospective analysis of the seasonal curves of dengue activity related to the number of laboratory requests is described for the years 1982-1987 where dengue type 4 was the only active flavivirus at the time when the forecast was initiated. By using past epidemic data, the probability of failing to recognize an increase in excess of requests as possibly epidemic was of 13.2% and 5.8%, respectively, when the criterion for epidemic increase was set respectively at 2 and 3 successive weeks during which the epidemic threshold is exceeded. A weekly surveillance was set up prospectively for 1988 using these criteria. %8 1991 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1991 %T Dengue materno-foetale : a propos de 5 cas observes pendant l'epidemie de Tahiti (1989). %A Poli, L %A Chungue, E %A Soulignac, O %A Gestas, P %A Kuo, P %A Papouin-Rauzy, M %P 513-521 %V 84 %X During the dengue 3 epidemic which occurred in French Polynesia between September 1989 and March 1990, number of cases of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) were reported among children and infants. Of interest, five cases of neonatal infections were recorded and involved the transmission of the virus from mother to child as the end of the pregnancy. Detailed observations on these cases are presented in this paper. Fever in mother,when delivering or just a few days before, represents the circumstances of the diagnosis. Analysis of the clinical features shows that fever and vasomotor troubles (blotches) were the dominating traits of the disease in the newborns. Also, hepatomegaly was constantly observed. Concerning the biological results, thrombopenia (platelets count : 100,000/mm3) was reported for all cases. According to these data, all cases were classified into DHF cases. Laboratory confirmation was obtained by serological investigations (antidengue IgM immunocapture ELISA and Haemagglutination Inhibition Tests) and/or virus isolation in both mother and child. Thus, virus was recovered in two newborns while IgM were detected in all infants and in four mothers. Severity of the disease was variable. However, out of five cases one fullfills the WHO definition of Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSC). Moreover, the authors discuss about the difficulties encountered to classify the cases according to WHO criteria for the grade classification of DHF. %8 1991 %0 Journal Article %J Feuillets de biologie %D 1991 %T Deux programmes basic pour automatiser la recherche immuno-enzymatique des anticorps IgG et IgM anti-toxoplasma gondii : toxoigg.bas et toxoigm.bas. %A Plichart, R %A Chanteau, S %A Cartel, J-L %A Martin, P M V %N 181 %P 39-44 %V XXXII %X Les auteurs presentent deux programmes BASIC qui, dans le cadre de la serologie de la toxoplasmose, assurent la determination et le trace a l'ecran de la courbe etalon (IgG), ou le calcul de la valeur seuil (IgM), la validation de l'essai et l'interpretation des resultats des serums testes avec les coffrets-reactifs PLATELIA TOXO. Outre les avantages inherents a l'informatisation d'une methode, ces programmes offrent aux laboratoires equipes d'un micro-ordinateur et d'un lecteur de microplaques, une alternative aux automates de lecture qui rendent souvent le laboratoire dependant d'un seul fournisseur de coffrets-reactifs biologiques. Par leur simplicite, ils ouvrent la voie a l'automatisation des autres tests ELISA effectues dans le laboratoire. %8 1991 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Parasitol %D 1991 %T Diagnostic values of Elisa - IgG4 as compared to Elisa - IgG and indirect immunofluorescence, for the routine diagnosis of bancroftian filariasis in the South Pacific. Application on capillary blood collected on filter paper. %A Chanteau, S %A Plichart, R %A Spiegel, A %A Martin, P M V %A Cartel, J-L %N 4 %P 339-342 %V 42 %X For the serodiagnosis of lymphatic filariasis, serological assays restricted to the detection of specific IgG4 antibodies enhanced the specificity. In French Polynesia, Wuchereria bancrofti is the sole human filaria and other pathogenic parasites are infrequent. In order to define a simple and cheap serological test, we have compared the diagnostic value of indirect immunofluorescence test (IFI-WBp), ELISA-IgG and ELISA-IgG4 assays. The specificity, sensitivity, R.O.C. curves of each test have been analyzed. No significant difference was found between those 3 tests, except that the reproducibility and the predictive value were lower using IFI-WBp than using the two ELISAs. Significant correlation was found between IgG and IgG4 anti-Brugia malayi antibody titers (r = 0.512, p less than 10(-5)). For large scale seropidemiological studies, ELISA-IgG can be performed with finger prick blood absorbed on filter paper, but not ELISA-IgG4. In conclusion, ELISA-IgG a less expensive and less time consuming method than ELISA-IgG4, can be used for the routine serodiagnosis as well as for seroepidemiological studies on bancroftian filariasis in the South Pacific islands. %8 1991 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Parasitol %D 1991 %T Double blind study on efficacy and safety of single doses of ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine for treatment of polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers. Results at six months. %A Cartel, J-L %A Spiegel, A %A Nguyen, N L %A Genelle, B %A Roux, J %N 1 %P 38-40 %V 42 %X In 1989, a double-blind trial was implemented in Tahiti to compare both efficacy and tolerability of single doses of ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine (DEC) for treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti carriers. Of 58 carriers, in whom microfilarial (mf) density was greater than or equal to 100 mf/ml, 23, 24 and 11 were randomly allocated to treatment with respectively ivermectin 100 mcg/kg, DEC 3 and DEC 6 mg/kg. One week after treatment, clearance of microfilaremia was complete in 22 of the 23 carriers treated with ivermectin and in one only of the 35 treated with DEC. Adjusted geometric mean for mf densities was significantly lower (p less than 0.001) in carriers treated with ivermectin than in those treated with DEC at one, but neither at 3 (p = 0.26) nor at 6 months (p = 0.63). At 3 and 6 months, mf levels were 14 and 28%, 21.6 and 19.4%, and 10.2 and 8.4% of pretreatment mf levels in carriers treated respectively with ivermectin 100 mcg/kg, DEC 3 and DEC 6 mg/kg. Side effects were experienced by 51 carriers (88%) of whom only 8 (14%) suffered a grade 3 reaction. Onset and intensity of side effects were significantly associated (p less than 0.01) with both pretreatment mf densities and peripheral blood parasite clearance. Efficacy of ivermectin single dose was superior to that of DEC single dose in terms of immediate mf clearance but not in terms of sustained mf decrease at 6 months. %8 1991 %0 Journal Article %J Eur J Epidemiol %D 1991 %T Dengue surveillance in French Polynesia : an attempt to use the weekly number of laboratory requests for confirmation of dengue diagnosis as an indicator of dengue activity. %A Chungue, E %A Boutin, J-P %A Roux, J %N 6 %P 616-620 %V 7 %X The excess number of weekly laboratory requests for confirmation of dengue diagnosis over the expected number of requests forecasted by the modified Serfling method is proposed for the surveillance of dengue in French Polynesia, in addition to conventional methods. Retrospective analysis of the seasonal curves of dengue activity related to the number of laboratory requests is described for the years 1982-1987 where dengue type 4 was the only active flavivirus at the time when the forecast was initiated. By using past epidemic data, the probability of failing to recognize an increase in excess of requests as possibly epidemic was of 13.2% and 5.8%, respectively, when the criterion for epidemic increase was set respectively at 2 and 3 successive weeks during which the epidemic threshold is exceeded. A weekly surveillance was set up prospectively for 1988 using these criteria. %8 1991 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1991 %T Dengue materno-foetale : %A Poli, L %A Chungue, E %A Soulignac, O %A Gestas, P %A Kuo, P %A Papouin-Rauzy, M %P 513-521 %V 84 %X During the dengue 3 epidemic which occurred in French Polynesia between September 1989 and March 1990, number of cases of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) were reported among children and infants. Of interest, five cases of neonatal infections were recorded and involved the transmission of the virus from mother to child as the end of the pregnancy. Detailed observations on these cases are presented in this paper. Fever in mother,when delivering or just a few days before, represents the circumstances of the diagnosis. Analysis of the clinical features shows that fever and vasomotor troubles (blotches) were the dominating traits of the disease in the newborns. Also, hepatomegaly was constantly observed. Concerning the biological results, thrombopenia (platelets count : 100,000/mm3) was reported for all cases. According to these data, all cases were classified into DHF cases. Laboratory confirmation was obtained by serological investigations (antidengue IgM immunocapture ELISA and Haemagglutination Inhibition Tests) and/or virus isolation in both mother and child. Thus, virus was recovered in two newborns while IgM were detected in all infants and in four mothers. Severity of the disease was variable. However, out of five cases one fullfills the WHO definition of Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSC). Moreover, the authors discuss about the difficulties encountered to classify the cases according to WHO criteria for the grade classification of DHF. %8 1991 %0 Journal Article %J Lepr Rev %D 1991 %T Evaluation of gelatin particle agglutination assay for the detection of anti-PGL1 antibodies. Comparison with ELISA method and applicability on a large scale study using blood collected on filter paper. %A Chanteau, S %A Cartel, J-L %A Boutin, J-P %A Roux, J %P 255-261 %V 62 %X Given the technical difficulties of the ELISA method, a gelatin particle agglutination (MLPA) has been developed recently for the detection of anti-PGLI antibodies. The purpose of this study was to compare these 2 tests. MLPA was found to be less specific than ELISA (91% versus 98%, x2 = 66.8, p < 0.001). The sensitivity of both tests was 95% for the diagnosis of multibacillary patients. In the case of paucibacillary patients, MLPA was found to be less sensitive than ELISA (21% versus 35%, x2 = 6.98, p > 0.01). The agreement between the 2 tests for a positive or a negative result was satisfying (85% to 100%), except for the weakly seropositive individuals (71%). The correlation between OD obtained with ELISA and antibody titre obtained with MLPA was statistically significant (r =0.70, p < 0.001). Conversely to ELISA, MLPA was not applicable on blood samples absorbed on filter paper without a serious loss of sensibility. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the MLPA test can only reliably detect antibodies in multibacillary cases. %8 1991 %0 Journal Article %J Ann Inst Pasteur/Actualites %D 1991 %T La ciguatera, un phenomene d'ecotoxicologie des recifs coralliens. %A Legrand, A-M %A Bagnis, R %P 253-266 %V 4 %8 1991 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1991 %T Light and electron microscopic studies of pathologic changes induced in mice by ciguatoxin poisoning. %A Terao, K %A Ito, E %A Oarada, M %A Ishibashi, Y %A Legrand, A-M %A Yasumoto, T %N 6 %P 633-643 %V 29 %X Acute poisoning induced by ciguatoxin or ciguatoxin-4c in male ICR mice was examined by light and electron microscopy. Target organs were the heart, medulla of adrenal glands, autonomic nerves and penis. There were no significant differences between the toxicity of ciguatoxin and ciguatoxin-4c. Either i.p. injection or oral administration (0.7 micrograms/kg) resulted in marked swelling and focal necrosis of cardiac muscle cells and effusion into the interstitial space of the heart. Degeneration of cells in the medulla of the adrenal glands was also observed. Continuous erection of the penis was observed in about 15% of the mice suffering from ciguatoxicosis. Although severe diarrhea was brought about by the administration of these phycotoxins, no morphological alterations were seen in the mucosa and muscle layers of the small intestine except in autonomic nerve fibers and synapses. Atropine suppressed the symptoms of diarrhea but had no effect on the injury to the cardiac muscle. Reserpine aggravated the clinical signs and pathological findings. Guanethidine and 5-hydroxy dopamine as well as those undergoing bilateral adrenalectomy had no significant effects on the ciguatoxicosis. %8 1991 %0 Journal Article %J Lepr Rev %D 1991 %T Longitudinal study on relapses of leprosy in polynesian multibacillary patients on dapsone monotherapy between 1946 and 1970. %A Cartel, J-L %A Boutin, J-P %A Spiegel, A %A Plichart, R %A Roux, J %N 2 %P 186-192 %V 62 %X Between 1946 and 1970, 295 new leprosy patients were detected in French Polynesia, of whom 145 were multibacillary. Of these 145, put on dapsone monotherapy, 131 reached bacteriological negativity in a period of time ranging from 2 to 12 years (average 4.72 years) and were followed-up for a period of time ranging from 19 to 43 years (median follow-up period after bacteriological negativity : 18 years). Among the 131 patients, 36 relapses were detected, the first one 4 years after bacteriological negativity and the last one 26 years after. The crude relapse rate was 27.5%, the risk of relapse was 1.39 per 100 patients years and the cumulative relapse probability, calculated using the lifetable method, reached 0.38 %8 1991 %0 Journal Article %J Ann Inst Pasteur/Actualit %D 1991 %T La ciguat %A Legrand, A-M %A Bagnis, R %P 253-266 %V 4 %8 1991 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1991 %T Light and electron microscopic studies of pathologic changes induced in mice by ciguatoxin poisoning. %A Terao, K %A Ito, E %A Oarada, M %A Ishibashi, Y %A Legrand, A-M %A Yasumoto, T %N 6 %P 633-643 %V 29 %X Acute poisoning induced by ciguatoxin or ciguatoxin-4c in male ICR mice was examined by light and electron microscopy. Target organs were the heart, medulla of adrenal glands, autonomic nerves and penis. There were no significant differences between the toxicity of ciguatoxin and ciguatoxin-4c. Either i.p. injection or oral administration (0.7 micrograms/kg) resulted in marked swelling and focal necrosis of cardiac muscle cells and effusion into the interstitial space of the heart. Degeneration of cells in the medulla of the adrenal glands was also observed. Continuous erection of the penis was observed in about 15% of the mice suffering from ciguatoxicosis. Although severe diarrhea was brought about by the administration of these phycotoxins, no morphological alterations were seen in the mucosa and muscle layers of the small intestine except in autonomic nerve fibers and synapses. Atropine suppressed the symptoms of diarrhea but had no effect on the injury to the cardiac muscle. Reserpine aggravated the clinical signs and pathological findings. Guanethidine and 5-hydroxy dopamine as well as those undergoing bilateral adrenalectomy had no significant effects on the ciguatoxicosis. %8 1991 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Fremy JM (Ed), Proceedings of the Symposium on Marine Biotoxins, Actes du colloque du Centre National d'Etudes Veterinaires et Alimentaires, Paris, France, pp 53-59 %D 1991 %T Les toxines de la ciguatera. %A Legrand, A-M %8 1991 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Fr %D 1991 %T Les toxines de la ciguat %A Legrand, A-M %8 1991 %0 Journal Article %J J Amer Mosquito Contr Assoc %D 1991 %T Oral infection of Aedes polynesiensis by Wuchereria bancrofti by using parafilm membrane feeding. %A Failloux, A-B %A Chanteau, S %A Chungue, E %A Loncke, S %A Sechan, Y %N 4 %P 660-662 %V 7 %X In order to construct a cDNA library from third-stage larvae (L3) of Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica, the Parafilm membrane feeding method is proposed for the oral infection of Aedes polynesiensis. Heparinized blood supplemented with 5.10(-3) M ATP was put in the feeder with carbon dioxide provided as additional phagostimulant. The results of this artificial infection feeding method were compared with those obtained when mosquitoes fed directly on the forearm of a microfilaremic patient. The number of females feeding through the artificial membrane was smaller than on the patient's forearm (32.1 vs. 84.8%). The mean number of L3s obtained per female was not statistically different between the 2 feeding methods; however, the total number of L3s obtained from 100 females allowed to feed in each group was twice as high in the natural feeding method. %8 1991 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 1991 %T One year evaluation of immunogenicity conferred by a Chinese hamster ovary cell recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in a French Polynesian newborn immunization programme. %A Spiegel, A %A Boutin, J-P %A Cartel, J-L %A Chanteau, S %A Cardines, R %A Saliou, P %A Roux, J %N 6 %P 783-787 %V 85 %X In 1988, a hepatitis immunization programme, using a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell recombinant vaccine, was implemented for newborn children in the Austral archipelago (French Polynesia). Three different schedules were used: (i) 4 vaccine doses at months (M) 0, M1, M2 and M12; (ii) 3 vaccine doses at M0, M1, M6; and (iii) 3 vaccine doses at M0, M1, M2. Results at the one year follow-up may be summarized as follows. Of 197 infants who received one or more doses of CHO-recombinant vaccine, (i) none was an HBsAg carrier; (ii) 89.5% had anti-HBs-antibody titres greater than 10 miu/ml; and (iii) 95.9% had seroconverted for at least one of the 2 antibodies studied (anti-HBs or anti-pre-S2). After 2 doses (M0, M1), anti-HBs seroconversion rate and geometric mean titre were, respectively, 82.6% and 98.47 miu/ml. After 3 doses, seroconversion rates and geometric mean titres were, respectively, 91.1% and 200.59 miu/ml using schedule M0, M1, M2, and 100% and 1253.4 miu/ml using the M0, M1, M6 schedule. None of the 7 vaccinated neonates born to HBsAg/HBeAg positive mothers was found to be an HBsAg carrier. These preliminary results indicate that, in field conditions, vaccination with a CHO-recombinant vaccine resulted in high immunogenicity. %8 1991 %0 Journal Article %J Amer J Epidemiol %D 1991 %T Risk factors of tuberculosis relapse in French Polynesia : a 14-year retrospective study. %A Glaziou, P %A Chansin, R %A Spiegel, A %A Cartel, J-L %A Martin, P M V %N 756-757 %V 134 %8 1991 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Parasitol %D 1991 %T Single versus repeated doses of ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine for the treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica microfilaremia. Result at 12 months of a double-bland study. %A Cartel, J-L %A Spiegel, A %A Nguyen, N L %A Cardines, R %A Plichart, R %A Martin, P M V %A Roux, J %N 4 %P 335-338 %V 42 %X In October 1989, 58 apparently healthy Polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers in whom microfilarial (mf) density was greater than or equal to 100 mf/ml were randomly allocated to treatment groups receiving single doses of either ivermectin at 100 mcg/kg or diethylcarbamazine (DEC) at 3 and 6 mg/kg. Six months later, half of the carriers initially treated with ivermectin 100 mcg/kg or DEC 3 mg/kg were given a second similar dose while the rest were given a placebo. By day 360 (6 months after retreatment), comparison of adjusted geometric mean mf counts per group indicated that (i) among the 3 treatments given once a year the DEC 6 mg/kg dose resulted in the highest efficacy, (ii) nevertheless, regarding either ivermectin 100 mcg/kg or DEC 3 mg/kg, 2 successive doses resulted in higher efficacy than one annual dose and (iii) though no significant difference could be evidenced between efficacy of ivermectin 100 mcg/kg and DEC 3 mg/kg given twice a year, DEC seemed to sustain the mf reduction for a longer period of time. During the 3 days following retreatment, adverse reactions (mild to moderate) were observed in 46% of carriers treated with microfilaricidal drugs and in 20% of those treated with placebo. These results suggest that single dose therapy with either DEC or ivermectin is safe and effective for prevention of lymphatic filariasis due to Wuchereria bancrofti in French Polynesia. The real impact on transmission by the vector, Aedes polynesiensis, of the complete negativation of microfilaremia observed during the previous part of the trial in carriers treated with ivermectin should be evaluated in a community-based trial including entomological study. %8 1991 %0 Journal Article %J Ann NY Acad Sci %D 1991 %T Tetrodotoxin-sensitive ciguatoxin effects on quantal release, synaptic vesicle depletion, and calcium mobilization. %A Molgo, J %A Comella, J X %A Legrand, A-M %P 485-489 %V 635 %8 1991 %0 Journal Article %J Ann Soc Belge Med Trop %D 1991 %T Traitement de la microfilaremie a Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica : ivermectine versus diethylcarbamazine. %A Cartel, J-L %A Spiegel, A %A Nguyen, N L %A Plichart, R %A Martin, P M V %A Roux, J %N 3 %P 229-236 %V 71 %X Fin 1989, 58 Polynesiens, porteurs de Wuchereria bancrofti ont ete repartis a l'aveugle en 3 groupes et traites par une dose supervisee d'ivermectine 100 mcg/kg, de diethylcarbamazine (DEC) 3 mg/kg ou de DEC 6 mg/kg. Six mois plus tard, la moitie de ceux initialement traites par ivermectine 100 mcg/kg ou DEC 3 mg/kg a recu une deuxieme dose de microfilaricide, les autres ont recu un placebo. Apres le traitement, la disparition complete des microfilaires a ete observee chez 22 des 23 porteurs traites par ivermectine et chez un seul des 35 traites par DEC. La reduction de la microfilaremie a ete significativement plus importante (p < 0,001) a une semaine et a un mois chez les porteurs traites par ivermectine que chez ceux traites par DEC mais pas au dela. L'etude de l'evolution de la microfilaremie apres retraitement a montre que 2 traitements semestriels successifs (par ivermectine ou DEC) avaient une efficacite superieure a celle d'un traitement annuel et que l'efficacite des 2 microfilaricides donnes semestriellement n'etait pas significativement differente. Des reactions adverses ont ete observees chez 80% des porteurs : aucune n'a ete consideree comme serieuse et moins de 20% des porteurs traites ont du interrompre leurs activites (24 heures au plus). En conclusion, notre etude montre que l'administration de doses semestrielles de DEC 3 mg/kg constitue une strategie efficace pour le contr %8 1991 %0 Journal Article %J Ann NY Acad Sci %D 1991 %T Tetrodotoxin-sensitive ciguatoxin effects on quantal release, synaptic vesicle depletion, and calcium mobilization. %A Molgo, J %A Comella, J X %A Legrand, A-M %P 485-489 %V 635 %8 1991 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Fr Mal Resp %D 1991 %T Utilite du suivi systematique des tuberculeux pour le depistage des rechutes en Polynesie francaise entre 1971 et 1984. %A Glaziou, P %A Chansin, R %A Spiegel, A %A Cartel, J-L %N 4 %P 387-390 %V 8 %X Une polychimiotherapie standardisee d'1 an est proposee pour le traitement des tuberculeux en Polynesie francaise de 1971 a 1978, et de 9 mois avec addition de pyrazinamide de 1979 a 1984. Apres traitement, les malades sont suivis systematiquement pendant une duree de 5 ans. Cette etude a pour but d'evaluer l'utilite des mesures de suivi pour la detection des rechutes. Des 1065 malades traites entre 1971 et 1984 au Centre de Lutte contre la Tuberculose, 35 (3%) ont presente une rechute dont 30 ont ete confirmees par examen bacteriologique ou anatomopathologique. Le taux de rechute observe n'est lie ni a l' %8 1991 %0 Journal Article %J Southeast Asian J Trop Med Pub Hlth %D 1990 %T A single diethylcarbamazine dose for treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti carriers in French Polynesia : efficacy and side effects. %A Cartel, J-L %A Celerier, P %A Spiegel, A %A Burucoa, C %A Roux, J %N 3 %P 466-471 %V 21 %X In the fall of 1988, 14 Tahitian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers were treated by a single diethylcarbamazine (DEC) 3 mg/kg dose. Determination of blood microfilarial (mf) density was carried out on days 0, 7, 14, 30, 90 and 180 using the membrane filtration technique. Clinical signs and side effects were noted during the 3 days following treatment. Complete clearance of microfilaremia was observed in two carriers (negativation rate 14%). A decrease of mf density was noted in all of the 14 carriers, ranging from 35.2 to 99.2% (median 78.75%). The percentage decrease in mf density, determined for the whole group from the geometric mean of the 14 mf counts, was 86% by day 7 and reached 95% by day 180. Side effects were observed in 10 patients (71%) of whom 3 only were unable to perform usual activities for less than 24 hours. Though it induced an incomplete initial mf clearance, a single DEC 3 mg/kg dose was effective in reducing about 90% of the microfilaremia and in sustaining this reduction over a period of six months. Such long-term reduction (comparable to that observed in W. bancrofti carriers treated with a daily DEC 6 mg/kg dose during 12 days) is likely responsible for the consistent decrease of total mf counts observed in the Tahitian population which has been treated for years with single DEC doses given every six months. %8 1990 %0 Journal Article %J Int J Lepr Mycobact Dis %D 1990 %T Assessment of anti-phenolic glycolipid-I IgM levels using an ELISA for detection of M. leprae infection in populations of the South Pacific islands. %A Cartel, J-L %A Chanteau, S %A Boutin, J-P %A Plichart, R %A Richez, P %A Roux, J %A Grosset, J-H %N 3 %P 512-517 %V 58 %X Anti-phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I) IgM levels were determined in 96% of the general population of the Southern Marquesas and Maupiti, remote islands of French Polynesia, where the average annual detection rates of leprosy during the past 30 years have been 57.1 and 4.4 per 100,000, respectively. The seropositivity in these two areas was 4.3% and 4.2%, respectively. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was found between either these two figures or between the percentages of persons with high ( %8 1990 %0 Journal Article %J Brit J Pharmacol %D 1990 %T Ciguatoxin enhances quantal transmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals. %A Molgo, J %A Comella, J X %A Legrand, A-M %N 4 %P 695-700 %V 99 %X 1. Ciguatoxin (CTX), a marine toxin produced by the benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, is responsible for a complex endemic disease in man known as ciguatera fish poisoning. In the present study we have investigated the effects of purified CTX extracted for Gymnothorax javanicus moray-eel liver on frog isolated neuromuscular preparations with conventional electrophysiological techniques. 2. CTX (1-2.5 nM) applied to cutaneous pectoris nerve-muscle preparations induced, after a short delay, spontaneous fibrillations of the muscle fibres that could be suppressed with 1 microM tetrodotoxin (TTX) or by formamide to uncouple excitation-contraction. 3. In preparations treated with formamide, CTX (1-2.5 nM) caused either spontaneous or repetitive muscle action potentials (up to frequencies of 60-100 Hz) in response to a single nerve stimulus. Recordings performed at extrajunctional regions of the muscle membrane revealed that during the repetitive firing a prolongation of the repolarizing phase of the action potential occurred. At junctional sites the repetitive action potentials were triggered by repetitive endplate potentials (e.p.ps). 4. CTX (2.5 nM) caused a TTX-sensitive depolarization of the muscle membrane. 5. In junctions equilibrated in solutions containing high Mg2+ + low Ca2+, addition of CTX (1.5 nM) first induced an average increase of 239 +/- 36% in the mean quantal content of e.p.ps. Subsequently CTX reduced and finally blocked nerve-evoked transmitter release irreversibly. 6. CTX (1.5-2.5 nM) increased the frequency of miniature endplate potentials (m.e.p.ps) in junctions bathed either in normal Ringer, low Ca2(+)-high Mg2+ medium or in a nominally Ca2(+)-free solution containing EGTA.2+ Extensive washing with toxin-free solutions did not reverse the effect. %8 1990 %0 Journal Article %J Acta Leprologica %D 1990 %T Chimioprophylaxie de la lepre par une dose unique de Rifampicine. %A Cartel, J-L %A Grosset, J-H %N 3 %P 279 %V 7 %8 1990 %0 Journal Article %J Brit J Pharmacol %D 1990 %T Ciguatoxin enhances quantal transmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals. %A Molgo, J %A Comella, J X %A Legrand, A-M %N 4 %P 695-700 %V 99 %X 1. Ciguatoxin (CTX), a marine toxin produced by the benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, is responsible for a complex endemic disease in man known as ciguatera fish poisoning. In the present study we have investigated the effects of purified CTX extracted for Gymnothorax javanicus moray-eel liver on frog isolated neuromuscular preparations with conventional electrophysiological techniques. 2. CTX (1-2.5 nM) applied to cutaneous pectoris nerve-muscle preparations induced, after a short delay, spontaneous fibrillations of the muscle fibres that could be suppressed with 1 microM tetrodotoxin (TTX) or by formamide to uncouple excitation-contraction. 3. In preparations treated with formamide, CTX (1-2.5 nM) caused either spontaneous or repetitive muscle action potentials (up to frequencies of 60-100 Hz) in response to a single nerve stimulus. Recordings performed at extrajunctional regions of the muscle membrane revealed that during the repetitive firing a prolongation of the repolarizing phase of the action potential occurred. At junctional sites the repetitive action potentials were triggered by repetitive endplate potentials (e.p.ps). 4. CTX (2.5 nM) caused a TTX-sensitive depolarization of the muscle membrane. 5. In junctions equilibrated in solutions containing high Mg2+ + low Ca2+, addition of CTX (1.5 nM) first induced an average increase of 239 +/- 36% in the mean quantal content of e.p.ps. Subsequently CTX reduced and finally blocked nerve-evoked transmitter release irreversibly. 6. CTX (1.5-2.5 nM) increased the frequency of miniature endplate potentials (m.e.p.ps) in junctions bathed either in normal Ringer, low Ca2(+)-high Mg2+ medium or in a nominally Ca2(+)-free solution containing EGTA.2+ Extensive washing with toxin-free solutions did not reverse the effect. %8 1990 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Toxic Marine Phytoplankton, Graneli E, Anderson DM, Edler L, Sundstrom BG (Eds), Elsevier Science Publishing, pp 374-378 %D 1990 %T Chromatographic and spectral evidence for the presence of multiple ciguatera toxins. %A Legrand, A-M %A Cruchet, P %A Bagnis, R %A Murata, M %A Ishibashi, Y %A Yasumoto, T %X Ciguatera toxins were purified from moray eel viscera as well as from the causative dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. Analyses by high performance liquid chromatography clearly indicated the presence of several minor toxins in moray eels in addition to ciguatoxin. One of the minor toxin was purified and suggested to have a molecular weight of 1056, which was smaller than that of ciguatoxin by three molecules of water. Four toxins detected in G. toxicus were less polar than moray eel ciguatoxin and were presumed to have less oxidized forms. %8 1990 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Toxic Marine Phytoplankton, Graneli E, Anderson DM, Edler L, Sundstrom BG (Eds), Elsevier Science Publishing, pp 374-378 %D 1990 %T Chromatographic and spectral evidence for the presence of multiple ciguatera toxins. %A Legrand, A-M %A Cruchet, P %A Bagnis, R %A Murata, M %A Ishibashi, Y %A Yasumoto, T %X Ciguatera toxins were purified from moray eel viscera as well as from the causative dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. Analyses by high performance liquid chromatography clearly indicated the presence of several minor toxins in moray eels in addition to ciguatoxin. One of the minor toxin was purified and suggested to have a molecular weight of 1056, which was smaller than that of ciguatoxin by three molecules of water. Four toxins detected in G. toxicus were less polar than moray eel ciguatoxin and were presumed to have less oxidized forms. %8 1990 %0 Journal Article %J Med J Australia %D 1990 %T Dengue 3 in French Polynesia : preliminary data. %A Chungue, E %A Spiegel, A %A Roux, J %A Laudon, F %A Cardines, R %P 557-558 %V 152 %8 1990 %0 Journal Article %J Southeast Asian J Trop Med Pub Hlth %D 1990 %T Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in French Polynesia : a comparative study of two successive epidemics. %A Chungue, E %A Spiegel, A %A Philippon, G %A Laudon, F %A Cardines, R %A Roux, J %N 4 %P 680-681 %V 21 %8 1990 %0 Journal Article %J Med J Australia %D 1990 %T Dengue 3 in French Polynesia : preliminary data. %A Chungue, E %A Spiegel, A %A Roux, J %A Laudon, F %A Cardines, R %P 557-558 %V 152 %8 1990 %0 Journal Article %J Southeast Asian J Trop Med Pub Hlth %D 1990 %T Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in French Polynesia : a comparative study of two successive epidemics. %A Chungue, E %A Spiegel, A %A Philippon, G %A Laudon, F %A Cardines, R %A Roux, J %N 4 %P 680-681 %V 21 %8 1990 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1990 %T Effect of maitotoxin on calcium current and background inward current in isolated ventricular rat myocytes. %A Faivre, J F %A Deroubaix, E %A Coulombe, A %A Legrand, A-M %A Coraboeuf, E %N 8 %P 925-937 %V 28 %X Maitotoxin (MTX) irreversibly suppressed the voltage-dependent calcium current after a variable delay, an effect which was preceded, in 61% of the cells, by a transient increase in calcium current partly attributable to a shift (4-7 mV) of the activation curve towards negative potentials. MTX also induced the development of a voltage-independent background inward current which did not occur in the absence of external calcium and was reduced by removal of external sodium, by calcium channel blockers and by high concentrations of quinidine. MTX-induced single channel activity consisted of long lasting bursts of inwardcurrent. Channel activity was voltage-independent, with a unitary conductance of 14 pS and an extrapolated reversal potential of +16 mV. Single-channel current amplitude was not detectably reduced in the absence of external calcium but strongly reduced in the absence of external sodium, in the presence of 2 mM nickel or when external sodium was replaced by 96 mM calcium or 50 mM barium. The channel activity was also inhibited by quinidine. It is concluded that MTX alters, then suppresses the voltage-activated calcium current and induces the development of a voltage-independent inward current, part of which results from the opening of nickel-sensitive cation channels, mostly permeable to sodium ions. %8 1990 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1990 %T Epidemiologie du cancer primitif du foie en Polynesie francaise. %A Boutin, J-P %A Botterman, F %A Alandry, G %A Cartel, J-L %A Spiegel, A %A Roux, J %N 5 %P 596-602 %V 83 %X L'analyse de 31 cas de cancers primitifs du foie (CPF) enregistres entre 1980 et 1988 en Polynesie francaise a permis de mettre en evidence 4 facteurs de risque : le sexe masculin, l' %8 1990 %0 Journal Article %J Feuillets de biologie %D 1990 %T ELISA assistee par ordinateur. Elements pratiques pour l'utilisation en laboratoire. %A Plichart, R %N 175 %P 29-35 %V XXXI %X Depuis la fin des annees 1970, l'utilisation de la methode ELISA (Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay) dans les laboratoires d'analyses biologiques a ete en progression constante. En Polynesie francaise, a l'Institut de Recherches Medicales Louis Malarde, cette technique a ete implantee en 1978 pour une etude sur l'hepatite B. Du fait de la sensibilite et de la fiabilite de cette methode, les applications se sont diversifiees au cours des annees suivantes, tant a des fins diagnostiques que dans le cadre de programmes de recherche en Sante Publique. Le plus souvent, ces programmes portent sur un grand nombre de sujets et necessitent le traitement de grandes series. Ceci nous a conduits a automatiser la lecture et l'interpretation des resultats obtenus par cette technique. Cette automatisation a ete rendue possible gr %8 1990 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1990 %T Evaluation de la sensibilite aux larvicides de culicides de Polynesie francaise. %A Failloux, A-B %A Tuhiti, P %A Sechan, Y %N 3 %P 399-405 %V 83 %X Des tests insecticides ont ete effectues sur les larves de 4e stade d'Aedes aegypti, Aedes polynesiensis et Culex quinquefasciatus de Polynesie francaise, selon le protocole standard de l'OMS. Ils ont montre que ces differentes especes etaient sensibles aux insecticides organophosphores et presentaient des sensibilites moindres aux regulateurs de croissance.Larval tests on 4th-stage Aedes aegypti, Aedes polynesiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus of French Polynesia, according to the WHO method, demonstrate susceptibility of these species to organophosphorous compounds and less susceptibility to insect growth regulators. %8 1990 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 1990 %T Effect of two successive annual treatments with single dose of ivermectin on microfilaraemia due to Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica. %A Cartel, J-L %A Celerier, P %A Spiegel, A %A Plichart, R %A Roux, J %N 6 %P 837-839 %V 84 %X Between 1986 and 1988 a single-blind, dose-ranging study was carried out in French Polynesia to determine the efficacy and tolerability of single 50, 100, 150 and 200 micrograms/kg doses of ivermectin in Wuchereria bancrofti carriers. Forty male microfilariae (mf) carriers between 18 and 50 years of age, in whom mf density was greater than or equal to 20 mf/ml, were treated twice at a one-year interval. Twelve months after the second treatment, in carriers who were given a dose greater than or equal to 100 micrograms/kg, mean mf density was 4-7% of the initial pretreatment mf density. Therefore, several successive annual treatments with single doses greater than or equal to 100 micrograms/kg of ivermectin should result in reducing mf densities to a very low level. Nevertheless, at 9 months after the second treatment, residual parasitaemia ranged from 1 to 2182 mf/ml (median 85) in 30 patients. Finally, in patients with pretreatment mf counts less than or equal to 150 mf/ml, mean mf density was 2.8 and 8.9 mf/ml, respectively, during the 2 six-month periods following treatment, while in patients with pretreatment mf densities greater than 150 mf/ml (median 1500) it was 92.3 and 334.1 mf/ml during the same periods. These results suggest that, when implementing filariasis control programmes, the best strategy might be administration of several treatments with a single dose of ivermectin every 6 months to the entire population, at least in French Polynesia. Afterwards, when mf densities had been reduced to a relatively low level (100-150 mf/ml), annual treatments could be considered. %8 1990 %0 Journal Article %J Amer J Resp Dis %D 1990 %T Evaluation du depistage systematique de la tuberculose en Polynesie francaise. %A Glaziou, P %A Leproux, P %A Chansin, R %P A787 %V 141 %8 1990 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1990 %T Effect of maitotoxin on calcium current and background inward current in isolated ventricular rat myocytes. %A Faivre, J F %A Deroubaix, E %A Coulombe, A %A Legrand, A-M %A Coraboeuf, E %N 8 %P 925-937 %V 28 %X Maitotoxin (MTX) irreversibly suppressed the voltage-dependent calcium current after a variable delay, an effect which was preceded, in 61% of the cells, by a transient increase in calcium current partly attributable to a shift (4-7 mV) of the activation curve towards negative potentials. MTX also induced the development of a voltage-independent background inward current which did not occur in the absence of external calcium and was reduced by removal of external sodium, by calcium channel blockers and by high concentrations of quinidine. MTX-induced single channel activity consisted of long lasting bursts of inwardcurrent. Channel activity was voltage-independent, with a unitary conductance of 14 pS and an extrapolated reversal potential of +16 mV. Single-channel current amplitude was not detectably reduced in the absence of external calcium but strongly reduced in the absence of external sodium, in the presence of 2 mM nickel or when external sodium was replaced by 96 mM calcium or 50 mM barium. The channel activity was also inhibited by quinidine. It is concluded that MTX alters, then suppresses the voltage-activated calcium current and induces the development of a voltage-independent inward current, part of which results from the opening of nickel-sensitive cation channels, mostly permeable to sodium ions. %8 1990 %0 Book Section %B In: Toxic Marine Phytoplankton. Graneli E, Anderson DM, Edler L, Sundstrom BG (Eds), Elsevier Science Publishing, pp 98-103 %D 1990 %T Follow up of a bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus in a fringing reef of Tahiti. %A Bagnis, R %A Legrand, A-M %A Inoue, A %X The population densities, per gram algae, of the toxic benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus (GTD) on the Hitiaa fringing reef in Tahiti, have been followed since the end of 1976. At that time, during two months, GTD varied between 100 and 800. From mid 1977 to the end of November 1987, it stayed permanently under 50, most of the time under 10. In December 1988 and January 1989, GTD increased from 50 to 13,000 in 3 weeks. It decreased to ca 3,000 one week later and to under 100 one month later. The population densities (OLD) of another benthic dinoflagellate, Ostreopsis lenticularis, frequently associated to G. toxicus in ciguateric areas, but not found to be toxic in French Polynesia, were also high during the same period. The toxin production of G. toxicus was checked at various stages of the bloom. %8 1990 %0 Book Section %B In: Toxic Marine Phytoplankton. Graneli E, Anderson DM, Edler L, Sundstrom BG (Eds), Elsevier Science Publishing, pp 98-103 %D 1990 %T Follow up of a bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus in a fringing reef of Tahiti. %A Bagnis, R %A Legrand, A-M %A Inoue, A %X The population densities, per gram algae, of the toxic benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus (GTD) on the Hitiaa fringing reef in Tahiti, have been followed since the end of 1976. At that time, during two months, GTD varied between 100 and 800. From mid 1977 to the end of November 1987, it stayed permanently under 50, most of the time under 10. In December 1988 and January 1989, GTD increased from 50 to 13,000 in 3 weeks. It decreased to ca 3,000 one week later and to under 100 one month later. The population densities (OLD) of another benthic dinoflagellate, Ostreopsis lenticularis, frequently associated to G. toxicus in ciguateric areas, but not found to be toxic in French Polynesia, were also high during the same period. The toxin production of G. toxicus was checked at various stages of the bloom. %8 1990 %0 Journal Article %J J Virol Meth %D 1990 %T Identification of dengue sequences by genomic amplication. Rapid diagnosis of dengue virus serotypes in peripheral blood. %A Deubel, V %A Laille, M %A Hugnot, J P %A Chungue, E %A Guesdon, J L %A Drouet, M T %A Bassot, S %A Chevrier, D %P 41-54 %V 30 %X Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed for the in vitro amplification of dengue virus RNA via cDNA. A fraction of the N-terminus gene of the envelope protein in the four dengue serotypes was amplified using synthetic oligonucleotide primer pairs. Amplified products were cloned and used as dengue type-specific probes in gel electrophoresis and dot-blot hybridazation. We detected and characterized dengue virus serotypes in blood samples by the three-step procedure DNA-PAH consisting in cDNA priming (P), DNA amplification (A) and hybridization (H) using specific non-radiolabelled probes. Our findings showed that DNA-PAH was more rapid and sensitive in the identification of the infecting serotype than the mosquito cell cultures. Moreover, the failure of cultures to detect virus particles in sera containing few copies of viral genome or anti-dengue antibodies justified the approach of DNA-PAH to the dengue identification in clinical specimens. %8 1990 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Parasitol %D 1990 %T Ivermectin for treatment of bancroftian filariasis in French Polynesia : efficacy in man, effect on transmission by vector Aedes polynesiensis. %A Cartel, J-L %A Sechan, Y %A Boutin, J-P %A Celerier, P %A Plichart, R %A Roux, J %N 3 %P 241-244 %V 41 %X Forty male Polynesian W. bancrofti carriers with mf counts greater than or equal to 20/ml were treated with a single ivermectin 50, 100, 150 or 200 mcg/kg dose. Following therapy, mf levels fell to less than 1% of pretreatment levels in the carriers treated with the 3 highest doses. After one month, negativation rate was 40% in patients treated with a 50 mcg/kg dose, significantly lower than in patients treated with higher doses. Recurrence of microfilaremia was observed by 3 months, mf recurrence percentages were significantly lower in patients treated with the 3 highest doses than in patients treated with a 50 mcg/kg dose. At 6 months, mf recurrence percentages reached 49.8, 12.6, 14 and 5.4% of pretreatment levels in carriers treated with 50, 100, 150 and 200 mcg/kg, respectively. No significant difference was observed between mf levels by group at 6 and 12 months. With respect to efficacy, a dose greater than or equal to 100 mcg/kg appeared superior to 50 mcg/kg dose; no significant difference between the 3 highest doses was observed. Some patients developed headache, myalgia and fever within 24 hours following therapy, none of adverse reactions were considered serious. In vector Ae. polynesiensis fed on carriers 6 months after treatment, average numbers of mf ingested and average numbers of L3 cephalic larvae were lower than those observed in mosquitoes fed on non-treated carriers with comparable mf counts. %8 1990 %0 Journal Article %J J Virol Meth %D 1990 %T Identification of dengue sequences by genomic amplication. Rapid diagnosis of dengue virus serotypes in peripheral blood. %A Deubel, V %A Laille, M %A Hugnot, J P %A Chungue, E %A Guesdon, J L %A Drouet, M T %A Bassot, S %A Chevrier, D %P 41-54 %V 30 %X Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed for the in vitro amplification of dengue virus RNA via cDNA. A fraction of the N-terminus gene of the envelope protein in the four dengue serotypes was amplified using synthetic oligonucleotide primer pairs. Amplified products were cloned and used as dengue type-specific probes in gel electrophoresis and dot-blot hybridazation. We detected and characterized dengue virus serotypes in blood samples by the three-step procedure DNA-PAH consisting in cDNA priming (P), DNA amplification (A) and hybridization (H) using specific non-radiolabelled probes. Our findings showed that DNA-PAH was more rapid and sensitive in the identification of the infecting serotype than the mosquito cell cultures. Moreover, the failure of cultures to detect virus particles in sera containing few copies of viral genome or anti-dengue antibodies justified the approach of DNA-PAH to the dengue identification in clinical specimens. %8 1990 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1990 %T La detection des IgM anti-PGL1 pour le serodiagnostic des malades hanseniens et la surveillance des sujets contacts en Polynesie. Bilan sur 5 ans. %A Chanteau, S %A Cartel, J-L %A Spiegel, A %A Plichart, R %A Roux, J %N 5 %P 649-657 %V 83 %X Cette etude a pour but de determiner la valeur du test de detection des IgM anti-PGLI pour le diagnostic de la maladie et pour celui de l'infection subclinique. Bien que la sensibilite (98% pour les multibacillaires mais 36% pour les paucibacillaires), la specificite (97,7%) et la valeur globale du test (97,7%) pour le diagnostic des malades soient tres bonnes, sa valeur predictive positive qui est la proportion de vrais malades parmi les seropositifs dans la population reste tres faible (1,17% pour la Polynesie) en raison de la faible prevalence de la lepre. Quant au diagnostic infraclinique de la lepre, etudie chez 1123 sujets contacts, notre experience montre que leur surveillance pendant une longue periode etait difficilement realisable et peu rentable. Apres 5 ans de suivi, la proportion de sujets developpant la maladie n'etait pas differente entre les sujets seropositifs et les sujets seronegatifs. Enfin, seulement 17,5% des nouveaux cas diagnostiques proviennent de sujets contacts suivis. En conclusion et en pratique, bien que ce test puisse constituer un apport au diagnostic, il ne doit etre considere ni comme un test de diagnostic ni comme un test pronostique de la lepre dans une collectivite.This study was conducted to assess the usefulness of the IgM anti-PGLI antibody test, for the diagnosis of leprosy and of the subclinical infection among contact population. Even if the specificity (97,7%), sensitivity (98% for the multibacillary, but 36% for the paucibacillary) and efficiency (97,7%) of the test for the diagnosis of patients are good, its positive predictive value which is the proportion of true patients among the seropositive subjects detected in the population was very low (1,17% in Polynesia), because of very low prevalence of leprosy. For the diagnosis of the subclinical infection, our experience based on the follow up of a population of 1123 contacts, showed that such a control program would have low feasibility and low cost-effectiveness. After 5 years, the proportion of individuals developing the disease was not different among the seropositive than among the seronegative subjects. Finally, only 17,5% of the new cases of leprosy detected, were issued from the contact population followed. In conclusion and in a practical point of view, although this test may contribute to the diagnosis of patients, it is not likely useful neither for the diagnosis nor for the prognosis of leprosy in a population. %8 1990 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1990 %T Proposition de protocole de test insecticide vis-a-vis du crustace copepode Mesocyclops aspericornis Daday 1906. %A Loncke, S %A Failloux, A-B %A Sechan, Y %N 3 %P 406-407 %V 83 %X Mesocyclops aspericornis est l'objet de la mise au point d'un protocole de test insecticide en vue de traitements ponctuels dans les conditions variees de terrain. Les femelles adultes recoltees sont mises en contact avec une solution insecticide (100 ml) a 3 temperatures (20 %8 1990 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 1990 %T Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in the Austral archipelago, French Polynesia : identification of transmission patterns for the formulation of immunization strategies. %A Boutin, J-P %A Flye Sainte Marie, F %A Cartel, J-L %A Cardines, R %A Girard, M %A Roux, J %N 2 %P 283-287 %V 84 %X A sero-epidemiological survey of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in a randomly selected sample of 957 persons from the population of the Austral Island group in French Polynesia was conducted as a first step before developing an immunization programme strategy. Prevalence rates of HBsAg ranged from 3.09% to 27% in the different islands of the group with a weighted mean of 10.48%, while the prevalence rate for at least one marker ranged from 46.91% to 81.03% with a weighted mean of 64.12%. In the 0-11 months and 1-4 years age groups, 2.08% and 10.57%, respectively, of the children were HBsAg carriers. These findings, when compared to the mean population carrier rate of 10.48%, suggest that HBV transmission occurred mostly after the first year of life. The highest prevalence rate for HBeAg positivity was in the 5-19 years age group (more than 40% of the HBsAg carriers were HBeAg positive), suggesting that contagiousness was greatest in childhood and adolescence. HBsAg was found in 11.45% of women of child-bearing age and HBeAg in 19.09% of women positive for HBsAg. It is concluded that immunization of newborns and infants, using vaccine alone, should be the most effective strategy for reducing HBV infection in the Austral Islands archipelago. %8 1990 %0 Journal Article %J Lepr Rev %D 1990 %T Relationships between PGL-1 antigen in serum, tissue and viability of Mycobacterium leprae as determined by mouse footpad assay in multibacillary patients during short-term clinical trial. %A Chanteau, S %A Cartel, J-L %A Perani, E %A N'Deli, L %A Roux, J %A Grosset, J-H %N 4 %P 330-440 %V 61 %X In connection with a 56-day controlled clinical trial for comparing the therapeutic effects between pefloxacin and ofloxacin in 21 lepromatous patients, we have studied the relationships between PGL-I antigen level in serum and in skin and serum PGL-I antibody titre on the one hand, and the viability of Mycobacterium leprae, as measured by serial mouse footpad inoculations, and other bactericidal parameters on the other. Before and during treatment, significant correlation was found between serum PGL-I level and the morphological index (MI), and with the number of viable organisms per mg skin tissue. However, neither serum PGL-I antibody titre nor skin PGL-I antigen level showed significant change during the 56-day trial. Because the reduction of serum PGL-I level was well correlated but less pronounced as compared with the evolution of viable organisms during treatment, the serum PGL-I antigen assay may be useful as an early indicator of response to chemotherapy in short-term clinical trial, but it is unlikely to replace mouse footpad inoculation for the evaluation of viability of M. leprae. %8 1990 %0 Journal Article %J J Am Chem Soc %D 1990 %T Structures and configurations of ciguatoxine from the moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus and its likely precursor from the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. %A Murata, M %A Legrand, A-M %A Ishibashi, Y %A Fukui, M %A Yasumoto, T %N 11 %P 4380-4386 %V 112 %X Ciguatoxin (CTX) is the toxic principle of ciguatera, which is responsible for the most widespread food poisoning of nonbacterial origin. The toxin, isolated from the moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus, and its congener, from the causative dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, were used for the study. The structure elucidation was carried out by combined use of 1H NMR 2D correlation and NOE experiments done with no more than 0.35 mg of CTX and 0.74 mg of the congener. Broadening of 1H NMR signals due to a slow conformational change around a nine-membered ring was sharpened by measurements at -20 %8 1990 %0 Journal Article %J J Am Chem Soc %D 1990 %T Structures and configurations of ciguatoxine from the moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus and its likely precursor from the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. %A Murata, M %A Legrand, A-M %A Ishibashi, Y %A Fukui, M %A Yasumoto, T %N 11 %P 4380-4386 %V 112 %X Ciguatoxin (CTX) is the toxic principle of ciguatera, which is responsible for the most widespread food poisoning of nonbacterial origin. The toxin, isolated from the moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus, and its congener, from the causative dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, were used for the study. The structure elucidation was carried out by combined use of 1H NMR 2D correlation and NOE experiments done with no more than 0.35 mg of CTX and 0.74 mg of the congener. Broadening of 1H NMR signals due to a slow conformational change around a nine-membered ring was sharpened by measurements at -20 %8 1990 %0 Journal Article %J Tetrahedon Letters %D 1989 %T A probable partial structure of ciguatoxin isolated from the moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus. %A Murata, M %A Legrand, A-M %A Yasumoto, T %N 29 %P 3793-3796 %V 30 %X A probable partial structure of ciguatoxin obtained from the moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus was deduced to be 1 on the basis of MS and NMR spectra. The proposed structure involves 22 carbons, accounting for 37% of the total carbons of the toxin. %8 1989 %0 Journal Article %J Tetrahedon Letters %D 1989 %T A probable partial structure of ciguatoxin isolated from the moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus. %A Murata, M %A Legrand, A-M %A Yasumoto, T %N 29 %P 3793-3796 %V 30 %X A probable partial structure of ciguatoxin obtained from the moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus was deduced to be 1 on the basis of MS and NMR spectra. The proposed structure involves 22 carbons, accounting for 37% of the total carbons of the toxin. %8 1989 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 1989 %T Comparison of IgG-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (IgG-ELISA) and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for the detection of dengue antibodies. Prevalence of dengue IgG-ELISA antibodies in Tahiti. %A Chungue, E %A Marche, G %A Plichart, R %A Boutin, J-P %A Roux, J %N 5 %P 708-711 %V 83 %X An immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgG-ELISA) for the detection of dengue antibodies is described and compared to the haemagglutination inhibition test (HI). The sensitivity, specificity and agreement rate between the 2 techniques were good. The coefficients of correlation between IgG-ELISA and HI results, using dengue 1-4 antigens, were highly significant (P less than 0.001 for either antigen). IgG-ELISA was rapid, and easy to perform and suitable for large-scale studies. Between April and June 1987, a baseline serosurvey of the prevalence of dengue antibodies in age-stratified samples of children was carried out in Tahiti using IgG-ELISA. 327 children were tested against each dengue serotype. There was no significant difference between sex. Overall rates ranged from 7.4% in children under 5 years to 83.1% in those aged 15-19 years. Dengue 4 being the only serotype involved since 1979, specific responses to dengue 4 were found in higher proportion among children under 8 years old, while the IgG-ELISA responses were more widely reactive among children aged above 8 years (P less than 0.001). The acquisition rate of dengue 4 antibodies was 2.95% on average per year in children under 8 years of age. %8 1989 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 1989 %T Comparison of IgG-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (IgG-ELISA) and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for the detection of dengue antibodies. Prevalence of dengue IgG-ELISA antibodies in Tahiti. %A Chungue, E %A March %N 5 %P 708-711 %V 83 %X An immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgG-ELISA) for the detection of dengue antibodies is described and compared to the haemagglutination inhibition test (HI). The sensitivity, specificity and agreement rate between the 2 techniques were good. The coefficients of correlation between IgG-ELISA and HI results, using dengue 1-4 antigens, were highly significant (P less than 0.001 for either antigen). IgG-ELISA was rapid, and easy to perform and suitable for large-scale studies. Between April and June 1987, a baseline serosurvey of the prevalence of dengue antibodies in age-stratified samples of children was carried out in Tahiti using IgG-ELISA. 327 children were tested against each dengue serotype. There was no significant difference between sex. Overall rates ranged from 7.4% in children under 5 years to 83.1% in those aged 15-19 years. Dengue 4 being the only serotype involved since 1979, specific responses to dengue 4 were found in higher proportion among children under 8 years old, while the IgG-ELISA responses were more widely reactive among children aged above 8 years (P less than 0.001). The acquisition rate of dengue 4 antibodies was 2.95% on average per year in children under 8 years of age. %8 1989 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Rapport final des Journees de la Recherche en Polynesie francaise, Papeete, Tahiti, pp 272 %D 1989 %T Contribution a l'etude du dinoflagelle ciguaterique Gambierdiscus toxicus sur le recif d'Hitiaa (Tahiti). %A Asin, P %X Une etude du dinoflagelle benthique Gambierdiscus toxicus (Gt), algue unicellulaire responsable de la ciguatera, a ete effectuee sous trois aspects essentiels : demographie, production toxinique de souches sauvages et culture unialgale.Les Gt fixes au support constitue par les macroalgues Jania sp. ont ete preleves sur le recif frangeant de Hitiaa, a Tahiti. Les dinoflagelles ont ete detaches de leur algue support par deux methodes de lavage, a l'eau douce et a l'eau de mer, pour etre comptes et pour en extraire les toxines. Les deux methodes n'ont pas donne de resultats significativement differents. La numeration des Gt a permis de suivre l'evolution de la population de ces dinoflagelles. La densite cellulaire, qui etait habituellement inferieure a 20 Gt par gramme d'algue support pendant les dix premiers mois de l'annee 1988, a commence a augmenter vers la fin de l'annee. Elle a atteint un maximum (5000 Gt/g) en janvier 1989 puis a diminue progressivement les mois suivants : 60 Gt/g en fevrier-mars, 20 Gt/g en avril-mai, pour arriver a 15 Gt/g en ao %8 1989 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Rapport final des Journ %D 1989 %T Contribution %A Asin, P %X Une %8 1989 %0 Journal Article %J Virus Information Exchange. Newsletter for South East Asia and the Western Pacific %D 1989 %T Dengue 1 epidemic in French Polynesia. %A Chungue, E %P 67 %V 6 %8 1989 %0 Journal Article %J Virus Information Exchange. Newsletter for South East Asia and the Western Pacific %D 1989 %T Dengue 1 epidemic in French Polynesia. %A Chungue, E %P 67 %V 6 %8 1989 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1989 %T Etude de l'ivermectine pour le traitement de la filariose lymphatique due a Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica en Polynesie francaise. %A Roux, J %A Perolat, P %A Cartel, J-L %A Boutin, J-P %A Sechan, Y %A Lariviere, M %A Aziz, M A %N 1 %P 72-81 %V 82 %X Quarante sujets porteurs d'au moins 20 microfilaires de W. bancrofti var. pacifica par millilitre de sang ont ete traites en aveugle par 50, 100, 150 ou 200 mcg/kg d'ivermectine. Le taux de traitements efficaces a ete de 100% quelle que soit la dose recue. Le taux de porteurs negatives et le pourcentage de reduction de la microfilaremie ont ete significativement plus eleve chez les porteurs traites par 100, 150 ou 200 mcg/kg que chez ceux traites par 50 mcg/kg. La frequence et l'intensite des reactions adverses ont ete du meme ordre que celles observees lors de traitements par la DEC et n'ont pas varie en fonction de la dose recue mais plut %8 1989 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Rapport final des Journees de la Recherche en Polynesie francaise, Papeete, Tahiti, pp 234 %D 1989 %T Evaluation des resultats preliminaires du traitement de la ciguatera par le mannitol. %A Bagnis, R %A Boutin, J-P %A Burucoa, C %A Capdevielle, P %A Gras, C %A Imbert, P %A Prigent, D %A Spiegel, A %8 1989 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Rapport final des Journ %D 1989 %T Evaluation des r %A Bagnis, R %A Boutin, J-P %A Burucoa, C %A Capdevielle, P %A Gras, C %A Imbert, P %A Prigent, D %A Spiegel, A %8 1989 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop %D 1989 %T Facteurs de risque ciguaterique aux Antilles dans la region de Saint-Barthelemy, Saint-Martin et Anguilla. %A Bourdeau, P %A Bagnis, R %N 3 %P 393-410 %V 42 %X Une etude sur la ciguatera a ete menee aux Antilles autour de Saint-Barthelemy, Saint-Martin et Anguilla en 1985 et 1986. Une enquete epidemiologique a montre l'incidence importante, non saisonniere, des intoxications humaines. Malgre la difficulte a repertorier les cas, le taux de morbidite peut etre estime selon les annees de 7 a 30 pour mille habitants. La toxicite de 46 especes de poissons testes individuellement (176) ou par lots (17) a ete evaluee par test-moustique. Les resultats, associes a une enquete sur les intoxications, permettent le regroupement suivant :- Especes a risque important : Caranx bartholomaci, C. lugubris, Seriola dumerili, Lutjanus apodus, L. jocu, Pristipomoides macrophtalmus, Gymnothorax funebris, G. moringa, Scomberomorus cavalla, S. regalis, Mycteroperca venenosa, M. tigris, Epinephelus morio, Shyraena barracuda. - Especes a rique moyen : Caranx latus, C. ruber, Lachnolaimus maximus, Lutjanus analis, L. buccanella, L. griseus, Malacanthus plumieri, Scomberomorus maculatus. - Especes a risque faible : Balistes vetula, Alectis ciliaris, Haemulon album, Bodianus rufus, Halichoeres radiatus, Priacanthus arenatus, Alphestes afer. Les resultats montrent le grand nombre d'especes impliquees, la toxicite de nouvelles especes et la difficulte de preciser une taille de seuil toxique. Une cartographie des zones les plus dangereuses a ete etablie mais aucun lieu du plateau ou se trouvent les 3 %8 1989 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 1989 %T Finger-prick blood collection and computer-assisted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for large-scale serological studies on leprosy. %A Chanteau, S %A Plichart, R %A Boutin, J-P %A Roux, J %A Cartel, J-L %N 3 %P 414-416 %V 83 %X An immunoglobulin M anti-phenolic glycolipid 1 assay was standardized and optimized using specimens of dried blood collected on commercial precut filter paper discs, followed by a computer-assisted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlation between venepuncture and finger-prick methods, the calibration of the quantity of absorbed blood, and the reproducibility of theELISA test were excellent. A slight decline of activity was observed when the samples were stored for 3 months at +4 degrees C. Skimmed milk can be used as diluent instead of bovine serum albumin, contributing to lessening the cost of the test. Using the method described, as many as 300 samples can be collected in the field and 480 ELISAs per day can be run in the central laboratory by one trained person. %8 1989 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop %D 1989 %T Facteurs de risque ciguat %A Bourdeau, P %A Bagnis, R %N 3 %P 393-410 %V 42 %X Une %8 1989 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins '88, Natori D, Hashimoto K and Ueno Y (Eds), Proceedings of the 7th International IUPAC Symposium on Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins, 1988, Tokyo, Japan, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. Amsterdam, pp 277-288 %D 1989 %T Human intoxications with ciguateric phycotoxins in French Polynesia : incidence and epidemiological features in 1987. %A Bagnis, R %A Celerier, P %A Cruchet, P %A Pascal, H %A Legrand, A-M %X During year 1987, 856 cases of ciguatera were recorded in French Polynesia. The incidence of 5 per 1.000 inhabitants was unevenly distributred. Some 50 species of fish were incriminated, mainly groupers, surgeonfish, snappers, emperor-fish, and jacks. From the percentage of toxic individuals in batches of surgeon-fish and moray eel, and from the density of ciguateric dinoflagellates in control stations, it odes appear that in a status of stable ciguateric endemicity, Gambier, Tuamotu and Marquesas Islands remain the most exposed to ciguateric risk. %8 1989 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins '88, Natori D, Hashimoto K and Ueno Y (Eds), Proceedings of the 7th International IUPAC Symposium on Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins, 1988, Tokyo, Japan, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. Amsterdam, pp 277-288 %D 1989 %T Human intoxications with ciguateric phycotoxins in French Polynesia : incidence and epidemiological features in 1987. %A Bagnis, R %A Celerier, P %A Cruchet, P %A Pascal, H %A Legrand, A-M %X During year 1987, 856 cases of ciguatera were recorded in French Polynesia. The incidence of 5 per 1.000 inhabitants was unevenly distributred. Some 50 species of fish were incriminated, mainly groupers, surgeonfish, snappers, emperor-fish, and jacks. From the percentage of toxic individuals in batches of surgeon-fish and moray eel, and from the density of ciguateric dinoflagellates in control stations, it odes appear that in a status of stable ciguateric endemicity, Gambier, Tuamotu and Marquesas Islands remain the most exposed to ciguateric risk. %8 1989 %0 Journal Article %J J Appl Phycol %D 1989 %T Isolation and some properties of ciguatoxin. %A Legrand, A-M %A Litaudon, M %A Genthon, J N %A Bagnis, R %A Yasumoto, T %P 183-188 %V 1 %X Ciguatoxin, the principal toxin of ciguatera produced by a toxic dinoflagellate and accumulated through the food chain in the viscera of moray eels, was purified. The probable molecular formula C60H86O19 was obtained for the first time by high resolution mass spectrometry. 1H NMR spectra suggested the presence of a primary hydroxyl group suitable for preparing an antigen necessary to develop an enzyme immunoassay. %8 1989 %0 Journal Article %J Res Virol %D 1989 %T Interet du titrage des IgM par technique immunoenzymatique pour le serodiagnostic et la surveillance epidemiologique de la dengue en Polynesie francaise. %A Chungue, E %A Boutin, J-P %A Roux, J %N 3 %P 229-240 %V 140 %X The usefulness of IgM antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-IgM) for the diagnosis of dengue was studied using several groups of sera. An attempt was made to detect IgM against each dengue serotype. Of 76 paired sera from patients with dengue type 4 infection, the diagnosis was confirmed by ELISA-IgM in 74: in 47 out of 49 primary dengue infections and in all 27 secondary dengue infections. It was possible to detect IgM in 15 of the acute sera of primary infections and in 16 of the acute sera of secondary infections. In 20 patients from whom only single serum with high haemagglutination-inhibition titre (greater than or equal to 640) was available, 18 were found positive for dengue IgM. Dengue infection was also confirmed in 10patients with dengue type 1 and in 10 patients with dengue type 2. IgM was detected in 1 of the acute sera of patients with either dengue type 1 or dengue type 2 infection. In all cases in which IgM was detected, a positive response was obtained for the homologous antigen. ELISA-IgM on sequential serum samples from 7 proven cases of dengue type 4 revealed that antibody titres greater than or equal to 400 are reached early in the second week of the illness and persist for 60 days or more at a low level (titre less than 400). An attempt was made to obtain a type-specific presumptive diagnosis by analysing the relative titre against each of the 4 antigens. It was possible to make a diagnosis of dengue type 4 in 85% and 52% of IgM-positive responses in primary and secondary infections (p less than 0.01), respectively, using paired sera from patients with known dengue type 4 infection. ELISA-IgM was shown to be of interest in the diagnosis and surveillance of dengue in French Polynesia where dengue viruses are, presently, the only known flavivirus. %8 1989 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Epidemiol Sante publ %D 1989 %T Interet des sondages d'opinion pour evaluer l'acceptabilite en zone urbaine des enquetes epidemiologiques. %A Boutin, J-P %A Lahanier, D %A Roux, J %N 2 %P 167-171 %V 37 %X Un projet d'evaluation de la prevalence des maladies non transmissibles liees a la nutrition et aux habitudes toxiques est en cours d'elaboration en Polynesie francaise. La methodologie utilisee, bien que tres lourde, a deja ete mise en oeuvre avec succes dans les Etats insulaires du pacifique Sud, ayant un mode de vie traditionnel ou transitionnel. Les auteurs ont voulu evaluer, par un sondage d'opinion utilisant la methode des quotas, le niveau d'acceptabilite de l'enquete projetee dans la population tres urbanisee et occidentalisee du 'grand Papeete' afin d'obtenir des informations essentielles quant a la faisabilite du projet. Les resultats favorables (75% des sujets sondes participeraient, 19,5% refuseraient, 5,5% hesiteraient) doivent etre interpretes en fonction du caractere multiethnique de la Polynesie francaise, et des limites de la methode de sondage employee.A prevalence study on non communicable diseases related to nutrition, alcoholism and tabagism is planned in French Polynesia. The methodology used, although complicated, has been successful in insular states of the South Pacific with either traditional or transitional ways of life. Acceptability level of the study in the urban area of Papeete (Tahiti) has been tested by a public opinion poll using the quota method in order to obtain valuable information on feasibility of the project. The public opinion poll showed that 75% of people would participate, 19.5% would be reluctant and 5.5% would hesitate. The good results must be carefully interpreted with regards to the multi-ethnic structure of French Polynesian population, and to the limits of the quota method. %8 1989 %0 Journal Article %J Int J Lepr Mycobact Dis %D 1989 %T Implementation of chemoprophylaxis of leprosy in the Southern Marquesas with a single dose of 25 mg per kg Rifampin. %A Cartel, J-L %A Chanteau, S %A Boutin, J-P %A Taylor, R %A Plichart, R %A Roux, J %A Celerier, P %A Grosset, J-H %N 4 %P 810-816 %V 57 %X Between 1967 and 1987 in the Southern Marquesas, a remote archipelago in French Polynesia, the detection rate of leprosy was 48.9 per 100,000 when it was 8.6 per 100,000 for French Polynesia as a whole. In 1988, a program of chemoprophylaxis of leprosy with a single dose of 25 mg/kg rifampin was implemented, and 2751 persons (98.7% of the population) were treated in the Southern Marquesas. In addition, 678 South Marquesans and 2466 members of their families, living in the Northern Marquesas and in the Society Archipelago, received the same chemoprophylaxis. Among 2676 persons studied in the Southern Marquesas (97.4%) of the treated population), 130 had elevated IgM anti-phenolic glycolipid-I antibodies by ELISA without any evidence of leprosy. The onset of a skin lesion of borderline leprosy in a boy 3 months after chemopromhylaxis raises the question of the nature of such a skin lesion and, indirectly, of the effectiveness of the chemoprophylaxis.Dans les Marquises du Sud, un archipel eloigne en Polynesie francaise, le taux de detection de la lepre de 1967 a 1987 s'est eleve a 48,9 pour 100.000, alors qu'il etait de 8,6 pour 100.000 dans l'ensemble de la Polynesie. En 1988, un programme de chimioprophylaxie de la lepre a ete entrepris, comprenant l'administration d'une dose unique de 25 mg/kg de rifampicine. Aux Marquises du Sud, 2751 personnes (98,7% de la population) ont ete traitees de cette maniere. En outre, 678 habitants des %8 1989 %0 Journal Article %J J Appl Phycol %D 1989 %T Isolation and some properties of ciguatoxin. %A Legrand, A-M %A Litaudon, M %A Genthon, J N %A Bagnis, R %A Yasumoto, T %P 183-188 %V 1 %X Ciguatoxin, the principal toxin of ciguatera produced by a toxic dinoflagellate and accumulated through the food chain in the viscera of moray eels, was purified. The probable molecular formula C60H86O19 was obtained for the first time by high resolution mass spectrometry. 1H NMR spectra suggested the presence of a primary hydroxyl group suitable for preparing an antigen necessary to develop an enzyme immunoassay. %8 1989 %0 Journal Article %J Res Virol %D 1989 %T Int %A Chungue, E %A Boutin, J-P %A Roux, J %N 3 %P 229-240 %V 140 %X The usefulness of IgM antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-IgM) for the diagnosis of dengue was studied using several groups of sera. An attempt was made to detect IgM against each dengue serotype. Of 76 paired sera from patients with dengue type 4 infection, the diagnosis was confirmed by ELISA-IgM in 74: in 47 out of 49 primary dengue infections and in all 27 secondary dengue infections. It was possible to detect IgM in 15 of the acute sera of primary infections and in 16 of the acute sera of secondary infections. In 20 patients from whom only single serum with high haemagglutination-inhibition titre (greater than or equal to 640) was available, 18 were found positive for dengue IgM. Dengue infection was also confirmed in 10patients with dengue type 1 and in 10 patients with dengue type 2. IgM was detected in 1 of the acute sera of patients with either dengue type 1 or dengue type 2 infection. In all cases in which IgM was detected, a positive response was obtained for the homologous antigen. ELISA-IgM on sequential serum samples from 7 proven cases of dengue type 4 revealed that antibody titres greater than or equal to 400 are reached early in the second week of the illness and persist for 60 days or more at a low level (titre less than 400). An attempt was made to obtain a type-specific presumptive diagnosis by analysing the relative titre against each of the 4 antigens. It was possible to make a diagnosis of dengue type 4 in 85% and 52% of IgM-positive responses in primary and secondary infections (p less than 0.01), respectively, using paired sera from patients with known dengue type 4 infection. ELISA-IgM was shown to be of interest in the diagnosis and surveillance of dengue in French Polynesia where dengue viruses are, presently, the only known flavivirus. %8 1989 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Rapport final des Journees de la Recherche en Polynesie francaise, Papeete, Tahiti, pp 223 %D 1989 %T Les toxines de la ciguatera, etat actuel des connaissances pour une detection des poissons non consommables. %A Legrand, A-M %P 25 %V 1 %8 1989 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Rapport final des Journ %D 1989 %T Les toxines de la ciguat %A Legrand, A-M %P 25 %V 1 %8 1989 %0 Journal Article %J Int J Lepr Mycobact Dis %D 1989 %T PGL-1 antigen and antibody detection in leprosy patients : evolution under chemotherapy. %A Chanteau, S %A Cartel, J-L %A Celerier, P %A Plichart, R %A Desforges, S %A Roux, J %N 4 %P 735-743 %V 57 %X Multibacillary (MB) and paucibacillary (PB) leprosy patients were tested for circulating phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I) antigen and antibodies before treatment. In the 27 MB patients tested, 27 (100%) were antigen positive with levels ranging from 50 to 5000 ng/ml, and 26 (96%) were antibody positive with titers ranging from 1000 to 64,000. Although the antigen and antibody levels were much higher in MB than in PB patients, we could not demonstrate a correlation between the number of acid-fast bacilli/mg of skin biopsy and these two parameters in 14 MB patients. After starting daily multidrug therapy, 10 MB patients were monitored monthly. As much as 88.75% %8 1989 %0 Journal Article %J Acta Leprologica %D 1989 %T PGL-1 antigen and antibody detection in the control of leprosy in French Polynesia. %A Chanteau, S %A Cartel, J-L %A Plichart, R %A Roux, J %A Bach, M-A %N Sup 1 %P 128-129 %V 7 %8 1989 %0 Journal Article %J Int J Lepr Mycobact Dis %D 1989 %T Results after 8 years of a daily multidrug therapy for leprosy patients in French Polynesia, Guadeloupe and New Caledonia. %A Cartel, J-L %N 1 Sup %V 57 %8 1989 %0 Journal Article %J J Am Chem Soc %D 1989 %T Structures of ciguatoxin and its congener. %A Murata, M %A Legrand, A-M %A Ishibashi, Y %A Yasumoto, T %N 24 %P 8929-8931 %V 111 %8 1989 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 1989 %T Serological survey of Hantavirus infection in French Polynesia. %A Chungue, E %A Rollin, P E %A Saluzzo, J-F %A Gentile, B %A Roux, J %A Sureau, P %N 2 %P 258 %V 83 %8 1989 %0 Journal Article %J Int J Lepr Mycobact Dis %D 1989 %T Study of 39 documented relapses of multibacillary leprosy after treatment with Rifampin. %A Grosset, J-H %A Guelpa-Lauras, C C %A Cartel, J-L %A Bobin, P %A Frederic, M %A Constant-Desportes, M %A Millan, J %N 3 %P 607-614 %V 57 %X Parmi 39 souches de Mycobacterium leprae isolees chez des malades atteints de lepre multibacillaire, ayant recidive apres un traitement par la rifampine (RMP), 22 souches etaient resistantes a cet antibiotique et 17 etaient encore susceptibles. Toutes les souches encore resistantes a la rifampine ont ete obtenues chez des malades qui avaient ete traites par plus de 50 doses du produit, generalement administre en monotherapie. Des souches susceptibles a la rifampine n'ont ete recueillies que chez 6 malades qui avaient recu plus de 50 doses du produit, et chez 11 malades qui n'avaient recu que 7 doses. La mediane de la duree entre le debut de la therapie par la rifampine et la resistance etait de 9 ans (s'etendant de 1 a 12 ans) parmi les malades porteurs de souches de M. leprae resistantes a la RMP ; la mediane de la duree s'etendant entre la cessation du traitement par la rifampine et la recidive etait de 7 ans (de 1 a 11 ans) parmi les malades porteurs de souches susceptibles a ce produit. Ces donnees suggerent que la monotherapie, lorsqu'elle depasse quelques doses de rifampine, pourrait etre responsable de l'apparition de souches de M. leprae resistantes au medicament. Ceci souligne la necessite, en chimiotherapie de la lepre multibacillaire d'employer la rifampine uniquement en combinaison avec d'autres medicaments efficaces.Among 39 strains of Mycobacterium leprae isolated from patients with multibacillary leprosy who relapsed after treatment with rifampin (RMP), 22 strains were resistant to RMP and 17 were susceptible. All of the RMP-resistant strains were recovered from patients who had been treated with more than 50 doses of RMP, usually given as monotherapy. RMP-susceptible strains were recovered from only six patients who had received more than 50 doses of RMP, and from 11 patients who had received no more than seven doses. The median time to relapse after the beginning of RMP therapy was 9 years (range 1-12 years) among the patients harboring RMP-resistant strains of M. leprae, and the median time to relapse after discontinuation of RMP treatment was 7 years (range 1-11 years) among the patients harboring RMP-susceptible strains. These data suggest that monotherapy with more than a few doses of RMP can be responsible for the emergence of RMP-resistant strains of M. leprae, thus emphasizing the need to employ RMP only in combination with other effective drugs in the chemotherapy of multibacillary leprosy. %8 1989 %0 Journal Article %J J Am Chem Soc %D 1989 %T Structures of ciguatoxin and its congener. %A Murata, M %A Legrand, A-M %A Ishibashi, Y %A Yasumoto, T %N 24 %P 8929-8931 %V 111 %8 1989 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins, Aibara K, Kumagai S, Ohtsubo K, Yoshigawa T (Eds), The Japanese Association of Mycotoxicology, Tokyo, Japan, pp 17-18 %D 1988 %T Acute toxicity in mice of ciguatoxin from Gymnothorax javanicus moray eel and maitotoxin from wild Gambierdiscus toxicus. %A Legrand, A-M %A Lotte, C %A Quod, J P %A De Deckker, F %A Genthon, J N %A Lechat-Vahirua, I %A Yasumoto, T %A Bagnis, R %8 1988 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins, Aibara K, Kumagai S, Ohtsubo K, Yoshigawa T (Eds), The Japanese Association of Mycotoxicology, Tokyo, Japan, pp 17-18 %D 1988 %T Acute toxicity in mice of ciguatoxin from Gymnothorax javanicus moray eel and maitotoxin from wild Gambierdiscus toxicus. %A Legrand, A-M %A Lotte, C %A Quod, J P %A De Deckker, F %A Genthon, J N %A Lechat-Vahirua, I %A Yasumoto, T %A Bagnis, R %8 1988 %0 Journal Article %J J Infect Dis %D 1988 %T Comparison of synthetic antigens for detecting antibodies to Phenolic Glycolipid I in patients with leprosy and their household contacts. %A Chanteau, S %A Cartel, J-L %A Roux, J %A Plichart, R %A Bach, M-A %N 4 %P 770-776 %V 157 %X Three synthetic antigens related to the natural antigen phenolic glycolipid (PGL-I) were compared for their efficacy in detecting leprosy when used as antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IgM antibody to PGL-I. Absorbance values for ELISAs using the three antigens correlated well (.7999,9%) because of the low prevalence of leprosy in French Polynesia (1,78 per 1000). The high sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of the tests using the three antigens confirmed their great value for serodiagnosis of leprosy, especially the multibacillary form ; the ELISA using NTP seems to be more specific and sensitive for detecting the paucibacillary form. %8 1988 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Choat et al. (Eds), Proceedings of the 6th International Coral Reef Congress, Townsville, Australia, Vol. 2 pp 195-200 %D 1988 %T Correlation between ciguateric fish and damage to reefs in the Gambier Islands (French Polynesia). %A Bagnis, R %A Bennett, J %A Barsinas, M %A Drollet, J H %A Jacquet, G %A Legrand, A-M %A Cruchet, P %A Pascal, H %C Townsville, Australia, 8 th-12th August 1988 %X An investigation of the most severe outbreak of ciguatera ever reported was carried out during a 20 year study in Gambier Islands through the study of the species, trophic level and area of capture of poisonous fish, and the percentage of toxic individuals per batch of various control fish (PCI). The most frequently toxic fish from 1967 to 1975 were the herbivores (mainly parrot fish, surgeon fish, and mullets). From 1976 to 1982, herbivorous and carnivorous fish shared the morbidity equally. From 1983, toxic carnivores (snappers, emperor, groupers, jacks mainly) were more often involved than herbivores. Within the same period, the average PCI increased from 4.5 for herbivores and 2 for carnivores in 1969 to 67 (1975-1978) and 80 (1978-1979) respectively. From 1980, the PCI devreased regularly, to below 20 for most of the fish in 1987. The distribution of toxic species varied strongly in space and time. A relationship between both man made and natural coral reef disturbances and the development of the flare up was pointed out. %8 1988 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Choat et al. (Eds), Proceedings of the 6th International Coral Reef Congress, Townsville, Australia, Vol. 2 pp 195-200 %D 1988 %T Correlation between ciguateric fish and damage to reefs in the Gambier Islands (French Polynesia). %A Bagnis, R %A Bennett, J %A Barsinas, M %A Drollet, J H %A Jacquet, G %A Legrand, A-M %A Cruchet, P %A Pascal, H %C Townsville, Australia, 8 th-12th August 1988 %X An investigation of the most severe outbreak of ciguatera ever reported was carried out during a 20 year study in Gambier Islands through the study of the species, trophic level and area of capture of poisonous fish, and the percentage of toxic individuals per batch of various control fish (PCI). The most frequently toxic fish from 1967 to 1975 were the herbivores (mainly parrot fish, surgeon fish, and mullets). From 1976 to 1982, herbivorous and carnivorous fish shared the morbidity equally. From 1983, toxic carnivores (snappers, emperor, groupers, jacks mainly) were more often involved than herbivores. Within the same period, the average PCI increased from 4.5 for herbivores and 2 for carnivores in 1969 to 67 (1975-1978) and 80 (1978-1979) respectively. From 1980, the PCI devreased regularly, to below 20 for most of the fish in 1987. The distribution of toxic species varied strongly in space and time. A relationship between both man made and natural coral reef disturbances and the development of the flare up was pointed out. %8 1988 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Int Oceanog Med %D 1988 %T Le risque ciguaterique dans l'Ile de Mayotte (Archipel des Comores). %A Bagnis, R %A Julvez, J %A Allaoui, A %A Dubray, B %A Conan, H %A Ali Halidi, M A %A Mieli, L %A Galtier, J %P 43-54 %V 91-92 %X Un programme de surveillance epidemiologique de la ciguatera par le contr %8 1988 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1988 %T La lepre dans les archipels de Polynesie francaise de 1967 a 1987. %A Cartel, J-L %A Boutin, J-P %A Plichart, R %A Roux, J %A Grosset, J-H %N 5 %P 819-826 %V 81 %X De 1967 a 1987, 255 nouveaux cas de lepre ont ete detectes en Polynesie francaise (PF) ce qui signifie un taux de detection annuel moyen de 8,6 pour 100.000. Le taux de detection moyen etabli sur 7 triennats n'a pas significativement varie au cours des 21 dernieres annees. Deux archipels de PF se distinguent par un taux de detection de la lepre particulieremet eleve : l'archipel des Gambier et le sous-archipel des Marquises-Sud avec respectivement 54,7 et 48,9 pour 100.000. Pour ameliorer cette situation il est necessaire de renforcer le reseau de prise en charge therapeutique des malades diagnostiques, le depistage actif dans les archipels eloignes et d'envisager des actions ponctuelles sur les foyers les plus actifs (chimioprophylaxie).Between 1967 and 1987, 255 new cases of leprosy were detected in French Polynesia (FP) that means on average a 8.6 per 100,000 detection rate. Average detection rate calculated in 7 three-years periods did not vary significantly during the 21 years studied period of time. In two remote archipelagos of FP average detection rate of leprosy is specially high : Gambier archipelago and Southern Marquesas archipelago with respectively a 54.7 and 48.9 per 100,000 detection rate. To control leprosy, the network of treatment and active case-finding should be strenghtened in archipelagos and chemoprophylaxis programmes could be planned in places where the problem is specially important. %8 1988 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Int Oceanog Med %D 1988 %T Le risque ciguat %A Bagnis, R %A Julvez, J %A Allaoui, A %A Dubray, B %A Conan, H %A Ali Halidi, M A %A Mieli, L %A Galtier, J %P 43-54 %V 91-92 %X Un programme de surveillance %8 1988 %0 Journal Article %J J Epidemiol Community Health %D 1988 %T Prevalence of asthma among teenagers attending school in Tahiti. %A Liard, R %A Chansin, R %A Neukirch, F %A Levallois, M %A Leproux, P %N 2 %P 149-151 %V 42 %X The prevalence of asthma was studied in 6731 adolescents (average age 13.5 years, 48.6% boys) attending school in three towns of the isle of Tahiti, according to the ethnic origin of both parents. The pupils completed a self-administered questionnaire in class ; 14.3% gave an affirmative answer to the question "Have you ever had attacks of asthma ?" (cumulative prevalence). That prevalence was 11.4% in the Europeans, 13.7% in the Chinese, 13.8% in the Polynesians, 15.3% in those whose parents were "halves" (half-bred from Polynesians and Europeans), and 16.0% in the miscellaneous group (= other origins) (P<0.02). Asthma was significantly more frequent in boys only among the Europeans and those with one European parent. The result of this study confirm the high prevalence of asthma in French Polynesia found in a previous study. They give no evidence of a racial difference in prevalence but suggest an influence of environment. %8 1988 %0 Journal Article %J Chest %D 1988 %T Spirometry and maximal expiratory flow-volume curve reference standards for polynesian, european, and chinese teenagers. %A Neukirch, F %A Chansin, R %A Liard, R %A Levallois, M %A Leproux, P %P 792-798 %V 94 %X Lung function was compared and reference standards were determined in 1,007 Polynesian, European and Chinese teenagers attending school in Tahiti (517 boys, 490 girls ; mean age, 14.4 years). Spirometric study results and maximal expiratory flow-volume curves were measured using techniques recommanded by the American Thoracic Society. Age, standing height, and weight were chosen as the independant variables for males, and age and standing height for females. Regression equations constructed with logarithmically transformed dependant variables provided accurate predictions. We observed significant racial differences : in the Europeans, forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV) were higher than the mean values predicted for the whole study populations, while forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the FVC (FEF25-75%) and maximal expiratory flows after 25, 50 and 75 percent of FVC had been exhaled (Vmax 25, 50 and 75, respectively) were about equal to the mean values ; in the Polynesians, volumes and flows were mostly lower than the mean ; in the Chinese, FVC in boys and girls, and FEV, in girls only, were lower, while the other flows were higher. The FEV/FVC, FEF25-75%FVC, Vmax25/FVC, Vmax50FVC, and Vmax75/FVC were significantly higher than the mean in the Chinese boys and girls and often lower in the European. %8 1988 %0 Book Section %B In: Human impacts on coral reefs : facts and recommendations, B. Salvat (Ed), Antenne Museum EPHE, French Polynesia, Chapter 18, pp 241-253 %D 1987 %T Ciguatera fish poisoning : an objective witness of the coral reef stress. %A Bagnis, R %X En general, les zones les plus exposees au risque de ciguatera sont des zones possedant une importante couverture de coraux branchus vivants, et il serait utile d'informer les personnes chargees de l'administration des zones coralliennes de ce danger. On ne doit pas oublier que les activites humaines causant des dommages aux recifs coralliens sont nombreuses. Dans la plupart des cas, les perturbations sont insidieuses, souvent effectuees sous le pretexte d'un developpement economique, et leurs effets precis a long terme sur l'ecosysteme ne sont pas connus.A ce point de vue, la ciguatera appara %8 1987 %0 Book Section %B In: Human impacts on coral reefs : facts and recommendations, B. Salvat (Ed), Antenne Museum EPHE, French Polynesia, Chapter 18, pp 241-253 %D 1987 %T Ciguatera fish poisoning : an objective witness of the coral reef stress. %A Bagnis, R %X En g %8 1987 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Progress in Venom and Toxin Research, Gopalakrishnakone P, Tan CK (Eds), National University of Singapore and International Society of Toxinology, Asia-Pacific Section, (Singapour), pp 372-384 %D 1987 %T Clinical features on 12,890 cases of ciguatera (fish poisoning) in French Polynesia. %A Bagnis, R %A Legrand, A-M %X Monoclonal antibodies (MonoAbs) to purified ciguatoxin, okadaic acid and Gambierdiscus toxicus extracts were obtained by the hybridoma technique and used in the stick enzyme immunoassay (S-EIA) and solid phase enzyme immunoassay (SP-EIA) to detect ciguatoxin (CTX), maitotoxin (MTX), okadaic acid (OA) and related polyethers from fish tissues and extracts. MonoAb to CTX was used to examine toxic and non-toxic fishes consumed by individuals by the S-EIA test. Twenty-three fish samples implicated in ciguatera poisoning involving several species of fish gave a mean of 2.3 0.14 (X %8 1987 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Progress in Venom and Toxin Research, Gopalakrishnakone P, Tan CK (Eds), National University of Singapore and International Society of Toxinology, Asia-Pacific Section, (Singapour), pp 372-384 %D 1987 %T Clinical features on 12,890 cases of ciguatera (fish poisoning) in French Polynesia. %A Bagnis, R %A Legrand, A-M %X Monoclonal antibodies (MonoAbs) to purified ciguatoxin, okadaic acid and Gambierdiscus toxicus extracts were obtained by the hybridoma technique and used in the stick enzyme immunoassay (S-EIA) and solid phase enzyme immunoassay (SP-EIA) to detect ciguatoxin (CTX), maitotoxin (MTX), okadaic acid (OA) and related polyethers from fish tissues and extracts. MonoAb to CTX was used to examine toxic and non-toxic fishes consumed by individuals by the S-EIA test. Twenty-three fish samples implicated in ciguatera poisoning involving several species of fish gave a mean of 2.3 0.14 (X %8 1987 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Progress in venom and toxin research, Gopalakrishnakone P, Tan CK (Eds), National University of Singapore and International Society of Toxinology, Asia-Pacific Section, pp 394-404 %D 1987 %T Effects of partially purified ciguatoxin from moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus on action potential of isolated rat heart. %A Quod, J P %A Legrand, A-M %8 1987 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Progress in venom and toxin research, Gopalakrishnakone P, Tan CK (Eds), National University of Singapore and International Society of Toxinology, Asia-Pacific Section, pp 394-404 %D 1987 %T Effects of partially purified ciguatoxin from moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus on action potential of isolated rat heart. %A Quod, J P %A Legrand, A-M %8 1987 %0 Journal Article %J Tissue Antigen %D 1987 %T HLA and non-HLA phenotyping and genotyping in Austral and Gambier polynesian archipelagos. %A Dehay, C %A Gentile, B %A Jeannet, M %A Thorsby, E %A Marcelli-Barge, A %A Dausset, J %P 49-62 %V 30 %X Forty-one individuals from Rurutu Island (Austral Archipelagos) and 41 individuals from the Gambier Archipelagos have been typed for HLA ; for blood groups ABO, Rh, MNSs, P, Kell, Kp, Lewis, Lutheran, Kidd ; for the electrophoretic systems G6PD, 6-PGD, PGM1, PGM2, AcP, ADA, GPT, Est-D, GLO I, and for the immunoglobin allotypes Gm and Km. There is a high degree of homogeneity among these Polynesian populations and among other Polynesian populations previously typed. However, small differences exist between the populations of the two archipelagos, possibly due to endogamy or to the smallness of the samples studied. A variant of HLA-Bw22 (called Bw22x) is described. %8 1987 %0 Journal Article %J J Med Entomol %D 1987 %T Mesocyclops aspericornis (Copepoda) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. Israelensis for the biological control of Aedes and Culex vectors (Diptera : Culicidae) breeding in crab holes, tree holes, and artificial containers. %A Riviere, F %A Kay, B H %A Klein, J-M %A Sechan, Y %N 4 %P 425-430 %V 24 %X In French Polynesia, the cyclopoid copepod Mesocyclops aspericornis was inoculated into burrows of the land crab Cardisoma carnifex and into tree holes, drums, wells, and tires. It successfully reduced larval populations of Aedes polynesiensis and/or Aedes aegypti by 91-99%. Mesocyclops aspericornis has persisted to date for 29 mo in crab holes and for 60 mo in some wells, tires, and tree holes. As M. aspericornis does not effectively reduce Culex populations, copepod suspensions can be mixed with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, without detriment to the copepod, to effectively kill larvae of both genera. Its oliphagic feeding pattern, ease of mass production or collection, and high fecundity within probable temperature and salinity ranges of 23-30 %8 1987 %0 Journal Article %J Int J Lepr Mycobact Dis %D 1987 %T Primary and secondary dapsone resistance of M. leprae in Martinique, Guadeloupe, New Caledonia, Tahiti, Senegal and Paris between 1980 and 1985. %A Guelpa-Lauras, C C %A Cartel, J-L %A Constant-Desportes, M %A Millan, J %A Bobin, P %A Guidi, C %A Brucker, G %A Flageul, B %A Guillaume, J C %A Pichet, C %A Remy, J C %A Grosset, J-H %N 4 %P 672-679 %V 55 %X Primary and secondary dapsone resistance were studied among lepromatous patients living in Martinique, Guadeloupe, New Caledonia, Tahiti, Senegal, and Paris. Four hundred fifteen biopsies were taken from clinically active and bacteriologically positive (bacterial index > 2) patients in the 6-year period of 1980-1985. Among these, 280 biopsies that contained 5 x 104 acid fast bacilli per ml with a morphological index of at least 0.10 were inoculated into the mouse foot pad, and 229 harbored infective Mycobacterium leprae. Among the 129 infective M. leprae isolated from new cases, 54% had some degree of dapsone resistance, a low degree being prominent in all cases. Among the 100 infective M. leprae isolated from relapsed cases, 79% had a high or an intermediate degree of dapsone resistance. The annual incidence of secondary dapsone resistance was estimated to be about 0.55% in Guadeloupe.On a etudie la resistance primaire et la resistance secondaire a la dapsone chez des malades lepromateux vivant en Martinique, a la Guadeloupe, en Nouvelle-Caledonie, a Tahiti et a Paris. On a preleve 415 biopsies chez des malades cliniquement actifs et bacteriologiquement positifs (index bacterien > 2) pendant une periode de 6 ans s'etendant de 1980 a 1985. Parmi ces biopsies, on en a choisi 280 qui contenaient 5 x 104 bacilles acido-resistants par ml, avec un index morphologique d'au moins 0,10. Ces biopsies ont ete alors inoculees dans le coussinet plantaire de la souris. On a constate que 229 de ces biopsies contenaient des Mycobacterium leprae infectifs. Parmi les 129 souches de M. leprae isolees a partir de nouveaux cas, 54% presentaient un certain degre de resistance faible a la dapsone. Parmi 100 souches infectieuses de M. leprae, isolees de recidives, 79% presentaient un degre eleve ou intermediaire de resistance a la dapsone. L'incidence annuelle de resistance secondaire a la dapsone a ete estimee a 0,55% en Guadeloupe. %8 1987 %0 Journal Article %J Int J Lepr Mycobact Dis %D 1987 %T Seroepidemiological study on 724 household contacts of leprosy patients in French Polynesia using Disaccharide-Octyl-BSA as antigen. %A Chanteau, S %A Cartel, J-L %A Guidi, C %A Plichart, R %A Bach, M-A %N 4 %P 626-632 %V 55 %X A seroepidemiological surveillance of a contact population was started in 1984 in French Polynesia. The ELISA test was used to measure IgM anti-ND-O-BSA in the sera. Specific antibody levels were higher in healthy Polynesians than in normal individuals living in a nonendemic country. The positive threshold of the reaction was fixed according to this background activity in healthy Polynesians. Under these conditions, 100% of the multibacillary patients were detected as seropositive as compared to 5% of the paucibacillary group.In the population of 724 household contacts tested and observed for 2 years : 93 (12,8%) were seropositive, with 8 (1,1%) showing activity equivalent to multibacillary patients (1 of these 8 individuals developed a lepromatous form of leprosy) ; 631 (87%) were seronegative and 3 developed a paucibacillary form of the disease (2 BT, 1 I) without any antibody increase. Among those contacts who developed leprosy, three were related to a multibacillary index case. These data suggest that this test may be useful for the prediction of multibacillary leprosy. A long-term surveillance of this high-risk population will be able to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of the serological assay. En 1984, on a entrepris la surveillance seroepidemiologique d'une population contact en Polynesie francaise. L'epreuve ELISA a ete utilisee pour mesurer les taux IgM anti-ND-O-BSA dans le serum. Les taux d'anticorps specifiques etaient plus eleves chez des Polynesiens en bonne sante que dans des individus normaux vivant dans un pays non-endemique. Le seuil fixe pour qu'une reaction soit consideree comme positive a ete determine en se basant sur les resultats observes chez les Polynesiens en bonne sante. Dans ces conditions, on a constate que 100% des malades multibacillaires etaient seropositifs, alors que 5% des malades paucibacillaires livraient des valeurs positives. Dans une population de 724 domiciliaires etudies et observes pendant 2 ans, on a releve des resultats seropositifs chez 93 d'entre eux (12,8%), dont 8 (1,1%) presentaient une activite equivalente a celle des malades multibacillaires (1 de ces 8 sujets a developpe une maladie du type lepromateux) ; 631 de ces sujets etaient seronegatifs (87%) et 3 ont developpe une maladie du type paucibacillaire (2 Bt, 1 I) sans aucune elevation des titres d'anticorps. Parmi les 4 contacts qui ont developpe la lepre, 3 etaient en relation avec un cas index multibacillaires. Ces donnees suggerent que cette epreuve peut etre utile pour predire la lepre multibacillaire. Une surveillance prolongee des populations a haut risque pourrait permettre d'evaluer la valeur diagnostique et pronostique de cette epreuve serologique. %8 1987 %0 Journal Article %J Biol Bull %D 1987 %T The use of mosquito bioassay for determining the toxicity to man of ciguateric fish. %A Bagnis, R %A Barsinas, M %A Prieur, C %A Pompon, A %A Chungue, E %A Legrand, A-M %P 137-143 %V 172 %X Moderately well-correlated with the mouse bioassay, requiring a much smaller amount of raw fish flesh, and employing a faster chemical extraction procedure, the mosquito bioassay represents significant progress in detecting ciguatoxin in fish muscle. We use the mosquito bioassay to evaluate the approximate amount of ciguatoxin present in the remains of 25 fish of 17 different species involved in 99 documented cases of ciguatera poisoning. From the data provided by mosquito bioassay and human symptomatology, we detrmine a dose-effect relationship for ciguatoxin (CTX) to man. Three average pathogenic doses (PD) are established. The minimum PD is estimated to be 0.6 ng CTX/kg, the PD50 to be 2 ng CTX/kg, and the PD100 to be 8 ng CTX/kg. These data suggest a MLD (minimal lethal dose) value of 20 ng CTX/kg. %8 1987 %0 Journal Article %J Biol Bull %D 1987 %T The use of mosquito bioassay for determining the toxicity to man of ciguateric fish. %A Bagnis, R %A Barsinas, M %A Prieur, C %A Pompon, A %A Chungue, E %A Legrand, A-M %P 137-143 %V 172 %X Moderately well-correlated with the mouse bioassay, requiring a much smaller amount of raw fish flesh, and employing a faster chemical extraction procedure, the mosquito bioassay represents significant progress in detecting ciguatoxin in fish muscle. We use the mosquito bioassay to evaluate the approximate amount of ciguatoxin present in the remains of 25 fish of 17 different species involved in 99 documented cases of ciguatera poisoning. From the data provided by mosquito bioassay and human symptomatology, we detrmine a dose-effect relationship for ciguatoxin (CTX) to man. Three average pathogenic doses (PD) are established. The minimum PD is estimated to be 0.6 ng CTX/kg, the PD50 to be 2 ng CTX/kg, and the PD100 to be 8 ng CTX/kg. These data suggest a MLD (minimal lethal dose) value of 20 ng CTX/kg. %8 1987 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1987 %T Une importante endemie marquisienne : l'angiostrongylose nerveuse. %A Roux, J %A Auberget, J-L %A Prieur, J %A Gassiot, P %N 2 %P 141-144 %V 47 %X Les auteurs rapportent 37 nouveaux cas de meningite a eosinophiles recenses en deux ans sur une %8 1987 %0 Journal Article %J Union medicale du Canada %D 1986 %T Ciguatera, sante et developpement en Polynesie francaise. %A Bagnis, R %N 8 %P 502-506 %V 115 %X Les personnes consommant du poisson frais habituellement comestible, peuvent presenter, par absorption de toxines qui ont prolifere dans les algues et les coraux morts, pour etre ensuite absorbees par differents types de poissons, des sympt %8 1986 %0 Journal Article %J Union m %D 1986 %T Ciguat %A Bagnis, R %N 8 %P 502-506 %V 115 %X Les personnes consommant du poisson frais habituellement comestible, peuvent pr %8 1986 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1986 %T Effects of ciguatoxin on current and voltage clamped frog myelinated nerve fibre. %A Legrand, A-M %A Benoit, E %A Dubois, J M %N 4 %P 357-364 %V 24 %X The effects of 0.25 X 10(-9) and 1.25 X 10(-9) g/ml of purified ciguatoxin (CgTX) upon the node of Ranvier of frog isolated nerve fibres were investigated under current and voltage clamp conditions. When added to the external solution, CgTX induced spontaneous action potentials at a frequency of about 100 Hz, which were reversible upon removal of the toxin. Under voltage clamp conditions, CgTX modified neither linear leakage and capacity currents nor K current, but reversibly induced a maintained (late) inward current (IL) during long lasting depolarizations. IL, as well as the peak Na current, was suppressed by tetrodotoxin (300 nM). The steady-state inactivation curve of the Na current showed that a fraction of the current (corresponding to IL) did not inactivate. IL activated and reversed at voltages about 30 mV more negative than the peak Na current (recorded under control conditions or in the presence of CgTX). During a given depolarizing pulse, the amplitude of IL depended on the holding potential. IL was about three times greater when the holding potential was -70 mV rather than -120 mV. We conclude that CgTX specifically interacts with and modifies Na channels. We also conclude that the effects of CgTX depend on membrane potential. %8 1986 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1986 %T Effects of ciguatoxin on current and voltage clamped frog myelinated nerve fibre. %A Benoit, E %A Legrand, A-M %A Dubois, J M %N 4 %P 357-364 %V 24 %X The effects of 0.25 X 10(-9) and 1.25 X 10(-9) g/ml of purified ciguatoxin (CgTX) upon the node of Ranvier of frog isolated nerve fibres were investigated under current and voltage clamp conditions. When added to the external solution, CgTX induced spontaneous action potentials at a frequency of about 100 Hz, which were reversible upon removal of the toxin. Under voltage clamp conditions, CgTX modified neither linear leakage and capacity currents nor K current, but reversibly induced a maintained (late) inward current (IL) during long lasting depolarizations. IL, as well as the peak Na current, was suppressed by tetrodotoxin (300 nM). The steady-state inactivation curve of the Na current showed that a fraction of the current (corresponding to IL) did not inactivate. IL activated and reversed at voltages about 30 mV more negative than the peak Na current (recorded under control conditions or in the presence of CgTX). During a given depolarizing pulse, the amplitude of IL depended on the holding potential. IL was about three times greater when the holding potential was -70 mV rather than -120 mV. We conclude that CgTX specifically interacts with and modifies Na channels. We also conclude that the effects of CgTX depend on membrane potential. %8 1986 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 1986 %T Efficiency papain-treated microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti (var. pacifica) as antigen for serodiagnosis of bancroftian filariasis in French Polynesia. %A Chanteau, S %A Guidi, C %A Durosoir, J-L %P 795-799 %V 80 %X Papain-treated microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti have been used as antigen for indirect fluorescent assay : 0% of non-endemic sera, 8% of healthy exposed Polynesians, 48% of clinical patients and 96% of microfilaraemic subjects were positive by this test. The geometric mean titres were 22, 41, 147 and 605 respectively. Untreated microfilariae were unsuitable for diagnostic pruposes. Dirofilaria immitis adult sections showed low reactivity, giving poor discrimination between non-endemic and microfilaraemic sera. The geometric mean titres were 6 and 61 rescpectively. %8 1986 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1986 %T Effects of ciguatoxin on current and voltage clamped frog myelinated nerve fibre. %A Benoit, E %A Legrand, A-M %A Dubois, J M %N 4 %P 357-364 %V 24 %X The effects of 0.25 X 10(-9) and 1.25 X 10(-9) g/ml of purified ciguatoxin (CgTX) upon the node of Ranvier of frog isolated nerve fibres were investigated under current and voltage clamp conditions. When added to the external solution, CgTX induced spontaneous action potentials at a frequency of about 100 Hz, which were reversible upon removal of the toxin. Under voltage clamp conditions, CgTX modified neither linear leakage and capacity currents nor K current, but reversibly induced a maintained (late) inward current (IL) during long lasting depolarizations. IL, as well as the peak Na current, was suppressed by tetrodotoxin (300 nM). The steady-state inactivation curve of the Na current showed that a fraction of the current (corresponding to IL) did not inactivate. IL activated and reversed at voltages about 30 mV more negative than the peak Na current (recorded under control conditions or in the presence of CgTX). During a given depolarizing pulse, the amplitude of IL depended on the holding potential. IL was about three times greater when the holding potential was -70 mV rather than -120 mV. We conclude that CgTX specifically interacts with and modifies Na channels. We also conclude that the effects of CgTX depend on membrane potential. %8 1986 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1986 %T Filariose de Bancroft en Polynesie francaise. Situation epidemiologique et perspectives apres 35 ans de lutte. %A Perolat, P %A Guidi, C %A Riviere, F %A Roux, J %N 1 %P 78-88 %V 79 %X Les auteurs font le bilan de trois decennies de lutte contre la filariose de Bancroft en Polynesie francaise. Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica, filaire aperiodique, et Aedes polynesiensis, vecteur a haut rendement parasitaire, constituent un cycle tres adapte a l'environnement polynesien ; apres de nombreux essais, la chimioprophylaxie par la diethylcarbamazine (3 mg/kg/semestre) de l'ensemble de la population exposee a ete retenue, en association avec des mesures anti-vectorielles (utilisation de predateurs).Cependant, la realisation de cette strategie est compromise pour des raisons economiques, d'ou une reactivation de l'endemie y compris dans des zones proches de l'eradication. Les indices entomologiques temoignent d'une retransmission elevee sur l'essentiel du territoire. Lutte anti-vectorielle integree et chimioprophylaxie de masse doivent beneficier de moyens accrus pour ramener la transmission a un niveau minimum. The authors assess of three decades of struggle against Bancroftian filariasis in French Polynesia. Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica, aperiodic filaria, and Aedes polynesiensis, mosquito with high parasitologic output, set up a cycle very well adapted to the Polynesian environment; after numerous tests, the chemoprophylaxis with diethylcarbamazine (3 mg/kg/half-year) of all the exposed population has been decided, in association with methods of vector-control (use of predatory crustaceans). However, the achievement of this strategy is impeded by economical contingencies and the endemic comes up again particularly in areas close to eradication. Entomological clues show a high transmission over the greater part of French Polynesia. %8 1986 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1986 %T Interet de l'antigene microfilarien homologue traite a la papaine pour le diagnostic de la filariose a Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica : analyse de 237 cas. %A Perolat, P %A Chanteau, S %A Roux, J %N 2 %P 169-172 %V 46 %X Une technique d'immunofluorescence indirecte utilisant des microfilaires traitees a la papaine (IFI-WBp) a ete mise au point afin d'ameliorer le diagnostic de la filariose de Bancroft. Les auteurs ont analyse 237 dossiers de malades consultant pour des lymphangites bacteriennes ou filariennes, chyluries, elephantiasis, hydroceles, hypereosinophilies asymptomatiques. Considerant les aspects cliniques, les resultats parasitologiques et serologiques, ils montrent l'efficacite de l'IFI-WBp (titre > 80) pour le diagnostic de la filariose en Polynesie francaise ou une seule espece de filaire (Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica) est presente.An indirect immunofluorescence assay using papain treated microfilariae (IFI-WBp) has been performed to attempt diagnosis of bancroftian filariasis. The authors have analysed 237 bed-rests of patients consulting for specific and non specific lymphangitis, chyluria, elephantiasis, hydrocele or just asymptomatic hypereosinophilia. Taking into account the clinical aspects, the parasitological and the serological results, they have shown the efficiency of IFI-WBp (titre greater than 80) to diagnose filariasis in French Polynesia where only one species of filaria is present (Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica.) %8 1986 %0 Book Section %D 1986 %T Les invertebres. %A Riviere, F %8 1986 %0 Journal Article %J Biological Cellular %D 1986 %T Pseudonuclear vesicles in the toxic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. %A Durand, M %A Squiban, A %A Ribier, J %A Bagnis, R %A Puiseux-Dao, S %P 171-180 %V 56 %X From nuclear staining and electron microscopic investigations it has been found that Gambierdiscus toxicus, a benthic dinoflagellate involved in ciguatera disease, presents peculiar structural characteristics. It possesses numerous structures showing nuclear features, which we term pseudonuclear vesicles. %8 1986 %0 Journal Article %J Med Ocean %D 1986 %T Pneumologie du praticien. Pouvons-nous mieux guerir nos asthmatiques ? %A Chansin, R %P 11-12 %V 28 %8 1986 %0 Journal Article %J Biological Cellular %D 1986 %T Pseudonuclear vesicles in the toxic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. %A Durand, M %A Squiban, A %A Ribier, J %A Bagnis, R %A Puiseux-Dao, S %P 171-180 %V 56 %X From nuclear staining and electron microscopic investigations it has been found that Gambierdiscus toxicus, a benthic dinoflagellate involved in ciguatera disease, presents peculiar structural characteristics. It possesses numerous structures showing nuclear features, which we term pseudonuclear vesicles. %8 1986 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Proceedings of the 5th International Coral Reef Congress, Papeete, Tahiti , French Polynesia, Antenne Museum-EPHE, Vol 4, pp 491-496 %D 1985 %T Comparison of the cat bioassay, the mouse bioassay and the mosquito bioassay to detect ciguatoxicity in fish. %A Bagnis, R %A Chanteau, S %A Chungue, E %A Drollet, J H %A Lechat-Vahirua, I %A Legrand, A-M %A Pompon, A %A Prieur, C %A Roux, J %A Tetaria, C %C Papeete, Tahiti (27 mai-1er juin 1985) %X Le but de l'etude etait de comparer les resultats fournis par les trois tests animaux couramment utilises a Tahiti pour la detection de la ciguatoxicite des poissons. Leur interet respectif pour quantifier les doses pathogenes de ciguatoxine a aussi ete discute. L'etude a porte sur 107 poissons consommes par quelque 500 personnes. Parmi eux, 25 poissons ont ete a l'origine de 107 cas d'empoisonnements qui ont fait l'objet d'observations cliniques. Les correlations entre les divers tests animaux ont ete moderement satisfaisantes : r = 0,64 pour le couple test chat-test souris (n = 111), r = 0,68 pour le couple test souris-test moustique (n = 153), r = 0,59 pour le couple test chat-test moustique (n = 65). Le chat semble beaucoup plus sensible que la souris ou le moustique, celui-ci etant d'ailleurs deux fois moins sensible que celle-la. Des unites chat (CU), et moustique Aedes (AU) ont ete definies, avec des equivalences correspondantes : 1 MU = 0,5 CU = 5,700 AU. La dose moyenne de ciguatoxine (CTX) par gramme de poissons (fg), capable d'incommoder 50% des consommateurs a ete etablie. Elle se situe entre 0,15 et 1,25 ng suivant l'animal. En fonction de l'ensemble des donnees les poissons ont ete repartis grossierement en trois groupes : a) toxiques pour au moins 50% des consommateurs : 90 a 523 pg de CTX/fg ; b) comestibles pour tous les consommateurs : 11 a 123 pg de CTX/fg ; c) douteux : les poissons aux doses de CTX intermediaires.The purpose of the survey was to compare the results of the three bioassays routinely used in Tahiti to detect the fish ciguatoxicity. Their respective interest to quantify the pathogenic risk doses of ciguatoxin to human was also pointed out. The survey dealt with 107 fishes consumed by about 500 people. Among the former, 25 were involved in 107 documented cases of man poisoning. Correlations between the three bioassays were moderate : r = 0.64 for cat bioassay-mouse bioassay pair (n = 111), r = 0.68 for the mouse bioassay-mosquito bioassay pair (n = 153), r = 0.59 for the cat bioassay-mosquito bioassay pair (n = 65). The cat appears as much more sensitive than the mouse or the mosquito, the latter being twice less sensitive than the former. A cat-unit (CU) and a Aedes mosquito unit (AU) were defined, with the following correspondances : 1 MU = 0.5 CU = 5.700 AU. The average amount of ciguatoxin (CTX) per gram of fish (fg) able to make sick 50% of the consumers, was tentatively established. It ranged from 0.15 to 1.25 ng according to the bioassay. From the overall data, the fishers were distributed roughly into three classes : a) poisonous for at least 50% of the consumers : 90 to 523 pg CTX/fg ; b) safe for all consumers : 11 to 123 pg CTX/fg ; c) borderline (intermediate doses). %8 1985 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Proceedings of the 5th International Coral Reef Congress, Papeete, Tahiti , French Polynesia, Antenne Museum-EPHE, Vol 4, pp 429-435 %D 1985 %T Ciguatera: study of the setting up and the evolution of Gambierdiscus toxicus population on an artificial substrate introduced in an atoll lagoon with follow up of associated environmental factors. %A Caire, J F %A Raymond, A %A Bagnis, R %C Papeete, Tahiti (27 mai-1er juin 1985) %X Dans le cadre de l'etude de Gambierdiscus toxicus (G.T.), agent etiologique de la ciguatera, il etait interessant de mieux comprendre les conditions d'apparition et de proliferation en milieu naturel, sur substrats vierges.Apres mouillage, dans le lagon de Mururoa, atoll de Polynesie francaise, de 400 petits drapeaux de ruban adhesif pour servir de 'piege a algues', il a ete procede quotidiennement de juillet 81 a ao %8 1985 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Proceedings of the 5th International Coral Reef Congress, Papeete, Tahiti , French Polynesia, Antenne Museum-EPHE, Vol 4, pp 401-402 %D 1985 %T Ciguatera and other reef seafood poisoning. %A Bagnis, R %A Scheuer, P J %C Papeete, Tahiti (27 mai-1er juin 1985) %8 1985 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Proceedings of the 5th International Coral Reef Congress, Papeete, Tahiti , French Polynesia, Antenne Museum-EPHE, Vol 4, pp 491-496 %D 1985 %T Comparison of the cat bioassay, the mouse bioassay and the mosquito bioassay to detect ciguatoxicity in fish. %A Bagnis, R %A Chanteau, S %A Chungue, E %A Drollet, J H %A Lechat-Vahirua, I %A Legrand, A-M %A Pompon, A %A Prieur, C %A Roux, J %A Tetaria, C %C Papeete, Tahiti (27 mai-1er juin 1985) %X Le but de l' %8 1985 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Proceedings of the 5th International Coral Reef Congress, Papeete, Tahiti , French Polynesia, Antenne Museum-EPHE, Vol 4, pp 429-435 %D 1985 %T Ciguatera: study of the setting up and the evolution of Gambierdiscus toxicus population on an artificial substrate introduced in an atoll lagoon with follow up of associated environmental factors. %A Caire, J F %A Raymond, A %A Bagnis, R %C Papeete, Tahiti (27 mai-1er juin 1985) %X Dans le cadre de l' %8 1985 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Proceedings of the 5th International Coral Reef Congress, Papeete, Tahiti , French Polynesia, Antenne Museum-EPHE, Vol 4, pp 401-402 %D 1985 %T Ciguatera and other reef seafood poisoning. %A Bagnis, R %A Scheuer, P J %C Papeete, Tahiti (27 mai-1er juin 1985) %8 1985 %0 Journal Article %J Revue Internationale des Services de Sante des Armees de Terre, de Mer et de l'Air %D 1985 %T Essais cliniques de la betamethasone en milieu non hospitalier sur l'ichtyosarcotoxisme de type ciguatera. %A Bagnis, R %A Merlin, M %A Kaeuffer, H %N 9-10 %P 529-532 %V 58 %8 1985 %0 Journal Article %J Revue Internationale des Services de Sant %D 1985 %T Essais cliniques de la b %A Bagnis, R %A Merlin, M %A Kaeuffer, H %N 9-10 %P 529-532 %V 58 %8 1985 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Proceedings of the 5th International Coral Reef Congress, Papeete, Tahiti , French Polynesia, Antenne Museum-EPHE, Vol 4, pp 475-482. %D 1985 %T Epidemiology of ciguatera in French Polynesia from 1960 to 1984. %A Bagnis, R %A Bennett, J %A Barsinas, M %A Chebret, M %A Jacquet, G %A Lechat-Vahirua, I %A Mitermite, Y %A Perolat, P %A Rongeras, S %C Papeete, Tahiti (27 mai-1er juin 1985) %X L'etude a ete menee gr %8 1985 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Toxic dinoflagellates., (Anderson DM, White AW, Baden D, Eds), Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Toxic Dinoflagellates, St. Andrews, New Brunswick, Canada, pp. 381-382 %D 1985 %T Electrophysiological studies of the effects of ciguatoxin in the frog myelinated nerve fiber. %A Benoit, E %A Legrand, A-M %A Dubois, J M %8 1985 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Proceedings of the 5th International Coral Reef Congress, Papeete, Tahiti , French Polynesia, Antenne Museum-EPHE, Vol 4, pp 475-482. %D 1985 %T Epidemiology of ciguatera in French Polynesia from 1960 to 1984. %A Bagnis, R %A Bennett, J %A Barsinas, M %A Chebret, M %A Jacquet, G %A Lechat-Vahirua, I %A Mitermite, Y %A P %C Papeete, Tahiti (27 mai-1er juin 1985) %X L' %8 1985 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Toxic dinoflagellates., (Anderson DM, White AW, Baden D, Eds), Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Toxic Dinoflagellates, St. Andrews, New Brunswick, Canada, pp. 381-382 %D 1985 %T Electrophysiological studies of the effects of ciguatoxin in the frog myelinated nerve fiber. %A Benoit, E %A Legrand, A-M %A Dubois, J M %8 1985 %0 Journal Article %J Med Ocean %D 1985 %T Filariose lymphatique en Polynesie francaise, vers un probleme de sante publique ? %A Perolat, P %A Riviere, F %A Roux, J %N 26 %P 36-43 %8 1985 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Proceedings of the 5th International Coral Reef Congress, Papeete, Tahiti , French Polynesia, Antenne Museum-EPHE, Vol 4, pp 443-448 %D 1985 %T Gambierdiscus toxicus: culture and toxin production. %A Lechat-Vahirua, I %A Partenski, F %A Chungue, E %C Papeete, Tahiti (27 mai-1er juin 1985) %X Les auteurs etudient la croissance et la toxicogenese du dinoflagelle Gambierdiscus toxicus (Adachi et Fukuyo, 1979), agent etiologique de la ciguatera. Les souches unialgales obtenues sous conditions standard de culture et de croissance optimale contiennent moins de toxine liposoluble, et plus de toxine hydrosoluble que les specimens collectes en zone ciguaterigene. Des essais preliminaires portant sur l'enrichissement en sels metalliques du milieu de culture montrent une amelioration notable du rendement en extrait ciguatoxique.Unialgal cultures of the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus 'Adachi and Fukuyo, 1979) are known to produce ciguateric toxins. The present study deals with physical and nutritional requirements for culturing these cells. Standard conditions for optimal growth were established. These cultures were examined for toxin production. Most of them were found to produce less fat-soluble toxin and more water-soluble toxin than the wild specimens. Furthermore, preliminary attempts to culture the dinoflagellate in a high metallic salt medium show a better yield of fat-soluble toxin. %8 1985 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Proceedings of the 5th International Coral Reef Congress, Papeete, Tahiti , French Polynesia, Antenne Museum-EPHE, Vol 4, pp 443-448 %D 1985 %T Gambierdiscus toxicus: culture and toxin production. %A Lechat-Vahirua, I %A Partenski, F %A Chungue, E %C Papeete, Tahiti (27 mai-1er juin 1985) %X Les auteurs %8 1985 %0 Journal Article %J Int J Lepr Mycobact Dis %D 1985 %T Hepatotoxicity of the daily combination 5 mg/kg Prothionamide + 10 mg/kg rifampin. %A Cartel, J-L %A Naudillon, Y %A Artus, J C %A Grosset, J-H %N 1 %P 15-18 %V 53 %X Lors d'une etude anterieure, on a observe une incidence de 13% de manifestation toxique au niveau du foie chez des malades atteints de lepre multibacillaire traites quotidiennement par la dapsone, la rifampine, et 10 mg/kg de thioamide. Ces malades ont ete traites, dans une seconde etude, avec 5 mg/kg de thioamide, en combinaison journaliere avec de la dapsone et de la rifampine. Dans cette etude, on a procede a des evaluations mensuelles de la fonction hepatique, en vue de deceler des lesions hepatiques precoces. Malgre la dose reduite de thioamide, on a observe une incidence de 16,5% de toxicite hepatique chez les 110 malades multibacillaires. Toutefois, une jaunisse n'a ete relevee que chez 2 des 18 cas presentant des manifestations d'hepatotoxicite (11%). Par contre, de telles manifestations de jaunisse ont ete observees chez 5 des 7 cas avec manifestations toxiques au niveau du foie (71%), qui ont ete etudiees au cours de la premiere etude (p < 0,05).Une diminution des doses de thioamide, de meme que les evaluations mensuelles de la fonction hepatique, n'ont pas permis de diminuer l'incidence de manifestations toxiques au niveau du foie ; elles en ont cependant diminue la gravite. On en conclut que la thioamide ne devrait pas etre utilisee en combinaison quotidienne avec la rifampycine, a moins que la dose ne depasse pas 5 mg/kg et par jour, et que des evaluations aperiodiques de la fonction hepatique soient regulierement pratiquees. Because a 13% incidence of hepatotoxicity was observed in a first study of multibacillary leprosy patients treated daily with dapsone, rifampin, and 10 mg/kg thioamide, the patients were treated in a second study with 5 mg/kg thioamide in daily combination with dapsone and rifampin. In this study, monthly assessments of liver function were performed in order to detect early hepatic disturbances. Despite the reduced dosage of thioamide, a 16.5% incidence of hepatotoxicity was observed among 110 multibacillary patients. However, jaundice was observed in only 2 out of 18 cases of hepatotoxicity (11%) ; whereas it was observed in 5 out of the 7 cases of hepatotoxicity (71%) in the first study (p < 0.05). The decrease in the thioamide dosage and the performance of monthly assessments of liver function did not decrease the incidence of hepatotoxicity but did decrease its severity. It is concluded that thioamide should not be used in daily combination with rifampin unless the daily dose is 5 mg/kg and monthly assessments of liver function are routinely performed. %8 1985 %0 Journal Article %J Revue Internationale des Services de Sante des Armees de Terre, de Mer et de l'Air %D 1985 %T Interet de l'emploi du maleate de dexchlorpheniramine dans le traitement ambulatoire des intoxications par poissons veneneux ciguaterigenes. %A Bagnis, R %A Merlin, M %A Kaeuffer, H %N 11 %P 567-569 %V 58 %8 1985 %0 Journal Article %J Revue Internationale des Services de Sant %D 1985 %T Int %A Bagnis, R %A Merlin, M %A Kaeuffer, H %N 11 %P 567-569 %V 58 %8 1985 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Proceedings of the 5th International Coral Reef Congress, Papeete, Tahiti , French Polynesia, Antenne Museum-EPHE, Vol 4, pp 463-466 %D 1985 %T Respiratory and cardio-vascular effects of ciguatoxin in cats ; antagonistic action of hexamethonium, atropine, propanolol, phentolamine, yohimbine, prazosin, verapamil, calcium and lidocaine. %A Legrand, A-M %A Lotte, C %A Quod, J P %A Bagnis, R %C Papeete, Tahiti (27 mai-1er juin 1985) %X Le mode d'action des effets respiratoires et cardiovasculaires de la ciguatoxine est etudie chez le chat anesthesie. De la ciguatoxine de murene Gymnothorax javanicus est injectee par voie intraveineuse a des doses croissantes allant jusqu'a la dose letale. On observe alors une hyperventilation suivie d'une depression respiratoire, une action cardiovasculaire biphasique comprenant hypotension et bradycardie aux faibles doses, de l'hypertension et de la tachycardie aux fortes doses, accompagnees de troubles electrocardiographiques. L'action antagoniste d'un certain nombre de composes pharmacologiques bien connus a ete testee. On a observe que l'atropine, substance anticholinergique, ne supprime pas les effets respiratoires de la ciguatoxine. L'hypotension et la bradycardie induites par de faibles doses de toxines sont antagonisees par un pretraitement a l'hexamethonium et par l'atropine. La tachycardie observee aux fortes doses est partiellement inhibee par l'hexamethonium, l'atropine et le propanolol, tandis que l'hypertension ne l'est pas. Par contre, tous les effets cardiovasculaires de la ciguatoxine sont partiellement ou completement abolis par les substances a-bloquantes comme la phentolamine, la yohimbine et la prazocine, ainsi que par une perfusion de calcium ou une perfusion de lidocaine. Ces resultats montrent que la ciguatoxine provoque non seulement une hyperactivite cholinergique mais aussi une stimulation du systeme a-adrenergique. En outre, gr %8 1985 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Proceedings of the 5th International Coral Reef Congress, Papeete, Tahiti , French Polynesia, Antenne Museum-EPHE, Vol 4, pp 463-466 %D 1985 %T Respiratory and cardio-vascular effects of ciguatoxin in cats ; antagonistic action of hexamethonium, atropine, propanolol, phentolamine, yohimbine, prazosin, verapamil, calcium and lidoca %A Legrand, A-M %A Lotte, C %A Quod, J P %A Bagnis, R %C Papeete, Tahiti (27 mai-1er juin 1985) %X Le mode d'action des effets respiratoires et cardiovasculaires de la ciguatoxine est %8 1985 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Toxic dinoflagellates., (Anderson DM, White AW, Baden D, Eds), Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Toxic Dinoflagellates, St. Andrews, New Brunswick, Canada, pp. 177-182. %D 1985 %T The dynamics of three toxic benthic dinoflagellates and the toxicity of a ciguateric surgeonfish in French Polynesia. %A Bagnis, R %A Bennett, J %A Prieur, C %A Legrand, A-M %X A survey of the compared monthly or yearly distribution of three toxic dinoflagellates populations associated with ciguateric biota (Gambierdiscus toxicus, Ostreopsis lenticularis, Prorocentrum lima) and of the toxicity of the surgeonfish Ctenochaetus striatus was carried out in three places of French Polynesia (Tahiti and Gambier Islands) differently involved in ciguatera poisoning. The available data indicate that the three dinoflagellates did not display any constant numeric relationship between them. In Gambier Islands, the most important G. toxicus bloom ever observed over the world occurred in the years 1974-1976, when densities close to 5 x 106/ga were recorded. In Tahiti G. toxicus was scarcer, with average densities most of the time less than 10/ga. There, the predominant dinoflagellate was O. lenticularis the populations of which sometimes reached 4,000/ga, while P. lima density never passed over 800/ga. The presence of ciguatoxin (CTX)-and maitotoxin (MTX)-like toxins was checked in C. striatus muscle (M) and digestive tractus (DT). The concentrations of toxins in mouse unit per gram of fish (MU/gf) ranged from 0.01 to 0.25 for M-CTX, from 0.025 to 2.25 for DT-CTX, from 0.07 to 1.654 for DT-MTX. The most significant correlation between a dinoflagellate population and the fish toxicity wasobserved for G. toxicus in Gambier Is. and involved the three assayed toxicological parameters. In Tahiti, when G. toxicus was scarce on the reef the digestive tractus toxicity may be was influenced bu toxins not directly involved in human ciguateric syndrome. The overall combined data confirmed G. toxicus as the only one dinoflagellate able till now to elaborate ciguatoxin in the surveyed areas. %8 1985 %0 Conference Paper %B In: Toxic dinoflagellates., (Anderson DM, White AW, Baden D, Eds), Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Toxic Dinoflagellates, St. Andrews, New Brunswick, Canada, pp. 177-182. %D 1985 %T The dynamics of three toxic benthic dinoflagellates and the toxicity of a ciguateric surgeonfish in French Polynesia. %A Bagnis, R %A Bennett, J %A Prieur, C %A Legrand, A-M %X A survey of the compared monthly or yearly distribution of three toxic dinoflagellates populations associated with ciguateric biota (Gambierdiscus toxicus, Ostreopsis lenticularis, Prorocentrum lima) and of the toxicity of the surgeonfish Ctenochaetus striatus was carried out in three places of French Polynesia (Tahiti and Gambier Islands) differently involved in ciguatera poisoning. The available data indicate that the three dinoflagellates did not display any constant numeric relationship between them. In Gambier Islands, the most important G. toxicus bloom ever observed over the world occurred in the years 1974-1976, when densities close to 5 x 106/ga were recorded. In Tahiti G. toxicus was scarcer, with average densities most of the time less than 10/ga. There, the predominant dinoflagellate was O. lenticularis the populations of which sometimes reached 4,000/ga, while P. lima density never passed over 800/ga. The presence of ciguatoxin (CTX)-and maitotoxin (MTX)-like toxins was checked in C. striatus muscle (M) and digestive tractus (DT). The concentrations of toxins in mouse unit per gram of fish (MU/gf) ranged from 0.01 to 0.25 for M-CTX, from 0.025 to 2.25 for DT-CTX, from 0.07 to 1.654 for DT-MTX. The most significant correlation between a dinoflagellate population and the fish toxicity wasobserved for G. toxicus in Gambier Is. and involved the three assayed toxicological parameters. In Tahiti, when G. toxicus was scarce on the reef the digestive tractus toxicity may be was influenced bu toxins not directly involved in human ciguateric syndrome. The overall combined data confirmed G. toxicus as the only one dinoflagellate able till now to elaborate ciguatoxin in the surveyed areas. %8 1985 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1985 %T Utilisation de microfilaires traitees a la papaine pour le serodiagnostic de la filariose lymphatique a Wuchereria bancrofti (var. pacifica). %A Chanteau, S %A Durosoir, J-L %N 3 %P 271-276 %V 45 %X Une methode de serodiagnostic de la filariose lymphatique a W. bancrofti a ete developpee et standardisee en vue de son utilisation en laboratoire de routine. Il s'agit d'une technique d'immunofluorescence indirecte utilisant comme support antigenique, des microfilaires traitees a la papaine. Elle a permis de detecter des taux d'anticorps tres eleves chez 96% des filariens microfilaremiques. Les titres moyens geometriques observes sont de 22,7 pour les sujets sains et 605,5 pour les filariens. La specificite vis-a-vis de deux filarioses sous-cutanees et d'une filariose lymphatique est etudiee. Les titres moyens geometriques sont de 211,1 pour O. volvulus, 105,6 pour Loa-loa et 254 pour B. malayi. Les reactions croisees avec d'autres parasites sont negligeables.A standardised method for serodiagnosis of lymphatic filariasis W. bancrofti (var. pacifica) was performed. The authors used indirect fluorescent assay with papain treated microfilariae as source of antigen. Very high levels of antibodies were obtained in 96% microfilaremic patients. The geometric mean titers were 22.7 for healthy subjects and 605.5 for the filariasis patients. Cross reactivity was studied with two subcutaneous and one lymphatic filariasis. The geometric mean titers were 211.1 for Onchocerca volvulus, 105.6 for Loa-loa and 254 for Brugia malayi patients. No significant reactivity was observed with some other parasites. %8 1985 %0 Journal Article %J J Biol Chem %D 1984 %T Ciguatoxin is a novel type of Na+ channel toxin. %A Bidard, J N %A Vijverberg, H P M %A Frelin, C %A Chungue, E %A Legrand, A-M %A Bagnis, R %A Lazdunski, M %N 13 %P 8353-8357 %V 259 %X Purified ciguatoxin at 0.1 to 10 ng/ml inhibits the net accumulation of neurotransmitters (gamma-aminobutyric acid and dopamine) by brain synaptosomes. This action is due to a stimulation of neurotransmitter release. The half-maximum effect of the toxin is observed at 0.62 ng/ml. The effect of ciguatoxin is completely inhibited by tetrodotoxin (K0.5 = 4 nM). Electrophysiological studies on neuroblastoma cells indicate that ciguatoxin induces a membrane depolarization which is prevented by tetrodotoxin and which is due to an action that increases Na+ permeability. Under appropriate conditions ciguatoxin creates spontaneous oscillations in the membrane polarization level and repeated action potentials. Ciguatoxin stimulates 22Na+ entry through the voltage-dependent Na+ channels of neuroblastoma cells and rat skeletal myoblasts when it is used in synergy with veratridine, batrachotoxin, pyrethroids, sea anemone, or scorpion toxins. The half-maximum effect of ciguatoxin on 22Na+ flux in the presence of veratridine occurs at aconcentration of 0.5 ng/ml. Stimulation of 22Na+ flux by ciguatoxin is abolished by tetrodotoxin. These results taken together indicate that ciguatoxin belongs to a new class of toxins acting on Na+ channels. %8 1984 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1984 %T Ciguatera: un procede rapide d'extraction de la ciguatoxine. %A Pompon, A %A Bagnis, R %N 3 %P 479-482 %V 22 %X A rapid procedure for extraction and partial purification of ciguatoxin has been achieved and compared to one of the routine methods. Fish from two species which provided extracts of differing purity by the routine method were used. From 8 g of raw flesh, 1.0 +/- 0.2 mg of a semi-purified extract of ciguatoxin of homogeneous quality was obtained within 1 hr, whatever the species or toxicity of the fish. The results were reproducible, making the procedure very promising. %8 1984 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Wld Hlth Org %D 1984 %T Ciguatera: une methode rapide, simple et fiable de detection de la ciguatoxine. %A Pompon, A %A Chungue, E %A Chazelet, I %A Bagnis, R %N 4 %P 639-645 %V 62 %X La ciguatera, forme d'intoxication alimentaire consecutive a l'ingestion de poisson de recif frais, a une incidence sanitaire et economique importante dans les regions insulaires ou elle sevit. Or, il n'existe a ce jour aucune methode de detection de la ciguatoxicite repondant aux criteres de simplicite, rapidite et fiabilite preconises par les experts de l'Organisation mondiale de la Sante et la Commission du Pacifique sud (Suva, Fidji, 1981). Les techniques biologiques, pharmacologiques, radio-immunologiques et immuno-enzymatiques developpees jusqu'ici sont soit surtout des instruments de laboratoire, soit des outils encore limites dans leur utilisation commerciale par l'absence d'antiserum commercialise. La methode mise au point dans les laboratoires de l'Institut de Recherches medicales 'Louis Malarde', a Papeete (Tahiti), vise notamment a reduire le temps d'extraction de la ciguatoxine, a diminuer le poids de chair de poisson a traiter, et a tirer parti d'un animal sensible de petite taille, commun dans les %8 1984 %0 Journal Article %J J Biol Chem %D 1984 %T Ciguatoxin is a novel type of Na+ channel toxin. %A Bidard, J N %A Vijverberg, H P M %A Frelin, C %A Chungue, E %A Legrand, A-M %A Bagnis, R %A Lazdunski, M %N 13 %P 8353-8357 %V 259 %X Purified ciguatoxin at 0.1 to 10 ng/ml inhibits the net accumulation of neurotransmitters (gamma-aminobutyric acid and dopamine) by brain synaptosomes. This action is due to a stimulation of neurotransmitter release. The half-maximum effect of the toxin is observed at 0.62 ng/ml. The effect of ciguatoxin is completely inhibited by tetrodotoxin (K0.5 = 4 nM). Electrophysiological studies on neuroblastoma cells indicate that ciguatoxin induces a membrane depolarization which is prevented by tetrodotoxin and which is due to an action that increases Na+ permeability. Under appropriate conditions ciguatoxin creates spontaneous oscillations in the membrane polarization level and repeated action potentials. Ciguatoxin stimulates 22Na+ entry through the voltage-dependent Na+ channels of neuroblastoma cells and rat skeletal myoblasts when it is used in synergy with veratridine, batrachotoxin, pyrethroids, sea anemone, or scorpion toxins. The half-maximum effect of ciguatoxin on 22Na+ flux in the presence of veratridine occurs at aconcentration of 0.5 ng/ml. Stimulation of 22Na+ flux by ciguatoxin is abolished by tetrodotoxin. These results taken together indicate that ciguatoxin belongs to a new class of toxins acting on Na+ channels. %8 1984 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1984 %T Ciguat %A Pompon, A %A Bagnis, R %N 3 %P 479-482 %V 22 %X A rapid procedure for extraction and partial purification of ciguatoxin has been achieved and compared to one of the routine methods. Fish from two species which provided extracts of differing purity by the routine method were used. From 8 g of raw flesh, 1.0 +/- 0.2 mg of a semi-purified extract of ciguatoxin of homogeneous quality was obtained within 1 hr, whatever the species or toxicity of the fish. The results were reproducible, making the procedure very promising. %8 1984 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Wld Hlth Org %D 1984 %T Ciguat %A Pompon, A %A Chungue, E %A Chazelet, I %A Bagnis, R %N 4 %P 639-645 %V 62 %X La ciguat %8 1984 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1984 %T Effects of ciguatoxin and maitotoxin on isolated rat atria and rabbit duodenum. %A Legrand, A-M %A Bagnis, R %N 3 %P 471-475 %V 22 %X Ciguatoxin and maitotoxin, extracted from a species of moray-eel, Gymnothorax javanicus, and from a wild dinoflagellate, Gambierdiscus toxicus, were tested on rat atria and rabbit duodenum. Biphasic inotropic and chronotropic responses with excitatory and inhibitory components were observed. The effects of agents such as reserpine, propranolol, phentolamine, atropine and manganese ions were investigated. We conclude that, at the dosage levels used, ciguatoxin acts mainly at the nerve endings, while maitotoxin exerts prominent toxic effects on muscles. %8 1984 %0 Journal Article %J J Mol Cell Cardiol %D 1984 %T Effects of highly purified maitotoxin extracted from dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus on action potential of isolated rat heart. %A Legrand, A-M %A Bagnis, R %N 7 %P 663-666 %V 16 %X Maitotoxin is a substance extracted from a dinoflagellate and certain tropical poisonous fish. It is considered as the most potent marine toxin (50 times more potent than tetrodotoxin). In isolated mammalian atria, maitotoxin produces at low doses a positive inotropic effect not modified by reserpine pretreatment and suppressed by Mn2+ ions. In the anaesthetized cat, it induces cardiac arrhythmias and tachycardia leading to cardiac failure. On the other hand, maitotoxin strongly inhibits Na+-K+ ATP-ase from microsomes of cat and human kidneys. In a rat pheochromocytoma cell line, it has been shown to promote a norepinephrine release and an increase in Ca2+ influx. The purpose of this work is to study the effect of maitotoxin on action potential of isolated perfusedrat heart to check the existence of a direct effect on the myocardium. %8 1984 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1984 %T Effects of ciguatoxin and maitotoxin on isolated rat atria and rabbit duodenum. %A Legrand, A-M %A Bagnis, R %N 3 %P 471-475 %V 22 %X Ciguatoxin and maitotoxin, extracted from a species of moray-eel, Gymnothorax javanicus, and from a wild dinoflagellate, Gambierdiscus toxicus, were tested on rat atria and rabbit duodenum. Biphasic inotropic and chronotropic responses with excitatory and inhibitory components were observed. The effects of agents such as reserpine, propranolol, phentolamine, atropine and manganese ions were investigated. We conclude that, at the dosage levels used, ciguatoxin acts mainly at the nerve endings, while maitotoxin exerts prominent toxic effects on muscles. %8 1984 %0 Journal Article %J J Mol Cell Cardiol %D 1984 %T Effects of highly purified maitotoxin extracted from dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus on action potential of isolated rat heart. %A Legrand, A-M %A Bagnis, R %N 7 %P 663-666 %V 16 %X Maitotoxin is a substance extracted from a dinoflagellate and certain tropical poisonous fish. It is considered as the most potent marine toxin (50 times more potent than tetrodotoxin). In isolated mammalian atria, maitotoxin produces at low doses a positive inotropic effect not modified by reserpine pretreatment and suppressed by Mn2+ ions. In the anaesthetized cat, it induces cardiac arrhythmias and tachycardia leading to cardiac failure. On the other hand, maitotoxin strongly inhibits Na+-K+ ATP-ase from microsomes of cat and human kidneys. In a rat pheochromocytoma cell line, it has been shown to promote a norepinephrine release and an increase in Ca2+ influx. The purpose of this work is to study the effect of maitotoxin on action potential of isolated perfusedrat heart to check the existence of a direct effect on the myocardium. %8 1984 %0 Journal Article %J Tissue Antigen %D 1984 %T HLA in two islands of French Polynesia. %A Kostyu, D %A Dawson, D %A Ciftan, E %A Stewart, A %A Lewis, D %A Parc, F %A Laigret, J %A McCollum, R %A Amos, B %P 217-228 %V 23 %X The HLA-A, B and C antigens of 243 individuals from two polynesian islands, Maiao and Hiva Oa, have been characterized. 328 haplotypes were defined by family analysis. Most frequent antigens were A2, A11, Aw24, A26, Aw34 ; Bw38, Bw39, Bw48, Bw55, Bw60 ; Cw1, Cw3, and Cw4. Several other antigens were present at low frequency or were present on only one island. New variants of Bw22 and B40 were found. despite an overall similarity in antigens of the two islands, the combination of HLA-A, B and C antigens on the haplotype were distinctive. Of 328 total haplotypes identified, 65 were unique. Thirteen of these (20%) were present on both islands. Twenty-eight (43%) were unique to Hiva Oa and 24 (37%) were unique to Maiao. Significant, positive linkage disequilibrium values (D) for HLA-A, B and HLA-B, C antigens were also diffrent for the two populations. %8 1984 %0 Book Section %B In : Atlas de Polynesie francaise, ORSTOM, pp 101-102 %D 1984 %T La ciguatera. %A Bagnis, R %8 1984 %0 Book Section %B In : Atlas de Polyn %D 1984 %T La ciguat %A Bagnis, R %8 1984 %0 Book Section %B In: Seafood toxins, Ragelis EP (Ed), ACS, Chapter 20, pp 217-223 %D 1984 %T Mode of action of ciguatera toxins. %A Legrand, A-M %A Bagnis, R %8 1984 %0 Book Section %B In: Seafood toxins, Ragelis EP (Ed), ACS, Chapter 20, pp 217-223 %D 1984 %T Mode of action of ciguatera toxins. %A Legrand, A-M %A Bagnis, R %8 1984 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1984 %T The use of mosquitoes Aedes aegypti to detect ciguatoxin in surgeonfishes Ctenochaetus striatus. %A Chungue, E %A Bagnis, R %A Parc, F %N 1 %P 161-164 %V 22 %X A new animal assay to detect ciguatoxin in fishes was developed. Mosquitoes were subjected to intrathoracic injection of serial dilutions of ciguatoxin crude extracts. Toxicity of the fishes was expressed as the mosquito LD50 (g of flesh per mosquito). A significant correlation between the mosquito bioassay and the mouse bioassay performed on the same extracts was shown (r = 0.72, n = 80). We were able to detect 96% of the toxic fishes, while 91% of the fishes non-toxic in mice were also non-toxic in mosquitoes. %8 1984 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1984 %T The use of mosquitoes Aedes aegypti to detect ciguatoxin in surgeonfishes Ctenochaetus striatus. %A Chungue, E %A Bagnis, R %A Parc, F %N 1 %P 161-164 %V 22 %X A new animal assay to detect ciguatoxin in fishes was developed. Mosquitoes were subjected to intrathoracic injection of serial dilutions of ciguatoxin crude extracts. Toxicity of the fishes was expressed as the mosquito LD50 (g of flesh per mosquito). A significant correlation between the mosquito bioassay and the mouse bioassay performed on the same extracts was shown (r = 0.72, n = 80). We were able to detect 96% of the toxic fishes, while 91% of the fishes non-toxic in mice were also non-toxic in mosquitoes. %8 1984 %0 Journal Article %J Cah ORSTOM, Ser Ent Med Parasitol %D 1983 %T Mise en evidence de l'autogenese chez Aedes (Stegomyia) polynesiensis Marks, 1951, en Polynesie francaise. %A Riviere, F %N 2 %P 77-81 %V XXI %X L'autogenese chez differentes souches d'Aedes polynesiensis est demontree en Polynesie francaise. Le pourcentage de femelles autogenes s'est montre tres variable au laboratoire. Les femelles des souches autogenes ont produit un nombre tres reduit d'oeufs (0 a 8,3 oeufs par femelle) en particulier par comparaison aux pontes produites par des femelles temoins gorgees de sang humain (73,4 oeufs par femelle). Les oeufs des femelles autogenes possedent un taux d'eclosion plus faible que les oeufs des femelles non autogenes (51,1% contre 65,9%). Il n'a pas ete possible de maintenir au laboratoire une souche autogene car le nombre d'oeufs etait tres reduit et les femelles parentes etaient en petit nombre.Le meilleur taux d'autogenese a ete trouve chez une souche d'Ae. polynesiensis recoltee sur un %8 1983 %0 Journal Article %J Cah ORSTOM, Ser Ent Med Parasitol %D 1983 %T Une nouvelle espece de moustique (Diptera : Culicidae) des %A Klein, J-M %A Riviere, F %A Sechan, Y %N 2 %P 71-76 %V XXI %X La larve du 4e stade et la nymphe d'une nouvelle espece de Culex du sous-genre Culex, que les auteurs ont decouverte sur le Plateau de Tovii a Nuku Hiva (Iles Marquises), sont decrites sous le nom de Culex (Culex) toviiensis n. sp. L'etude morphologique de ces stades immatures permet de ranger la nouvelle espece dans le groupe sitiens, pres de Cx. annulirostris (Archipels de la Societe et des Tuamotu), et de Cx. albinervis (Fidji).Cx. toviiensis n. sp. constitue, comme Cx. marquesensis (groupe atriceps) une espece endemique relictuelle des Iles Marquises. The fourth stage larva and the pupa of a new species of Culex, subgenus Culex, which has been discovered by the authors on the Tovii Plateau on Nuku Hiva (Marquesas Islands), are described under the name of Culex (Culex) toviiensis n. sp. The morphology of these immature stages allows to set the new species within the sitiens group, near to Cx. annulirostris (Society and Tuamotu archipelagos) and to Cx. albinervis (Fidji). Cx. toviiensis n. sp. represents, like Cx. marquesensis (atriceps group) an endemic relict species of the Marquesas Islands. %8 1983 %0 Journal Article %J Journal de la Societe des Oceanistes %D 1982 %T Filariose et prehistoire oceanienne. %A Pichon, G %A Riviere, F %A Laigret, J %N 74-75 %P 283-297 %V 38 %X Deux manifestations de la filariose de Bancroft, l'une macroscopique, l'elephantiasis, l'autre microscopique, la periodicite des microfilaires, sont susceptibles de contribuer a la connaissance de la prehistoire oceanienne.Comme en temoignent les explorateurs et les premiers residents europeens, l'elephantiasis etait largement repandu en Polynesie a l'ere pre-europeenne. Cependant, deux archipels de la Polynesie Centrale, les Gambier et les Marquises, qui presentent aujourd'hui une situation hyper-endemique, semblent en avoir ete indemnes, probablement parce qu'ils n'hebergeaient pas le vecteur principal, Aedes polynesiensis. Le cas des Marquises est assez complique, car on signale quelques cas avant 1850, a un moment ou on ne peut suspecter que Culex marquisiensis comme vecteur ; bien qu'Aedes polynesiensis se soit implante ensuite, l'elephantiasis a pratiquement disparu pendant la fin du XIXe siecle, sans doute consecutivement au depeuplement de ces %8 1982 %0 Journal Article %J Med Ocean %D 1982 %T La ciguatera dans les atolls des Tuamotu. %A Bagnis, R %P 1-9 %V 17 %8 1982 %0 Journal Article %J Med Ocean %D 1982 %T La ciguat %A Bagnis, R %P 1-9 %V 17 %8 1982 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Fr Mal Resp %D 1982 %T Prevalence et etiologie des sympt %A Perdrizet, S %A Strauss, O %A Leproux, P %A Chansin, R %N 2 %P 143-149 %V 10 %X Tous les eleves scolarises a Tahiti, de la classe de 3e a la terminale, ont ete interroges par autoquestionnaire en mai 1979. 93% ont repondu aux questions posees (3870). La prevalence des eleves ayant eu des infections des voies aeriennes superieures au cours de l'annee ecoulee etait elevee, ainsi que celle des eleves qui avaient eu des sympt %8 1982 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1982 %T Studies on the mode of action of ciguateric toxins. %A Legrand, A-M %A Galonnier, M %A Bagnis, R %N 1 %P 311-315 %V 20 %X The effects of ciguatoxin, scaritoxin and maitotoxin, the main toxins involved in ciguatera fish poisoning, has been studied in pentobarbital anaesthetized cats. Intravenous injections of increasing doses of these toxins (5 to 160 microgram/kg of partially purified samples) evoked respiratory and cardiovascular disturbances: hyperventilation at low doses and respiratory depression leading to respiratory arrest at high doses; bradycardia and troubles of the atrioventricular conduction at low doses, arrhythmias and ventricular tachycardia with transient hypertension at sublethal doses, and falling arterial pressure leading to complete heart failure at high doses. The mode of action of ciguatoxin has been studied by testing the preventive effects of pharmacological compounds such as hexamethonium, atropine, propranolol and phentolamine and by proceeding to bilateral adrenalectomy. The results have indicated both central and peripheral effects. Cholinergic and also alpha-adrenergic actions were pointed out. %8 1982 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1982 %T Studies on the mode of action of ciguateric toxins. %A Legrand, A-M %A Galonnier, M %A Bagnis, R %N 1 %P 311-315 %V 20 %X The effects of ciguatoxin, scaritoxin and maitotoxin, the main toxins involved in ciguatera fish poisoning, has been studied in pentobarbital anaesthetized cats. Intravenous injections of increasing doses of these toxins (5 to 160 microgram/kg of partially purified samples) evoked respiratory and cardiovascular disturbances: hyperventilation at low doses and respiratory depression leading to respiratory arrest at high doses; bradycardia and troubles of the atrioventricular conduction at low doses, arrhythmias and ventricular tachycardia with transient hypertension at sublethal doses, and falling arterial pressure leading to complete heart failure at high doses. The mode of action of ciguatoxin has been studied by testing the preventive effects of pharmacological compounds such as hexamethonium, atropine, propranolol and phentolamine and by proceeding to bilateral adrenalectomy. The results have indicated both central and peripheral effects. Cholinergic and also alpha-adrenergic actions were pointed out. %8 1982 %0 Journal Article %J Medecine et Armees %D 1981 %T Detection radio-immunologique directe de la ciguatoxine dans les tissus pisciaires : absence actuelle d'immun-serum specifique. %A Laigret, J %A Parc, F %A Chanteau, S %A Ducousso, R %A Lafon, M %A Bagnis, R %A Lechat-Vahirua, I %N 4 %P 337-339 %V 9 %8 1981 %0 Journal Article %J M %D 1981 %T D %A Laigret, J %A Parc, F %A Chanteau, S %A Ducousso, R %A Lafon, M %A Bagnis, R %A Lechat-Vahirua, I %N 4 %P 337-339 %V 9 %8 1981 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1981 %T Essai de detection de la ciguatoxine par une methode immunoenzymatique. %A Chanteau, S %A Lechat-Vahirua, I %A Parc, F %A Bagnis, R %N 2 %P 227-232 %V 74 %X La methode ELISA a ete utilisee pour la detection d'eventuels anticorps anticiguatoxine dans les tissus de poissons veneneux. De fines lamelles de muscles de poissons toxiques sont mises au contact d'une part d'anticorps obtenus apres immunisation de lapins et souris par un conjugue ciguatoxine serum albumine humaine, d'autre part avec du serum humain de convalescent de ciguatera. Ces divers anticorps sont reconnus par des anticorps anti-lapin, -souris et -homme marques a la peroxydase. Il n'a pas ete possible de mettre en evidence d'anticorps specifiques de la ciguatoxine dans les divers immunserums testes par cette methode immunoenzymatique.The ELISA method has been used to detect possible anticiguatoxin antibodies in the tissues of toxic fishes. Thin lamellae of toxic fish muscles have been brought into contact on the one hand with antibodies obtained after immunization of the rabbit and the mouse by a human serumalbumine ciguatoxin conjugate and on the other hand with human sera of ciguatera convalescent. These various antibodies have been recognized by peroxydase labelled anti-rabbit, -mouse and -human antibodies. It has been not possible to show off specific antibodies of the ciguatoxin in the various immune sera tested by this immuno-enzymatic method. %8 1981 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1981 %T Etude statistique de la variabilite caracterisant les mesures de la microfilaremie capillaire. %A Pichon, G %A Riviere, F %A Thirel, R %A Chebret, M %A Tetuanui, A %A Toudic, A %N 5 %P 525-532 %V 74 %X Si l'on pratique plusieurs prelevements de meme volume au meme moment sur un sujet, le nombre de microfilaires (W. bancrofti) observe dans chacun d'entre eux para %8 1981 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1981 %T Essai de d %A Chanteau, S %A Lechat-Vahirua, I %A Parc, F %A Bagnis, R %N 2 %P 227-232 %V 74 %X La m %8 1981 %0 Journal Article %J Oceanol Acta %D 1981 %T L'ichtyosarcotoxisme de type ciguatera : phenomene complexe de biologie marine et humaine. %A Bagnis, R %N 3 %P 375-387 %V 4 %X La ciguatera est une intoxication alimentaire connue depuis des siecles, consecutive a l'ingestion de poissons de recifs tropicaux, appartenant a des especes habituellement comestibles, de niveaux trophiques varies, en parfait etat de fra %8 1981 %0 Journal Article %J Ann Inst Oceanogr Paris %D 1981 %T L'ichtyosarcotoxisme de type ciguatera : processus biologiques connus et perspectives au seuil des annees 80. %A Bagnis, R %N 1 %P 5-24 %V 57 %X La ciguatera est une intoxication alimentaire connue depuis des siecles, consecutive a l'ingestion de poissons de recifs tropicaux, appartenant a des especes habituellement comestibles, de niveaux trophiques varies, en parfait etat de fra %8 1981 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1981 %T La dengue due au virus de type 4 en Polynesie francaise. II.- Observations biologiques liminaires sur quelques points precis d'epidemiologie et de physiopathologie. %A Parc, F %A Tetaria, C %A Pichon, G %N 1 %P 97-102 %V 41 %X Les auteurs rapportent quelques observations epidemiologiques et physiopathologiques faites au cours d'une recente epidemie de dengue de type 4 survenue en Polynesie francaise. Gr %8 1981 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1981 %T La dengue due au virus de type 4 en Polynesie francaise. I - Epidemiologie generale. Aspects cliniques particuliers. %A Parc, F %A Tetaria, C %A Laigret, J %N 1 %P 93-96 %V 41 %X Authors describe an extensive outbreak of dengue 4 virus which is observed for the first time out of its asian original focus. The whole archipelagoes of French Polynesia have been ontaminated in a space of four months. Usual form of the disease is typical with lighness of the symptoms. This outbreak has been implicated in the death of a child by shock ; and two cases of reversible encephalitis have been certainly caused by this virus. The neurotropism is the main characteristic of dengue virus type 4. %8 1981 %0 Journal Article %J Entomophaga %D 1981 %T La predation du copepode mesocyclops Leuckarti pilosa [crustacea] sur les larves de Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti et de Aedes (St.) polynesiensis [Dip. : Culicidae]. Essais preliminaires d'utilisation comme agent de lutte biologique. %A Riviere, F %A Thirel, R %N 4 %P 427-439 %V 26 %8 1981 %0 Journal Article %J Oceanol Acta %D 1981 %T L'ichtyosarcotoxisme de type ciguat %A Bagnis, R %N 3 %P 375-387 %V 4 %X La ciguat %8 1981 %0 Journal Article %J Ann Inst Oceanogr Paris %D 1981 %T L'ichtyosarcotoxisme de type ciguat %A Bagnis, R %N 1 %P 5-24 %V 57 %X La ciguat %8 1981 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1981 %T La dengue due au virus de type 4 en Polyn %A Parc, F %A Tetaria, C %A Pichon, G %N 1 %P 97-102 %V 41 %X Les auteurs rapportent quelques observations %8 1981 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1981 %T La dengue due au virus de type 4 en Polyn %A Parc, F %A Tetaria, C %A Laigret, J %N 1 %P 93-96 %V 41 %X Authors describe an extensive outbreak of dengue 4 virus which is observed for the first time out of its asian original focus. The whole archipelagoes of French Polynesia have been ontaminated in a space of four months. Usual form of the disease is typical with lighness of the symptoms. This outbreak has been implicated in the death of a child by shock ; and two cases of reversible encephalitis have been certainly caused by this virus. The neurotropism is the main characteristic of dengue virus type 4. %8 1981 %0 Journal Article %J Ann Parasitol %D 1981 %T Migrations des microfilaires et des peuples oceaniens. Une approche de la speciation chez les filaires de Bancroft et de Malaisie, par l'etude de la periodicite des microfilaires en fonction de la densite; contribution a la prehistoire du Pacifique. %A Pichon, G %N 1 %P 107-120 %V 56 %X La periodocite des microfilaires est due a leur migration circadienne entre les arterioles pulmonaires et la circulation peripherique, au moment de la journee ou elles ont le plus de chances d'etre absorbees par leur moustique vecteur, et donc de poursuivre leur cycle biologique. Chez certaines souches, la disparition des microfilaires de la peripherie peut etre pratiquement totale a une certaine phase du cycthemere ; chez d'autres, l'amplitude de ce phenomene est peu marquee. Suivant le cas, on parle de forme 'periodique' ou 'subperiodique'. Wuchereria bancrofti est une filaire pantropicale de l'Homme. Presque partout, elle montre une stricte periodicite nocturne. On ne rencontre une filariose subperiodique diurne qu'en Polynesie, a Fidji, en Nouvelle-Caledonie (W. bancrofti var. pacifica) et aux %8 1981 %0 Journal Article %J J Mol Cell Cardiol %D 1981 %T Role of adrenocortical hormones on the ontogenesis of ventricular action potential of rat myocardium. %A Legrand, A-M %A Boudot, J P %A Coraboeuf, E %A Roffi, J %A Cavero, I %N 9 %P 833-42 %V 13 %8 1981 %0 Journal Article %J J Helminthol %D 1981 %T The mechanisms wich affect the periodic cycle of Pacific Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae. %A Hawking, F %A Tinousi, J %A F.J., Louis %A E., Tuira %P 95-100 %V 55 %X 1. Investigations were made of the effect of various procedures in raising or lowering the microfilaria count of Pacific type Wuchereria bancrofti in the peripheral blood. 2. Raising the body temperature in the early morning was followed by a moderate fall in the counts. Breathing increased oxygen, or reduced oxygen (hypoxia) or increased carbon dioxide, or the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate produced no consistent and significant change in the count. Ingestion of glucose (in one volunteer) was followed by a small rise in the count. Muscular exercise was followed by a fall in the count, which is interpreted as probably being a response to a lower concentration of oxygen in the venous blood returning to the lung. 3. It has not been possible to identify the physiological components on the circadian rhythm of the human body which entrain the cycle of these microfilariae. Attempts to obtain evidenceincriminating the stimuli described above have been unsuccessful. %8 1981 %0 Journal Article %J Med Ocean %D 1980 %T Agressions naturelles sur les edifices coralliens des Iles Marquises et ciguatera. %A Bagnis, R %P 42-50 %V 12 %8 1980 %0 Journal Article %J Med Ocean %D 1980 %T Agressions naturelles sur les %A Bagnis, R %P 42-50 %V 12 %8 1980 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Wld Hlth Org %D 1980 %T Chimiotherapie de masse par la diethylcarbamazine en doses espacees : effets obtenus a Tahiti sur la microfilaremie a Wuchereria bancrofti, var. pacifica. %A Laigret, J %A Fagneaux, G %A Tuira, E %N 5 %P 779-783 %V 58 %X Les campagnes de masse entreprises contre la filariose lymphatique au moyen de la diethylcarbamazine (DEC) sont d'ordinaire limitees dans le temps par la lourdeur et le co %8 1980 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Med Vet %D 1980 %T Essais de protection pharmacologique de souris intoxiquees par des extraits ciguaterigenes de poissons perroquets Scarus gibbus. %A Drollet, J H %A Thevenin, S %A Legrand, A-M %A Bagnis, R %N 4 %P 331-337 %V 131 %X Pour essayer de mettre au point un protocole therapeutique tenant compte au mieux du mode d'action des toxines impliquees dans la pathogenie ciguaterique, les auteurs ont etudie, chez la souris, les effets sur le temps letal de l'administration conjointe d'extraits toxiques et de certaines drogues a vocation protectrice. Dans les conditions experimentales, les resultats les plus significatifs au plan des applications pratiques sont obtenus avec le glutamate de calcium associe a la vitamine B12.The authors try to find a therapeutic protocol taking in account for the best mode of action of the toxins involved in the ciguatera pathogeny. For this purpose, they have studied by mice the effects on the lethal time of the joint injection of toxic extracts and of some a priori protecting drugs. In the experimental conditions, the most significant results for the practical applications are obtained with calcium glutamate associated with B12 vitamin. %8 1980 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Jap Soc Sci Fish %D 1980 %T Environmental studies on a toxic dinoflagellate responsible for ciguatera. %A Yasumoto, T %A Inoue, A %A Ochi, T %A Fujimoto, K %A Oshima, Y %A Fukuyo, Y %A Adachi, R %A Bagnis, R %N 11 %P 1397-1404 %V 46 %X Population assays and analyses of sea water were conducted simultaneously at various places of French Polynesia to investigate environmental factors affecting the distribution and population of Gambierdiscus toxicus. The population of the organism was low at Tahiti, Moorea and Bora Bora islands but was extremely high at the Gambier islands. Thus the ciguateric endemicity of the surveyed area was well explainable by the abundance of the organism. Nutrients such as the inorganic phosphorus, total phosphorus, nitrite, nitrate, silicate, iron, dissolved organic carbon, and vitamin B12 showed little correlationwith the population of G. toxicus. The benthic community consisting of corals, macroalgae and benthic microalgae such as diatoms and dinoflagellates seemed to play an important role in regulating the population of the toxic dinoflagellate. %8 1980 %0 Journal Article %J Ann Soc Belge Med Trop %D 1980 %T Elephantiasis filariens (Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica) et microfilaremie. %A Carme, B %A Laigret, J %A Gentilini, M %N 1 %P 33-45 %V 60 %X En 1975-1976, une enquete portant sur environ 40% de la population de la Polynesie francaise, ou la seule filariose implantee est due a Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica, permet de depister 274 sujets atteints d'elephantiasis pour lesquels aucune autre etiologie n'est evoquee. L'etude parasitologique, realisee par l'examen de 40 mm3 de sang capillaire, revele que ces filariens sont rarement porteurs de microfilaires : la prevalence, les densites microfilariennes moyenne et mediane (20 mm3) sont respectivement de 4,01, 14,9 et 4,5. Ces chiffres sont tres voisins de ceux observes dans la population generale (22.938 examens) : 3,62, 15,5 et 5,5. L'utilisation d'une technique d'enrichissement chez 35 patients ne depiste qu'un seul positif supplementaire.Les donnees recueillies depuis 1949 montrent que quelles que soient les %8 1980 %0 Journal Article %J Cah ORSTOM Ser Ent Med Parasitol %D 1980 %T Etude quantitative de la reduction parasitaire stomacale chez les vecteurs de filarioses. %A Prod'hon, J %A Pichon, G %A Riviere, F %N 1 %P 13-25 %V XVIII %X Les auteurs etudient quantitativement la traversee de l'estomac du vecteur par les microfilaires en fonction du nombre de parasites ingeres, en utilisant la filaire Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica chez deux especes de moustiques dont la capacite vectrice differe considerablement a Tahiti, Aedes polynesiensis et Culex pipiens fatigans. En coordonnees logarithmiques, la regression lineaire du nombre moyen y de microfilaires passees au nombre x de microfilaires ingerees permet de conclure qu'il y a, dans les deux cas, sous-proportionnalite (limitation).D'autre part, la variance des nombres de microfilaires passees peut etre decrite par une fonction axb (b > 1) du nombre de microfilaires ingerees. Si on suppose que la probabilite de reussite de chaque microfilaire ingeree supplementaire est affectee d'une maniere constante, il en resultera entre y et x une regression exponentielle asymptotique : y = H (1 - rx) ou H est le nombre moyen maximal de larves passees et r est un coefficient constant inferieur a 1, qui modifie les probabilites de reussite consecutives. L'ajustement par la methode des moindres carres avec ponderation par la variance des y indique un ajustement satisfaisant des donnees observees a ce modele. La fiabilite de ce modele para %8 1980 %0 Journal Article %J Trop Med Parasitol %D 1980 %T Etude de la distribution des numerations microfilariennes dans les foyers de filariose lymphatique. %A Pichon, G %A Merlin, M %A Fagneaux, G %A Riviere, F %A Laigret, J %N 2 %P 165-180 %V 31 %X La distribution de frequence des numerations microfilariennes dans le sang capillaire au niveau d'un village est significativement differente d'une loi log-normale. Par contre, l'ajustement a une loi binomiale negative tronquee, d'exposant k = 0,3, est satisfaisant. La valeur de ce parametre ne para %8 1980 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Med Vet %D 1980 %T Essais de protection pharmacologique de souris intoxiqu %A Drollet, J H %A Th %N 4 %P 331-337 %V 131 %X Pour essayer de mettre au point un protocole th %8 1980 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Jap Soc Sci Fish %D 1980 %T Environmental studies on a toxic dinoflagellate responsible for ciguatera. %A Yasumoto, T %A Inoue, A %A Ochi, T %A Fujimoto, K %A Oshima, Y %A Fukuyo, Y %A Adachi, R %A Bagnis, R %N 11 %P 1397-1404 %V 46 %X Population assays and analyses of sea water were conducted simultaneously at various places of French Polynesia to investigate environmental factors affecting the distribution and population of Gambierdiscus toxicus. The population of the organism was low at Tahiti, Moorea and Bora Bora islands but was extremely high at the Gambier islands. Thus the ciguateric endemicity of the surveyed area was well explainable by the abundance of the organism. Nutrients such as the inorganic phosphorus, total phosphorus, nitrite, nitrate, silicate, iron, dissolved organic carbon, and vitamin B12 showed little correlationwith the population of G. toxicus. The benthic community consisting of corals, macroalgae and benthic microalgae such as diatoms and dinoflagellates seemed to play an important role in regulating the population of the toxic dinoflagellate. %8 1980 %0 Journal Article %J Cah ORSTOM Ser Ent Med Parasitol %D 1980 %T Filarioses : surdispersion parasitaire et surinfection de l'h %A Pichon, G %A Prod'hon, J %A Riviere, F %N 1 %P 27-47 %V XVIII %X On suppose que la mortalite due au parasitisme ne se produit pas abruptement au-dela d'une certaine charge parasitaire limite, mais que la survie diminue progressivement en fonction du parasitisme, suivant une exponentielle decroissante. Dans ces conditions, si la distribution des parasites chez leurs h %8 1980 %0 Journal Article %J CR Acad Sc Paris %D 1980 %T Heterogeneite de l'ingestion des parasites sanguicoles par leurs vecteurs : description quantitative et interpretation. %A Pichon, G %A Prod'hon, J %A Riviere, F %P 1011-1013 %V 290 %X La distribution des microfilaires prelevees simultanement sur un h %8 1980 %0 Journal Article %J Bulletin de la Societe des Etudes Oceaniennes %D 1980 %T La ciguatera : etat des connaissances en 1980. %A Bagnis, R %N 211 %P 650-659 %V 17 %8 1980 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1980 %T Le portage de l'antigene HBs chez les donneurs de sang de Polynesie francaise. Un nouveau sous-type antigenique. %A Roux, J %A Courouce-Pauty, A-M %A Durand, J-P %A Parc, F %N 4 %P 383-387 %V 40 %X Au centre de transfusion de Papeete ( %8 1980 %0 Journal Article %J Bulletin de la Soci %D 1980 %T La ciguat %A Bagnis, R %N 211 %P 650-659 %V 17 %8 1980 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1980 %T Origins of ciguatera fish poisoning : a new dinoflagellate, Gambierdiscus toxicus Adachi and Fukuyo, definitively involved as a causal agent. %A Bagnis, R %A Chanteau, S %A Chungue, E %A Hurtel, J M %A Yasumoto, T %A Inoue, A %P 199-208 %V 18 %X We consider the precise role, in the biogenesis of ciguatera, played by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus which had been previously isolated in the Gambier Islands (French Polynesia) from toxic biodetritus covering dead corals. We studied the characteristics of the toxicity and its quantitative correlation with dinoflagellate numbers, assaying various samples of non-fractionated biodetritus, a sample of biodetritus fractionated according to particles size, and samples of G. toxicus cultured cells. The toxic substances, isolated in vivo and in vitro, have almost the same biochemical and biological properties as the reference ciguateric toxins. The direct and reproducible relationship between the number of G. toxicus cells and the toxins concentration in the biodetritus, and the capacity of the monoalgal G. toxicus cultured cells to produce the ciguatera toxin complex, confirm the dinoflagellate as the responsible agent of the phenomenon in French Polynesia. The distribution of this dinoflagellate in other endemic areas of the Pacific and the West Indies, provides a presumptive argument for a common worlwide origin for ciguatera. %8 1980 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1980 %T Origins of ciguatera fish poisoning : a new dinoflagellate, Gambierdiscus toxicus Adachi and Fukuyo, definitively involved as a causal agent. %A Bagnis, R %A Chanteau, S %A Chungue, E %A Hurtel, J M %A Yasumoto, T %A Inoue, A %P 199-208 %V 18 %X We consider the precise role, in the biogenesis of ciguatera, played by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus which had been previously isolated in the Gambier Islands (French Polynesia) from toxic biodetritus covering dead corals. We studied the characteristics of the toxicity and its quantitative correlation with dinoflagellate numbers, assaying various samples of non-fractionated biodetritus, a sample of biodetritus fractionated according to particles size, and samples of G. toxicus cultured cells. The toxic substances, isolated in vivo and in vitro, have almost the same biochemical and biological properties as the reference ciguateric toxins. The direct and reproducible relationship between the number of G. toxicus cells and the toxins concentration in the biodetritus, and the capacity of the monoalgal G. toxicus cultured cells to produce the ciguatera toxin complex, confirm the dinoflagellate as the responsible agent of the phenomenon in French Polynesia. The distribution of this dinoflagellate in other endemic areas of the Pacific and the West Indies, provides a presumptive argument for a common worlwide origin for ciguatera. %8 1980 %0 Journal Article %J Med Ocean %D 1980 %T Problemes poses par la detection immunologique de la ciguatoxine dans les tissus pisciaires. %A Parc, F %A Ducousso, R %A Chanteau, S %A Chungue, E %A Bagnis, R %P 1-4 %V 14 %8 1980 %0 Journal Article %J Med Ocean %D 1980 %T Probl %A Parc, F %A Ducousso, R %A Chanteau, S %A Chungue, E %A Bagnis, R %P 1-4 %V 14 %8 1980 %0 Journal Article %J Science et Vie %D 1980 %T Quand le corail se venge. %A Bagnis, R %N 756 %P 46-53 %V CXXXI %8 1980 %0 Journal Article %J Science et Vie %D 1980 %T Quand le corail se venge. %A Bagnis, R %N 756 %P 46-53 %V CXXXI %8 1980 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Jap Soc Sci Fish %D 1980 %T Toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates found in coral reef. %A Yasumoto, T %A Oshima, Y %A Murakami, Y %A Nakajima, I %A Bagnis, R %A Fukuyo, Y %N 3 %P 327-331 %V 46 %8 1980 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Jap Soc Sci Fish %D 1980 %T Toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates found in coral reef. %A Yasumoto, T %A Oshima, Y %A Murakami, Y %A Nakajima, I %A Bagnis, R %A Fukuyo, Y %N 3 %P 327-331 %V 46 %8 1980 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms, Taylor & Seliger (Eds), Elsevier, pp 65-70 %D 1979 %T A new toxic dinoflagellate found in association with ciguatera. %A Yasumoto, T %A Nakajima, I %A Oshima, Y %A Bagnis, R %X A new toxic dinoflagellate found in mixtures of algae and detritus in ciguatera-endemic areas is identified as the most likely cause of ciguatera. Samples contained both fat soluble and water soluble toxins. The former is identified as ciguatoxin, the principal toxin of ciguatera, and the latter is identical with maitotoxin which is associated with herbivorous ciguateric fishes. Specimens obtained from unialgal culture indicate high production of maitotoxin, but low amounts of the fat soluble toxin. Purified maitotoxin, but low amounts of the fat soluble toxin. Purified maitotoxin appears to be one of the most potent marine toxins known, having a lethal dose (ip to mice) of 5 mg/kg. It shows strong hemolytic and ichtyotoxic activities as well. %8 1979 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms, Taylor & Seliger (Eds), Elsevier, pp 65-70 %D 1979 %T A new toxic dinoflagellate found in association with ciguatera. %A Yasumoto, T %A Nakajima, I %A Oshima, Y %A Bagnis, R %X A new toxic dinoflagellate found in mixtures of algae and detritus in ciguatera-endemic areas is identified as the most likely cause of ciguatera. Samples contained both fat soluble and water soluble toxins. The former is identified as ciguatoxin, the principal toxin of ciguatera, and the latter is identical with maitotoxin which is associated with herbivorous ciguateric fishes. Specimens obtained from unialgal culture indicate high production of maitotoxin, but low amounts of the fat soluble toxin. Purified maitotoxin, but low amounts of the fat soluble toxin. Purified maitotoxin appears to be one of the most potent marine toxins known, having a lethal dose (ip to mice) of 5 mg/kg. It shows strong hemolytic and ichtyotoxic activities as well. %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J Am J Trop Med Hyg %D 1979 %T Clinical observations on 3,009 cases of ciguatera (fish poisoning) in the South Pacific. %A Bagnis, R %A Kuberski, T %A Laugier, S %N 6 %P 1067-1073 %V 28 %X Clinical observations on ciguatera were collected between 1964 and 1977 on 3,009 patients from several South Pacific island groups. Patients generally presented with neurologic symptoms such as parasthesia, vertigo, and ataxia, in addition to gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Patients with this illness usually became symptomatic less than 24 hours after ingestion of the fish and most patients (76.8%) developed symptoms in less than 12 hours. Significant differences in certain symptoms were noted between Melanesian and Polynesian ethnic groups, suggesting a susceptibility difference, or a difference in the nature of the toxin found in different areas of the Pacific. Being poisoned multiple times appeared to result in a clinically more severe illness than disease observed in patients experiencing ciguatera for the first time. %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Int Oceanog Med %D 1979 %T Culture en milieu artificiel du dinoflagelle responsable de la ciguatera. %A Hurtel, J M %A Chanteau, S %A Drollet, J H %A Bagnis, R %P 29-33 %V LV %X Les auteurs decrivent les conditions de la culture unialgale de Gambierdiscus toxicus (anciennement Diplopsalis sp. nov.) au laboratoire. Ils comparent les resultats relatifs a la croissance et a l'aspect morphologique des produits de culture en fonction de la variation de certains facteurs d'ambiance.The authors describe the conditions required for the unialgal culture of Gambierdiscus toxicus (anciently Diplopsalis sp. nov.) in the laboratory. They also compare the incidence on the cultured cells, their growth and morphological aspects of some environmental factors. %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Med Vet %D 1979 %T Ciguatera : effets cardiaques chez le chat et le rat intoxiques experimentalement. %A Legrand, A-M %A Rentler, J-F %A Bagnis, R %N 2 %P 1659-1667 %V 130 %X The authors carry on their work on intoxications ('ciguatera') due to ingestion of some tropical seas fishes. They give details on cardio-vascular effects in the general symptomatologic picture ; for that purpose they use : anesthetized rats intoxicated by intraveinous duct - cats feed with toxic fishes. %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J Cah ORSTOM, Ser Ent Med Parasitol %D 1979 %T Comparaison nomocenologique de deux methodes de piegeage des moustiques. %A Pichon, G %A Gayral, P %N 4 %P 243-247 %V XVII %X Dans un meme environnement, deux methodes de capture de moustiques, l'une sur app %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J Am J Trop Med Hyg %D 1979 %T Clinical observations on 3,009 cases of ciguatera (fish poisoning) in the South Pacific. %A Bagnis, R %A Kuberski, T %A Laugier, S %N 6 %P 1067-1073 %V 28 %X Clinical observations on ciguatera were collected between 1964 and 1977 on 3,009 patients from several South Pacific island groups. Patients generally presented with neurologic symptoms such as parasthesia, vertigo, and ataxia, in addition to gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Patients with this illness usually became symptomatic less than 24 hours after ingestion of the fish and most patients (76.8%) developed symptoms in less than 12 hours. Significant differences in certain symptoms were noted between Melanesian and Polynesian ethnic groups, suggesting a susceptibility difference, or a difference in the nature of the toxin found in different areas of the Pacific. Being poisoned multiple times appeared to result in a clinically more severe illness than disease observed in patients experiencing ciguatera for the first time. %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Int Oceanog Med %D 1979 %T Culture en milieu artificiel du dinoflagell %A Hurtel, J M %A Chanteau, S %A Drollet, J H %A Bagnis, R %P 29-33 %V LV %X Les auteurs d %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Med Vet %D 1979 %T Ciguat %A Legrand, A-M %A Rentler, J-F %A Bagnis, R %N 2 %P 1659-1667 %V 130 %X The authors carry on their work on intoxications ('ciguatera') due to ingestion of some tropical seas fishes. They give details on cardio-vascular effects in the general symptomatologic picture ; for that purpose they use : anesthetized rats intoxicated by intraveinous duct - cats feed with toxic fishes. %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %D 1979 %T Distribution des dinoflagelles potentiellement ciguaterigenes et contribution a l'inventaire de la faune ichtylogique de Scilly. %A Bagnis, R %A Bennett, J %N 1 %P 49-51 %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %D 1979 %T Donnees recentes concernant la biogenese de la ciguatera dans le Pacifique. %A Bagnis, R %P 27-29 %V 2 %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %D 1979 %T Distribution des dinoflagell %A Bagnis, R %A Bennett, J %N 1 %P 49-51 %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %D 1979 %T Donn %A Bagnis, R %P 27-29 %V 2 %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Int Oceanog Med %D 1979 %T Etude toxicologique de plusieurs especes d'algues benthoplanctoniques de biotopes ciguaterigenes, cultivees en milieu artificiel non axenique. %A Chungue, E %A Chanteau, S %A Hurtel, J M %A Bagnis, R %P 35-40 %V LV %X Une etude toxicologique et biochimique de 15 souches d'algues cultivees en milieu artificiel a ete realisee (cyanophycees, dinoflagelles, ...). La majorite s'est revelee atoxique pour la souris. Parmi les especes actives, seule une souche de Gambierdiscus toxicus renferme des toxines tres semblables sinon identiques aux toxines ciguateriques : ciguatoxine, scaritoxine et maitotoxine. En revanche cette derniere toxine appara %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Jap Soc Sci Fish %D 1979 %T Ecological survey on a dinoflagellate possibly responsible for the induction of ciguatera. %A Yasumoto, T %A Inoue, A %A Bagnis, R %A Garcon, M %N 3 %P 395-399 %V 45 %X Following the previous discovery of a new toxic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus as the most likely cause of ciguatera, an ecological survey was undertaken on this organism around Tahiti Island and in the Gambier Islands of French Polynesia. In the survey the epiphytic nature of the dinoflagellate was disclosed and a rapid assay method was established by taking advantage of this living pattern. The method consisted of shaking off of the organisms from the appropriate substrative algae and subsequent microscopic counting of the cells. The population of the organism was found much higher in the Gambier Islands than around Tahiti, even though there were marked regionalities in both survey areas. The distribution map prepared by the survey not only agreed well with the results of the past surveys but gave a more quantitiative and clearer picture of the ciguatera-endemicity of the areas. %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J Cah ORSTOM, Ser Ent Med Parasitol %D 1979 %T Ecologie d'Aedes (Stegomyia) polynesiensis Marks, 1951 (Diptera, Culicidae) en Polynesie francaise. I- Lieux de repos des adultes. Application dans la lutte antimoustique a Bora Bora. %A Riviere, F %A Pichon, G %A Chebret, M %N 4 %P 235-241 %V XVII %X Les resultats de trois series de captures d'adultes m %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1979 %T Essai de l'association diethylcarbamazine (notezine)-levamisole (solaskil) dans la lutte contre la filariose a Wuchereria bancrofti, var. pacifica en Polynesie francaise. %A Louis, F J %A Laigret, J %N 5-6 %P 471-481 %V 72 %X Les auteurs ont teste l'association diethylcarbamazine (200 mg)-levamisole (150 mg) en dose unique sur 25 porteurs de microfilaires de Wuchereria bancrofti. Deux methodes de contr %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Int Oceanog Med %D 1979 %T Etude toxicologique de plusieurs esp %A Chungue, E %A Chanteau, S %A Hurtel, J M %A Bagnis, R %P 35-40 %V LV %X Une %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Jap Soc Sci Fish %D 1979 %T Ecological survey on a dinoflagellate possibly responsible for the induction of ciguatera. %A Yasumoto, T %A Inoue, A %A Bagnis, R %A Garcon, M %N 3 %P 395-399 %V 45 %X Following the previous discovery of a new toxic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus as the most likely cause of ciguatera, an ecological survey was undertaken on this organism around Tahiti Island and in the Gambier Islands of French Polynesia. In the survey the epiphytic nature of the dinoflagellate was disclosed and a rapid assay method was established by taking advantage of this living pattern. The method consisted of shaking off of the organisms from the appropriate substrative algae and subsequent microscopic counting of the cells. The population of the organism was found much higher in the Gambier Islands than around Tahiti, even though there were marked regionalities in both survey areas. The distribution map prepared by the survey not only agreed well with the results of the past surveys but gave a more quantitiative and clearer picture of the ciguatera-endemicity of the areas. %8 1979 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms, Taylor & Seliger (Eds), Elsevier, pp 221-224 %D 1979 %T Ecological survey of a toxic dinoflagellate associated with ciguatera. %A Yasumoto, T %A Inoue, A %A Bagnis, R %X A simple and practical assay was designed for an epiphytic dinoflagellate responsible for ciguatera. The organism was abundant on the surface of algae but was scarce on inorganic surfaces and in seawater. Its distribution around Tahiti and Gambier Islands was characterized by marked regionality and supported results of previous epidemiological surveys. %8 1979 %0 Conference Paper %B In : Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms, Taylor & Seliger (Eds), Elsevier, pp 221-224 %D 1979 %T Ecological survey of a toxic dinoflagellate associated with ciguatera. %A Yasumoto, T %A Inoue, A %A Bagnis, R %X A simple and practical assay was designed for an epiphytic dinoflagellate responsible for ciguatera. The organism was abundant on the surface of algae but was scarce on inorganic surfaces and in seawater. Its distribution around Tahiti and Gambier Islands was characterized by marked regionality and supported results of previous epidemiological surveys. %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg %D 1979 %T Filarial elephantiasis in French Polynesia : a study concerning the beliefs of 127 patients about the origin of their disease. %A Carme, B %A Utahia, A %A Tuira, E %A Teuru, T %N 4 %P 424-426 %V 73 %X 127 patients from Tahiti who were suffering from elephantiasis were interviewed about their opinion of the origin of their disease. Ancestral beliefs are still widely held even after 25 years of antifilarial campaigns which have resulted in a drastic decrease in endemicity with almost no clinical incidence. It is disappointing that the responsibility of mosquitoes is denied by a majority of patients. The explanations are to be found in the unusual evolution of this disease and in the small importance attached to sanitary education. %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J Cah ORSTOM, Ser Ent Med Parasitol %D 1979 %T Introduction de Toxorhynchites (Toxorhynchites) amboinensis (Doleschall, 1857) (Diptera, Culicidae) en Polynesie francaise. %A Riviere, F %A Pichon, G %A Duval, J %A Thirel, R %A Toudic, A %N 4 %P 225-234 %V XVII %X Le moustique predateur Toxorhynchites amboinensis (Doleschall) est introduit de Tutuila (Samoa americaines) a Tahiti (Polynesie francaise) dans le but de contr %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Epidemiol Sante Publ %D 1979 %T L'ichtyosarcotoxisme de type ciguatera en Nouvelle-Caledonie. Aspects cliniques et epidemiologiques. %A Bagnis, R %N 1 %P 17-29 %V 27 %X L'auteur etudie l'incidence de l'ichtyosarcotoxisme de type ciguatera sur le plan de la Sante Publique en Nouvelle-Caledonie. Il procede a une enquete poussee sur les aspects cliniques et epidemiologiques du phenomene precisant sa distribution geographique et les especes causales. Il montre que, sans representer un probleme sanitaire crucial, la ciguatera est une cause de morbidite non negligeable dans certaines tribus de l'Ile des Pins et des Loyaute notamment, ou le poisson de recif constitue la principale source de proteines animales.The author studies the incidence of ciguatera fish poisoning on the public health in New Caledonia. He gives the results of a large scaled inquiry on the clinical and epidemiological aspects of the disease. The geographical distribution and the toxic species are discussed. It does appear that, though being not an acute medical problem, ciguatera is an important cause of morbidity in some tribus of the Pines and Loyalty Islands primarily, where the reef fish is the chief animal proteic resource. %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J CR Acad Sc Paris %D 1979 %T Le dinoflagelle Gambierdiscus toxicus Adachi et Fukuyo ; agent causal probable de la ciguatera. %A Bagnis, R %A Hurtel, J M %A Chanteau, S %A Chungue, E %A Inoue, A %A Yasumoto, T %P 671-674 %V 289 %X Il a ete procede a la culture au laboratoire du dinoflagelle Gambierdiscus toxicus, agent causal en puissance de la ciguatera. La vitesse de croissance, la taille des cellules, les modalites de la production toxinique varient enormement d'une culture a l'autre. Mixotrophe, cette algue unicellulaire para %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J Journal de la Societe des Oceanistes %D 1979 %T La vie animale terrestre a Takapoto. %A Riviere, F %N 62 %P 19-30 %V XXXV %X The author puts together the data and reports from different specialists who studied, in relation to the UNESCO MAB project "Man and Biosphere", theme 7, the terrestrial biota of the atoll of Takapoto (Tuamotu archipelago, French Polynesia). In order to describe the atoll biota, the author makes out five different habitats, and comments upon the food-cycle structures that control the relations between flora and faune. Although the determination of all the available species is not yet over as far as entomology is concerned, it is most likely that the animals of Takapoto had a "pioneer" action. This fauna settled very recently and has an universal origin. This is in perfect harmony with the theory of the re-emerging of the Tuamotu atolls.The animal and vegetal species are now spreading over Takapoto, mainly from the australian and asian regions, most often via Tahiti. However, due to the fast-developing continent to continent means of conveyance in the Pacific, the latest species that have reached the island may originate from farther countries. But for birds perhaps, the speciation does not seem, up to now, to have developed into new species adapted to the archipelago as it is the case for neighbour high islands like Tahiti or the Marquesas. The inhabitants of Takapoto can only live on and hold out by fulfilling their needs mainly with sea and lagoon products rather than very poor terrestria ressources. Joining in the modern economic systems, the Paumotu - i.e. the inhabitants of the Tuamotu archipelago - will meet a difficult issue as for the ecology of those South Pacific atolls. The ecosystems of the Tuamotu archipelago enjoy a stable equilibrium, but they are far more fragile than any other because of their very poor ecological diversity. %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J Am J Trop Med Hyg %D 1979 %T Longevity of Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica and mosquito infection acquired from a patient with low level parasitemia. %A Carme, B %A Laigret, J %N 1 %P 53-55 %V 28 %X Two cases are reported which illustrate important epidemiological aspects of lymphatic filariasis--prolonged longevity of the adult parasite and the possibility of transmission by individuals with ultra-low level microfilaremia. These cases demonstrate that people can remain carriers of microfilariae in the peripheral blood for many years without reinfection, and even those with a low level microfilaremia can constitute a significant reservoir of mosquito infection. Such cases represent one of the most serious obstacles to the eradication of lymphatic filariasis in regions where control is based on chemotherapy. %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Epidemiol Sante Publ %D 1979 %T L'ichtyosarcotoxisme de type ciguat %A Bagnis, R %N 1 %P 17-29 %V 27 %X L'auteur %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J CR Acad Sc Paris %D 1979 %T Le dinoflagell %A Bagnis, R %A Hurtel, J M %A Chanteau, S %A Chungue, E %A Inoue, A %A Yasumoto, T %P 671-674 %V 289 %X Il a %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %D 1979 %T Modalites evolutives et biogenese de la ciguatera en Polynesie francaise. %A Bagnis, R %N 6 %P 584-585 %V 7 %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J Ann Microbiol Inst Pasteur %D 1979 %T Methode immunoenzymatique de detection et typage des virus de la dengue a partir de moustiques infectes. %A Parc, F %A Chanteau, S %A Chungue, E %P 363-374 %V 130 B %X Une methode de detection et d'identification des differents types de virus de la dengue a ete mise au point par immunoenzymologie en "double sandwich". Le support inerte est une bille de verre recouverte d'anticorps de convalescent. Le typage de la souche virale est realise par la fixation d'ascites immunes specifiques revelees par un conjugue marque par la peroxydase. La methode est simple, pratique, fiable, sensible, permettant rapidement l'identification des virus dans des lots de moustiques faiblement infectes. %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %D 1979 %T Modalit %A Bagnis, R %N 6 %P 584-585 %V 7 %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J Ann Microbiol Inst Pasteur %D 1979 %T M %A Parc, F %A Chanteau, S %A Chungue, E %P 363-374 %V 130 B %X Une m %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J Cah ORSTOM Ser Ent Med Parasitol %D 1979 %T Nouvelle approche de la periodicite chez la fialire Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica. %A Pichon, G %A Thirel, R %A Chebret, M %N 2 %P 89-105 %V XVII %X L'etude chronobiologique du phenomene de subperiodicite chez les microfilaires de W. bancrofti var. pacifica indique qu'il n'est pas d %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J Cah ORSTOM, Ser Ent Med Parasitol %D 1979 %T Observations sur la biologie preimaginale du moustique predateur Toxorhynchites amboinensis (Diptera, Culicidae). %A Pichon, G %A Riviere, F %N 4 %P 221-224 %V XVII %X De nouvelles observations biologiques sur T. amboinensis sont presentees sur l'eclosion et la repartition des oeufs, sur l'evolution du comportement larvaire et du cannibalisme, et sur le stade tueur. Bien que cette espece ait longtemps ete confondue avec T. splendens, elle s'en distingue notablement sur divers points.Biological observations of Toxorhynchites amboinensis are presented, dealing with the hatching of the egg, the evolution of larval behaviour, and the killing stage. Some observations greatly contrast with studies made on other Toxorhynchites, including the closely related T. spelndens. %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J Journal de la Societe des Oceanistes %D 1979 %T Poissons de Takapoto. %A Bagnis, R %A Galzin, R %A Bennett, J %N 62 %V XXXV %X In spite of a geomorphological facies of closed atoll, Takapoto has an ichthyological fauna relatively rich, when compared to some others French Polynesia atolls. Approximatively 170 fish species belonging to 39 families have been counted in the laggon. This fauna is generally rather poor in individuals, except for some species. Amongst them, three parrotfishes (Scarus harid, S. ghobban, S. sordidus), three mullets (Crenimugil crenilabis, Chelon vaigiensis, Mugil cephalus), three butterflyfishes (Chaetodon auriga, C. ulietensis, C. lunula), two damselfishes (Pomacentrus pavo, abudefduf coelestinus) and a remora (Echeneis naucrates) were very common. More as in the Scilly's lagoon, it has been noted the presence of a relatively large population of Lethrinus miniatus, original feature for a closed atoll. It seems that seasonal variations in the fish density and distribution can occur, changing the above pattern. There was apparently no ciguatera in the lagoon at the survey moment. On the other hand, some species fished outside the barrier reef, including primarily parrotfish, snappers, groupers and jacks, can be toxic for man, as confirmed by biochemical studies. %8 1979 %0 Conference Paper %B Toxicon %D 1979 %T Problems linked to the ciguatoxin immunological detection. %A Parc, F %A Ducousso, R %A Chanteau, S %A Chungue, E %A Bagnis, R %C 6th International symposium on animal, plant and microbial toxin (Uppsala, Sweden), August 1979 %P 137 %V 17 %8 1979 %0 Conference Paper %B Toxicon %D 1979 %T Problems linked to the ciguatoxin immunological detection. %A Parc, F %A Ducousso, R %A Chanteau, S %A Chungue, E %A Bagnis, R %C 6th International symposium on animal, plant and microbial toxin (Uppsala, Sweden), August 1979 %P 137 %V 17 %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J CR Acad Sc Paris %D 1979 %T Quelques aspects morphologiques et biologiques du dinoflagelle responsable probable de la ciguatera. %A Bagnis, R %A Hurtel, J M %A Fukuyo, Y %A Yasumoto, T %P 639-642 %V 289 %X Le dinoflagelle toxinoproducteur Gambierdiscus toxicus Adachi et Fukuyo, 1979, se carcaterise par la forme comprimee de son corps dans le sens anteroposterieur, son cingulum circulaire etroit et profond, son sulcus court et tres echancre. L'espece est peu mobile et souvent fixee. Dans la nature, elle adhere directement aux thalles des algues ou aux sediments varies colonisant les substrats coralliens morts, ou reste en suspension a leur proximite. En culture, elle s'agglutine en amas importants qui adherent au fond ou sur les parois des recipients. Son developpement optimal est favorise par la presence de bacteries dans le milieu ambiant.The toxin producing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus is distinctive in its anteroposterior compressed body shape with a circular, narrow deep cingulum and a short and deeply indented sulcus. The species does not move much and has a sessile behavior. The wild cells attach directly to algae thalli or sediments covering dead coral substrates or lie suspended close by. The cultured cells are often agglutinated in large packs on the bottom or sides of the containers. Their optimal development is favoured by bacterial presence in ambient media. %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J CR Acad Sc Paris %D 1979 %T Quelques aspects morphologiques et biologiques du dinoflagell %A Bagnis, R %A Hurtel, J M %A Fukuyo, Y %A Yasumoto, T %P 639-642 %V 289 %X Le dinoflagell %8 1979 %0 Journal Article %J Med Mal Infect %D 1978 %T Differentes possibilites de lutte contre la filariose lymphatique. Analyse theorique et resultats pratiques en Polynesie francaise. %A Carme, B %A Merlin, M %A Pichon, G %A Laigret, J %P 380-384 %V 8 %X La lutte antifilarienne est facile a schematiser : chimiotherapie de masse, lutte antivecteurs directe, action antivecteurs indirecte (modification de l'environnement). Ces actions doivent etre coordonnees et orchestrees par des campagnes d'education sanitaire appropriees et repetees. Une action prioritaire peut etre choisie en fonction des conditions epidemiologiques locales. En Polynesie francaise, celle-ci fut donnee a la chimiotherapie par la diethylcarbamazine. Elle se poursuit actuellement depuis pres de 25 ans. Les moyens mis en oeuvre et par consequent les resultats varient selon les %8 1978 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1978 %T Elephantiasis filariens en Polynesie francaise (Wuchereria bancrofti, var. pacifica). Etude portant sur 274 sujets. 1- Aspects epidemiologiques et cliniques. %A Carme, B %A Laigret, J %N 6 %P 455-465 %V 71 %X 25 ans apres le debut de la lutte contre Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica en Polynesie francaise, basee sur la chimiotherapie de masse par diethylcarbamazine (Notezine), une enquete realisee en 1975 et 1976 chez 274 sujets atteints d'elephantiasis permet de preciser les aspects epidemiologiques et cliniques locaux.Depuis 1950 l'indice clinique evolue parallelement a l'indice parasitologique, mais avec un certain decalage, ce qui s'explique par le caractere tardif et definitif de l'elephantiasis. La prevalence globale est desormais faible. La survenue de nouveaux cas, bien que tres rare, est encore possible. Chez les malades la frequence des crises de lymphangite dont l'aspect fait souvent evoquer une participation bacterienne est reduite. Les femmes sont moins souvent et moins gravement atteintes que les hommes. Les localisations siegent essentiellement au niveau des membres inferieurs. Plusieurs membres sont touches pres d'une fois sur deux. L'atteinte du scrotum est rare ; celle du sein n'est retrouvee qu'une seule fois. Chez les hommes, on releve dans 1/3 des cas une hydrocele associee. Des antecedents de chylurie ne sont pas exceptionnels. Twenty-five years after the fight started against Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica in French Polynesia and which was based upon mass chimiotherapy by diethylcarbamazine (Banocide), a survey realized in 1975 and 1976 among 274 patients with elephantiasis allows us to give precise details of the local clinical and epidemiological aspects. Since 1950 the number of clinical cases varies along with the parasitological incidence, but with a certain delay which is explained by the late and irreversible elephantiasis characteristics. The overall prevalence is actually low. However the occurrence of new cases, although very rare, is still possible. Among sick patients the lymphangitic crisis frequency whose aspect lead to evoke a bacterial participation, is low. Women are less frequently and less severely involved than men. Localisations are essentially restricted to the lower limbs. Several limbs are involved in approximately 50 0/0 of the cases. The scrotum involvement is rare, the one of the breast is found only once. Among men we can notice a 33 0/0 incidence of associated hydroceles. A past history of chyluria is not rare. %8 1978 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1978 %T Elephantiasis filariens en Polynesie francaise (Wuchereria bancrofti, var. pacifica). 2-Aspects biologiques. %A Carme, B %A Kaeuffer, H %A Laigret, J %A Gentilini, M %N 6 %P 465-471 %V 71 %X Realisee en Polynesie francaise chez 274 sujets atteints d'elephantiasis, cette enquete permet l'etude de la microfilaremie, de l'eosinophilie, du taux des immunoglobulines et des anticorps specifiques (hemagglutination passive) dans la filariose lymphatique a Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica.Les elephantiasis sont rarement porteurs de microfilaires dans le sang circulant. L'hypereosinophilie est frequente mais relativement moderee. Elle est comparable a celle retrouvee chez les porteurs de microfilaires sans manifestation clinique. Il existe une tendance a la neutropenie au cours des crises de lymphangite survenant sur un membre elephantiasique. Le taux des IgE est nettement augmente, celui des IgG l'est egalement mais a un moindre degre. Les valeurs moyennes sont identiques chez les 'porteurs sains de microfilaires'. Par contre, le serodiagnostic est plus frequemment positif chez les elephantiasiques. Realized in French Polynesia among 274 patients with elephantiasis, this survey studied the microfilaremia, the eosinophily, the immunoglobulin titers and the antifilarian antibodies (done by passive hemagglutination) for Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica. Patients with elephantiasis seldom have circulating microfilariae in their blood. Hypereosinophily is frequent but rarely high. It is similar to the one patients with microfilaremia. There is a trend towards neutropenia during lymphangitic crisis that occur on an elephantiasis limb. The IgE titer is clearly increased, the IgG one is lesser elevated. The mean values are identical to those encoutered among microfilariae asymptomatic cariers. On the other hand the serodiagnosis is more frequently positive among elephantiasic patients. %8 1978 %0 Journal Article %J Cah Pacif %D 1978 %T La ciguatera uax %A Bagnis, R %A Denizot, M %N 21 %P 293-314 %8 1978 %0 Journal Article %J Cah ORSTOM, Ser Ent Med Parasitol %D 1978 %T La localisation de Culicoides belkini dans les archipels de la Societe, des Tuamotu et dans les %A Duval, J %N 4 %P 279-288 %V XVI %X La lutte contre Culicoides belkini, d'extension recente dans le Pacifique, est devenue en quelques annees un imperatif. La situation ecologique variee des g %8 1978 %0 Journal Article %J Cah Pacif %D 1978 %T La ciguat %A Bagnis, R %A Denizot, M %N 21 %P 293-314 %8 1978 %0 Journal Article %J Cah ORSTOM, Ser Ent Med Parasitol %D 1978 %T Mutants isoenzymatiques de l'a-glycerophosphate deshydrogenase chez Aedes polynesiensis Marks. %A Silberstein, A J %A Pichon, G %A Riviere, F %A Faaruia, M %N 4 %P 289-293 %V XVI %X La majorite des Aedes polynesiensis presente un seul locus codant une seule bande de l'a-glycerophosphate deshydrogenase. Deux autres alleles rares ont cependant ete observes. Par l'etude genetique de l'un d'entre eux, on peut conclure que le locus codant les a-glycerophosphates deshydrogenases de Aedes polynesiensis est triallelique, codominant et autosomique. Par la presence d'une bande "hybride" chez les heterozygotes, la structure moleculaire de ces isoenzymes peut etre consideree comme etant dimerique.Most of Aedes polynesiensis show only one locus coding for one a-glycero-phosphate deshydrogenase band. However two other rare alleles have been noted. By the genetic study of one of them, one may conclude that the only locus coding for a-glycero-phosphate deshydrogenase in Aedes polynesiensis is triallelic, codominant and autosomic. By the presence of a "hybrid" band in the heterozygote, these isoenzymes may be considered as being dimers. %8 1978 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Wld Hlth Org %D 1978 %T Methodes simplifiees de recolte des formes larvaires de Wuchereria bancrofti Cobbold, var. pacifica. Leur preparation pour immuno-fluorescence. %A Parc, F %A Riviere, F %A Roux, J %A Laigret, J %N 2 %P 305-308 %V 56 %X Les auteurs decrivent : une technique d'extraction collective des larves infectantes de Wuchereria bancrofti obtenues vivantes et exemptes d'impuretes a partir d'Aedes polynesiensis eleves et infectes en insectarium ; une technique de coupes a congelation du materiel antigenique ainsi obtenu pour serologie en immunofluorescence ; et l'utilisation a grande echelle de la technique modifiee d'isolement des microfilaires sanguines decrite par Sawyer & Weinstein et la preparation d'antigenes figures a partir de ce materiel. Ces methodes permettent de recueillir des antigenes homologues en quantite et qualite suffisantes pour l'exploration immunologique a grande echelle de la filariose de Bancroft. Les auteurs signalent des possibilites d'application a d'autres domaines de recherche : ecologie et biochimie parasitaires, chimiotherapie, entomologie-epidemiologie.In order to provide antigenic material in sufficient quantities for immunological studies, the authors developed a simple technique for extracting infective stage larvae of Wuchereria bancrofti from Aedes polynesiensis raised in an insectary. Experimentally infected mosquitoes were caught and after anaesthetization were held under physiological saline solution for 12-24 hours. In this time the infective larvae emerged from the mosquitoes and could be collected. The suspension of larvae was then introduced under slight pressure into a short sealed section of rat thoracic artery in order to obtain homogeneous distribution of the larvae in the artery walls. Frozen sections of the artery were then suitable for immunofluorescence tests. For the collection of microfilariae, a modification of Sawyer & Weinstein's method was used. Blood from a highly parasitized subject was collected in a citrated bottle, and, after lysis of the red cells with saponin, was centrifuged. Treatment of the sediment with streptolysin then released the living microfilariae, which when taken up in physiological saline solution were ready for use in immunofluorescence tests. %8 1978 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1978 %T Nouvelle explication physiopathologique de la ciguatera. %A Bagnis, R %A Yasumoto, T %A Chanteau, S %A Inoue, A %N 3 %P 323-325 %V 38 %X After pointing out clinical, biochemical and biological similarities between paralytic shellfish poisoning and ciguaterra fish poisoning, the authors describe their recent discoveries in regard to ciguaterra origin. The causal agent searched without results since many years, might be a dinoflagellate, of the genus Diplopsalis. %8 1978 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1978 %T Nouvelle explication physiopathologique de la ciguat %A Bagnis, R %A Yasumoto, T %A Chanteau, S %A Inoue, A %N 3 %P 323-325 %V 38 %X After pointing out clinical, biochemical and biological similarities between paralytic shellfish poisoning and ciguaterra fish poisoning, the authors describe their recent discoveries in regard to ciguaterra origin. The causal agent searched without results since many years, might be a dinoflagellate, of the genus Diplopsalis. %8 1978 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Wld Hlth Org %D 1978 %T Progres dans l'emploi de la diethylcarbamazine en chimiotherapie de la filariose lymphatique a Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica : la methode des doses espacees. %A Laigret, J %A Fagneaux, G %A Tuira, E %N 6 %P 985-990 %V 56 %X Les programmes de lutte contre la filariose lymphatique ont jusqu'ici ete limites par leur co %8 1978 %0 Journal Article %J Cah ORSTOM, Ser Ent Med Parasitol %D 1978 %T Quelques aspects bio-ecologiques de Culicoides belkini (Wirth et Arnaud, 1969) (Diptera : Ceratopogonidae). %A Duval, J %A Riviere, F %A Pichon, G %N 4 %P 273-277 %V XVI %X En une dizaine d'annees Culicoides belkini, originaire des %8 1978 %0 Journal Article %J Ann Soc Belge Med Trop %D 1978 %T Variations geographiques d'isoenzymes d'esterases chez Aedes polynesiensis Marks. %A Silberstein, A J %A Pichon, G %A Riviere, F %A Faaruia, M %P 321-331 %V 58 %X Le locus autosomique Est-2 de Aedes polynesiensis est quadrillelique et codominant a Upolu (Samoa occ.), triallelique aux Iles sous le Vent, biallelique aux Iles du Vent et differemment biallelique a Wallis, Futuna, Tutuila (Samoa am.), Mauke (Cook S.) et Taiaro (Tuamotu). Un allele nul a ete observe a Bora Bora (Iles sous le Vent). Des differences entre ecotypes ne sont pas encore apparues. En etablissant la genetique formelle de ce locus, il est demontre qu'une femelle peut etre fecondee par plus d'un m %8 1978 %0 Journal Article %J Med Ocean %D 1977 %T Aspects sanitaires de la ciguatera en Nouvelle-Caledonie et aux Nouvelles-Hebrides. %A Bagnis, R %P 35-39 %V 8 %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Jap Soc Sci Fish %D 1977 %T A survey of comparative toxicity in the food chain of ciguatera. %A Yasumoto, T %A Bagnis, R %A Thevenin, S %A Garcon, M %N 8 %P 1015-1019 %V 43 %X In order to elucidate the transmission of ciguatoxin through the food chain and thus determine the primary source of the toxin, fish and molluscs of various feeding habits were collected from three ciguatera-endemic areas of French Polynesia. The specimens included carnivores, herbivores, surface grazers, coral feeders, sediment feeders, and filter deefers. Despite such diversity in feeding habits, all the fish specimens were more or less toxic by our screening method for ciguatoxin. The molluscs were non-toxic. Subsequent tests on the diets of these fish disclosed strong toxicity in a sample consisting of algae and detritus collected from the surface of dead coral of the Gambier Islands. Microscopic observation revealed the presence of a large number of a species of dinoflagellate in this sample. Comparison of similar samples from other places indicated that the dinoflagellate might be the cause of the toxicity. %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Med Ocean %D 1977 %T Apercus pathogeniques recents concernant la ciguatera dans le Pacifique. %A Bagnis, R %P 54-55 %V 7 %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Revue internationale d'education pour la sante %D 1977 %T A propos d'une epidemie de dengue en Polynesie francaise : campagne intensive d'education pour la sante. %A Carme, B %A Pichon, G %A Merlin, M %A Riviere, F %A Kaeuffer, H %A Duprat, M C %A Laigret, J %N XXX %P 126-135 %V 20 %X En mars 1975, une epidemie de dengue de type 1 menace Tahiti. Toutes les circonstances epidemiologiques sont reunies pour que celle-ci se revele particulierement grave. Un dispositif de contr %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Med Ocean %D 1977 %T Aspects sanitaires de la ciguat %A Bagnis, R %P 35-39 %V 8 %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Jap Soc Sci Fish %D 1977 %T A survey of comparative toxicity in the food chain of ciguatera. %A Yasumoto, T %A Bagnis, R %A Th %N 8 %P 1015-1019 %V 43 %X In order to elucidate the transmission of ciguatoxin through the food chain and thus determine the primary source of the toxin, fish and molluscs of various feeding habits were collected from three ciguatera-endemic areas of French Polynesia. The specimens included carnivores, herbivores, surface grazers, coral feeders, sediment feeders, and filter deefers. Despite such diversity in feeding habits, all the fish specimens were more or less toxic by our screening method for ciguatoxin. The molluscs were non-toxic. Subsequent tests on the diets of these fish disclosed strong toxicity in a sample consisting of algae and detritus collected from the surface of dead coral of the Gambier Islands. Microscopic observation revealed the presence of a large number of a species of dinoflagellate in this sample. Comparison of similar samples from other places indicated that the dinoflagellate might be the cause of the toxicity. %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Med Ocean %D 1977 %T Aper %A Bagnis, R %P 54-55 %V 7 %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Revue internationale d' %D 1977 %T A propos d'une %A Carme, B %A Pichon, G %A Merlin, M %A Rivi %N XXX %P 126-135 %V 20 %X En mars 1975, une %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1977 %T Complication neurologique de la ciguatera. %A Bagnis, R %A Bronstein, J A %A Jouffe, G %A Forestier, R %A Meunier, J-L %A Lejan, J %A Brulefer, D %A Parc, F %A Tetaria, C %N 1 %P 89-93 %V 70 %X Les auteurs decrivent une manifestation d'ichtyosarcotoxisme severe en deux temps, traitee en milieu hospitalier et dominee par un tableau neurologique complexe a expression centrale et peripherique. L'observation detaillee qui a pu etre faite de l'incident est un pretexte pour discuter les diverses modalites pathogeniques de la ciguatera humaine.The authors report a case of severe two phases fish poisoning, treated at hospital and ruled by a complex neurological picture with both central and peripheric manifestations. The detailed data, they have got about the disease, are an opportunity to discuss the various pathogenic procedures of human ciguatera. %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1977 %T Complication neurologique de la ciguat %A Bagnis, R %A Bronstein, J A %A Jouffe, G %A Forestier, R %A Meunier, J-L %A Lejan, J %A Brulefer, D %A Parc, F %A Tetaria, C %N 1 %P 89-93 %V 70 %X Les auteurs d %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Jap Soc Sci Fish %D 1977 %T Finding of a dinoflagellate as a likely culprit of ciguatera. %A Yasumoto, T %A Nakajima, I %A Bagnis, R %A Adachi, R %N 8 %P 1021-1026 %V 43 %X Experiments were designed to see wether a dinoflagellate, Diplopsalis sp. nov, found in a toxic sample of detritus collected from a ciguatera-endemic area is the cause of ciguatera. The dinoflagellate in the detritus was separated from other materials by means of sedimentation and sieving through sieves of various mesh sizes. Bioassay of the dinoflagellate-rich samples thus obtained proved that the toxicity of each sample was proportionally related to the number of the dinoflagellate cells in the sample. Subsequent extraction of the dinoflagellate sample followed by fractionation of the extracts with solvents afforded two major toxins : a diethyl ether soluble toxin and an acetone precipitable toxin. The former toxin was judged to be identical, or closely related, to ciguatoxin, a major toxin in ciguatera, on the basis of various column and thin layer chromatographic properties. A close similarity was also observed between the acetone precipitable toxin and maitotoxin, a secondary toxin isolated from ciguateric surgeonfish.Judging from these results, it was concluded that Diplopsalis sp, nov. is very likely to be the cause of ciguatera. %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Jap Soc Sci Fish %D 1977 %T Finding of a dinoflagellate as a likely culprit of ciguatera. %A Yasumoto, T %A Nakajima, I %A Bagnis, R %A Adachi, R %N 8 %P 1021-1026 %V 43 %X Experiments were designed to see wether a dinoflagellate, Diplopsalis sp. nov, found in a toxic sample of detritus collected from a ciguatera-endemic area is the cause of ciguatera. The dinoflagellate in the detritus was separated from other materials by means of sedimentation and sieving through sieves of various mesh sizes. Bioassay of the dinoflagellate-rich samples thus obtained proved that the toxicity of each sample was proportionally related to the number of the dinoflagellate cells in the sample. Subsequent extraction of the dinoflagellate sample followed by fractionation of the extracts with solvents afforded two major toxins : a diethyl ether soluble toxin and an acetone precipitable toxin. The former toxin was judged to be identical, or closely related, to ciguatoxin, a major toxin in ciguatera, on the basis of various column and thin layer chromatographic properties. A close similarity was also observed between the acetone precipitable toxin and maitotoxin, a secondary toxin isolated from ciguateric surgeonfish.Judging from these results, it was concluded that Diplopsalis sp, nov. is very likely to be the cause of ciguatera. %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Med Ocean %D 1977 %T Ichtyosarcotoxisme et sante publique dans le Pacifique oriental. %A Bagnis, R %P 47-53 %V 7 %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Med Ocean %D 1977 %T Ichtyosarcotoxisme et sant %A Bagnis, R %P 47-53 %V 7 %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Med Ocean %D 1977 %T La ciguatera : un puzzle biologique. %A Bagnis, R %A Berger, R %A Fusetani, N %A Kaeuffer, H %A Laigret, J %A Yasumoto, T %P 44-46 %V 7 %X Du 5 au 9 janvier 1979, s'est tenue a Papeete sous l'egide de la Commission du Pacifique Sud, une reunion du Comite d'Experts en Ichtyosarcotoxisme pour le Pacifique. Elle avait pour but de faire le point des donnees recemment acquises en matiere de recherches sur la ciguatera et plus particulierement dans le cadre d'un projet special de la Commission du Pacifique Sud, auxquels participent divers groupes de travail des Universites de Tokyo, Tohoku (Japon), Hawaii (USA) et de l'Institut Louis Malarde de Tahiti (Polynesie francaise). %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Biochimie %D 1977 %T Le complexe toxinique des poissons perroquets. %A Chungue, E %A Bagnis, R %A Fusetani, N %A Yasumoto, T %N 8-9 %P 739-741 %V 59 %X Clinical and epidemiological observations suggested that a complex toxic molecule is involved in the parrotfish flesh (Scarus gibbus) poisoning from Gambier Islands. The fat soluble extract obtained from the muscles upon ciguatoxin preparation showed two toxic substances after fractionation by DEAE cellulose column chromatography. The major toxin is different from ciguatoxin judging by its chromatographic behaviour. The other is closely similar to (or identical with) ciguatoxin from the moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus. They were named SG1 for the new toxin and SG2 for the ciguatoxin like compound. Successive filtrations on Sephadex LH-20 of SG1 and SG2 gave respectively a lethality to mice of 0.03 microgram/g and 0.06 microgram/g. SG1, specifically occurs in the muscles of the parrotfish family (scaritoxin) while it is absent from other ciguateric fishes. According to that specificity and the lack of SG1 in S. gibbus liver and gut contents, the origin of scaritoxin is briefly discussed. %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Med Ocean %D 1977 %T Lutte contre dengue a Tahiti en 1975. %A Carme, B %A Chamouard, J-F %A Delebecque, P %A Duprat, M C %A Kaeuffer, H %A Laigret, J %A Merlin, M %A Pichon, G %A Riviere, F %A Bouissou, P %A Tevane, M %N 7 %P 1-7 %X Le 1er Mars 1975, a l'annonce qu'une epidemie de dengue 1 frappait certains territoires du Pacifique Sud, le Comite de contr %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Med Mal Infect %D 1977 %T Longevite des filaires lymphatiques : a propos d'une filaire Wuchereria bancrofti toujours feconde apres 40 ans d'existence. %A Carme, B %A Pichon, G %A Merlin, M %A Laigret, J %N 5 %P 254-257 %V 7 %X L'estimation de la duree de vie des filaires lymphatiques et plus precisement de leur duree de fecondite est d'une grande importance. En plus de l'interet que cela comporte du point de vue fondamental, cette connaissance est primordiale pour les personnes chargees de la lutte antifilarienne. Dans de nombreuses regions, cette lutte antifilarienne est fondee essentiellement sur la chimioprophylaxie de masse (20). Le but de celle-ci est de reduire au maximum le reservoir de parasite constitue par l'homme porteur de microfilaires dans le sang circulant. Or, il n'existe toujours pas a l'heure actuelle de produit pouvant etre utilise a large echelle sans inconvenients majeurs qui soit capable de detruire les filaires adultes. De ce fait, afin de negativer definitivement le reservoir de parasite, il est necessaire de prolonger fort longtemps les traitements medicamenteux periodiques.La longevite des filaires adultes varie selon les auteurs et il est donc difficile de se faire une opinion. Cependant le chiffre le plus communement admis est de 15 ans. Il est evident que lorsqu'on soustrait un patient a la contamination, l'extinction de la microfilaremie depend de la longevite du parasite. A notre connaissance la valeur maxima connue concernant la persistance de la microfilaremie est de l'ordre d'une dizaine d'annees. C'est pourquoi, il nous para %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Med Ocean %D 1977 %T La ciguat %A Bagnis, R %A Berger, R %A Fusetani, N %A Kaeuffer, H %A Laigret, J %A Yasumoto, T %P 44-46 %V 7 %X Du 5 au 9 janvier 1979, s'est tenue %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Biochimie %D 1977 %T Le complexe toxinique des poissons perroquets. %A Chungue, E %A Bagnis, R %A Fusetani, N %A Yasumoto, T %N 8-9 %P 739-741 %V 59 %X Clinical and epidemiological observations suggested that a complex toxic molecule is involved in the parrotfish flesh (Scarus gibbus) poisoning from Gambier Islands. The fat soluble extract obtained from the muscles upon ciguatoxin preparation showed two toxic substances after fractionation by DEAE cellulose column chromatography. The major toxin is different from ciguatoxin judging by its chromatographic behaviour. The other is closely similar to (or identical with) ciguatoxin from the moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus. They were named SG1 for the new toxin and SG2 for the ciguatoxin like compound. Successive filtrations on Sephadex LH-20 of SG1 and SG2 gave respectively a lethality to mice of 0.03 microgram/g and 0.06 microgram/g. SG1, specifically occurs in the muscles of the parrotfish family (scaritoxin) while it is absent from other ciguateric fishes. According to that specificity and the lack of SG1 in S. gibbus liver and gut contents, the origin of scaritoxin is briefly discussed. %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Med Ocean %D 1977 %T Lutte contre dengue %A Carme, B %A Chamouard, J-F %A Delebecque, P %A Duprat, M C %A Kaeuffer, H %A Laigret, J %A Merlin, M %A Pichon, G %A Rivi %N 7 %P 1-7 %X Le 1er Mars 1975, %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Int Oceanog Med %D 1977 %T Mise en evidence d'un dinoflagelle responsable en puissance de la ciguatera. %A Bagnis, R %A Chanteau, S %A Yasumoto, T %P 29-34 %V XLV-XVVI %X En fractionnant par filtration gravimetrique les constituants des amas biodetritiques dont se nourrissent des poissons veneneux, les auteurs etablissent une relation directe entre la toxicite de type ciguaterique et le nombre de dinoflagelles Diplopsalis sp.By fractionnating biodetritic samples on which feed some poisonous fishes according to the particles size, the authors point out a significant correlation between the ciguateric toxicity and the number of Dinoflagellates Diplopsalis sp. %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Int Oceanog Med %D 1977 %T Mise en %A Bagnis, R %A Chanteau, S %A Yasumoto, T %P 29-34 %V XLV-XVVI %X En fractionnant par filtration gravim %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Med Mal Infect %D 1977 %T R %A Carme, B %A Pichon, G %A Merlin, M %A Laigret, J %N 8 %P 375-376 %V 7 %X Cinq larves infestantes de Wuchereria bancrofti ont ete retrouvees au niveau des glandes salivaires d'un moustique gorge 15 jours auparavant sur l'avant-bras d'un sujet chez qui aucune microfilaire n'avait pu etre retrouvee malgre toutes les methodes de concentration mises en oeuvre. Cette observation materialise bien l'hypothese selon laquelle les infraporteurs de microfilaires jouent un r %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1977 %T Signification des diverses toxines presentes sur les substrats coralliens morts dans le determinisme ciguaterique. %A Bagnis, R %A Chanteau, S %A Yasumoto, T %N 3 %P 319-324 %V 70 %X Les auteurs recherchent directement sur les fonds coralliens les toxines rencontrees dans les tissus des poissons veneneux. Mettant en evidence deux substances toxiques majeures, ils discutent leur r %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1977 %T Signification des diverses toxines pr %A Bagnis, R %A Chanteau, S %A Yasumoto, T %N 3 %P 319-324 %V 70 %X Les auteurs recherchent directement sur les fonds coralliens les toxines rencontr %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Jap Soc Sci Fish %D 1977 %T Toxins in the gut content of parrotfish. %A Yasumoto, T %A Nakajima, I %A Chungue, E %A Bagnis, R %N 1 %P 69-74 %V 43 %X The gut contents and the liver of a parrotfish Scarus gibbus contained ciguatoxin but not scaritoxin in spite of the fact that the latter toxin is dominant in the flesh. Absence of scaritoxin in the diet suggested the possibility that the toxin was produced by the fish from a precursor in the diet. The conversion of the precursor, however, will not take place in the liver.The gut contents contained maitotoxin and acetone soluble toxin(s) besides ciguatoxin. This newly found acetone soluble toxin was assumed to be a basic compound of small molecular size having strong paralytic action. Algae content in the gut contents of the parrotfish was estimated to be very low, on the basis of chlorophylll concentration. It was concluded that algae are note the organisms which produce the toxins(s). %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Jap Soc Sci Fish %D 1977 %T Toxins in the gut content of parrotfish. %A Yasumoto, T %A Nakajima, I %A Chungue, E %A Bagnis, R %N 1 %P 69-74 %V 43 %X The gut contents and the liver of a parrotfish Scarus gibbus contained ciguatoxin but not scaritoxin in spite of the fact that the latter toxin is dominant in the flesh. Absence of scaritoxin in the diet suggested the possibility that the toxin was produced by the fish from a precursor in the diet. The conversion of the precursor, however, will not take place in the liver.The gut contents contained maitotoxin and acetone soluble toxin(s) besides ciguatoxin. This newly found acetone soluble toxin was assumed to be a basic compound of small molecular size having strong paralytic action. Algae content in the gut contents of the parrotfish was estimated to be very low, on the basis of chlorophylll concentration. It was concluded that algae are note the organisms which produce the toxins(s). %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J CR Acad Sc Paris %D 1977 %T Un agent etiologique vraisemblable de la ciguatera. %A Bagnis, R %A Chanteau, S %A Yasumoto, T %P 105-108 %V 285 %X Les etudes biochimiques et pharmacologiques realisees sur diverses fractions d'amas biodetritiques colonisant les coraux morts des %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J CR Acad Sc Paris %D 1977 %T Un agent %A Bagnis, R %A Chanteau, S %A Yasumoto, T %P 105-108 %V 285 %X Les %8 1977 %0 Journal Article %J Biochem Syst Ecol %D 1976 %T 1,2 - Propanediol from the Pacific ocean fish ctenochaetus striatus. %A Chanfour, B %A Ferezou, J P %A Barbier, M %A Bagnis, R %P 207-208 %V 4 %X 1,2-propanediol has been isolated from the fish Ctenochaetus striatus. Obtained a first time as the free alcohol with a high yield, it has been found in smaller amount and esterified, in specimens of a different location. The possible origin of this compound is discussed. %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Biochem Syst Ecol %D 1976 %T 1,2 - Propanediol from the Pacific ocean fish ctenochaetus striatus. %A Chanfour, B %A Ferezou, J P %A Barbier, M %A Bagnis, R %P 207-208 %V 4 %X 1,2-propanediol has been isolated from the fish Ctenochaetus striatus. Obtained a first time as the free alcohol with a high yield, it has been found in smaller amount and esterified, in specimens of a different location. The possible origin of this compound is discussed. %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1976 %T 25 ans de campagnes de masse antifilariennes en Polynesie francaise. %A Merlin, M %A Riviere, F %A Kaeuffer, H %A Laigret, J %N 6 %P 631-640 %V 36 %X Des enquetes sur la filariose menees a Tahiti peu de temps apres la fin de la deuxieme guerre mondiale ont montre le taux de prevalence le plus eleve du Pacifique Sud. La prevalence actuelle represente 10% du niveau initial. Ce resultat obtenu apres 25 ans permet de mieux definir les modalites de la lutte.Face au reservoir humain de parasites, le traitement de masse par DEC est le moyen le plus rentable. Il permet de stabiliser l'endemie a un faible niveau meme avec des doses espacees. Pour obtenir une eradication, il est indispensable de lutter en meme temps contre le vecteur. L'education sanitaire de la population et la lutte biologique semblent les voies les plus s %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1976 %T A propos d'une epidemie contr %A Kaeuffer, H %A Pichon, G %A Merlin, M %A Carme, B %A Riviere, F %A Rosen, L %A Laigret, J %N 5 %P 455-459 %V 36 %X En mars 1975, a l'annonce qu'une epidemie de dengue type 1 frappait certains territoires du Pacifique Sud, un comite technique fut charge, en Polynesie francaise, de mener une campagne de lutte comportant une surveillance epidemiologique, viroserologique et entomologique couplee a des pulverisations modulees d'insecticides. Dans le meme temps, une vaste campagne d'education sanitaire tendait a faire activement participer la population a la lutte antilarvaire. Les auteurs dressent un bilan seroepidemiologique de l'action menee apres 60 semaines. Une etudecomparative permet de penser qu'il existe une certaine correlation entre l'apparition de formes cliniques graves et l'evolution explosive d'une epidemie.On March the Ist, 1975, Tahiti was informed that a new dengue fever outbreak (type 1) was reaching some South Pacific Territories. A technical committee had to start and bring an anti dengue fever campaign. Technical actions (epidemiologic, viro-serologic, and entomologic surveys joined to limited insecticid sprays) came an intensive sanitary education campaign. The authors analyse the sero epidemiologic results after a survey on 60 weeks. Following a comparative study, gravity of symptoms, particularly dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome, seem to be related with the explosive evolution of an outbreak. %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Am J Trop Med Hyg %D 1976 %T A field trial of competitive displacement of Aedes polynesiensis by Aedes albopictus on a Pacific atoll. %A Rosen, L %A Rozeboom, L E %A Reeves, W C %A Saugrain, J %A Gubler, D J %N 6 %P 906-913 %V 25 %X Prior laboratory studies and field observations suggested that it might be possible to reduce the size of the population of, or eliminate, Aedes polynesiensis by the introduction of Aedes albopictus. The former mosquito is the principal vector of non periodic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and the latter is a closely related species refractory to the development of human filariae. The practicability of such competitive displacement was studied by a trial on a remote coral atoll where there was an established population of A. polynesiensis. Three strains of A. albopictus were liberated at separate localities on the atoll and their fate was followed for 4 years. One strain disappeared within 12 months after release and the other two disappeared within 48 months. It was not clear wether A. albopictus failed to become established because the strains were unsuitable, the general environment was inappropriate, or A. polynesiensis was present in such numbers that A. albopictus rarely succeeded in mating with its own species. %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1976 %T Activite du levamisole (solaskil) dans la filariose lymphatique a Wuchereria bancrofti (var. pacifica). %A Merlin, M %A Carme, B %A Kaeuffer, H %A Laigret, J %N 3 %P 257-265 %V 69 %X Le levamisole a ete teste a la dose de 6 mg/kg repetee trois jours de suite sur dix porteurs de microfilaires de Wuchereria bancrofti depistes a Tahiti. Aucune action macrofilaricide n'a ete observee. L'action microfilaricide immediate est au moins egale a celle de la diethylcarbamazine. Mais la chute de la microfilaremie est moins durable avec le levamisole qu'avec la diethylcarbamazine employee pourtant a dose plus faible. Enfin le pourcentage de reactions au traitement par levalisole est eleve.A 6 mg./kg. daily dose of levamisole was given during three days to ten carriers of microfilarias Wuchereria bancrofti in Tahiti. No action against adult worms was noticed. The immediate microfilaricid action was at least equivalent to the action of DEC. However the decrease of microfilaremia was not so long with levamisole than with DEC given to a lower dose. Lastly the amount of reactions after a treatment by levamisole is notable. %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1976 %T A propos d'une %A Kaeuffer, H %A Pichon, G %A Merlin, M %A Carme, B %A Rivi %N 5 %P 455-459 %V 36 %X En mars 1975, %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1976 %T Bilan de 25 ans de chimiotherapie anti-lepreuse en Polynesie francaise. Influence sur l' %A Merlin, M %A Carme, B %A Kaeuffer, H %N 5 %P 412-422 %V 69 %X En Polynesie la lepre revet au plan individuel un aspect grave qui l'apparente au type asiatique. Mais l'endemie est restee dans des limites modestes. Depuis 25 ans une energique campagne de chimiotherapie est menee. Malheureusement les actions de depistage systematique sont insuffisantes et l'education sanitaire est pratiquement nulle. Le territoire connaissant actuellement de profondes mutations demographiques et sociales, la chimiotherapie seule s'avere impuissante a faire reculer definitivement l'endemie, voire meme a empecher durablement sa progression. Cependant on doit mettre a son actif un net recul de l' %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Int Oceanog Med %D 1976 %T Distribution anatomique de la toxicite du poisson perroquet de l'espece Scarus gibbus. %A Chungue, E %A Bagnis, R %P 99-104 %V 61-62 %X Les auteurs procedent a l'etude de la distribution anatomique de la toxicite dans des lots de filets, foies et tubes digestifs du poisson perroquet veneneux Scarus gibbus. Ils montrent que le foie constitue potentiellement le materiel le plus toxique. Comparativement, les autres parties du poisson sont moins dangereuses en puissance pour les consommateurs ; neanmoins, les extraits lipidiques musculaires presentent, par rapport au gramme d'extrait obtenu, la toxicite la plus elevee.The authors study the anatomical distribution of the toxicity in the parrot-fish Scarus gibbus. For instance, batches of muscles, livers and viscera (without liver) are chemically extracted and tested on mice. They show that the livers contain more toxic material than the others parts of the fish. Those are less poisonous for the consumers. Nevertheless, muscles give the least spoiled toxic material. %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Med Mal Infect %D 1976 %T Dengue et cytolyse hepatique. A propos d'un cas. %A Kaeuffer, H %A Lejan, J %A Bronstein, J A %N 9 %P 335-336 %V 6 %X Un metropolitain de 33 ans, fraichement debarque en Polynesie francaise, presente, en periode d'epidemie de dengue un syndrome infectieux hyperalgique avec un test de cytolyse hepatique manifestement perturbe. Les tests serologiques effectues permettent de rattacher les manifestations hepatiques a un diagnostic de dengue. Un travail biologique connexe met en evidence la rarete d'une telle association. %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Med Mal Infect %D 1976 %T Depistage simultane dans une meme fratrie de trois cas de lepre d'aspect et d'evolution identiques. %A Carme, B %A Merlin, M %N 9 %P 337-340 %V 6 %X Les auteurs presentent trois observations de maladie de Hansen debutant simultanement et evoluant d'une facon identique chez deux soeurs et un frere d'une fratrie de quatre enfants relativement peu exposes a l'infection lepreuse.Il s'agit de lepre en voie de differenciation tuberculoide, forme peu frequente en Polynesie francaise ou d'autres part l'endemie lepreuse est maintenue a un faible niveau. Ces observations sont tres en faveur d'une predisposition genetique dans le cadre de l'evolution d'une lepre infection vers une lepre maladie. Par ailleurs elles illustrent bien le passage par un stade indetermine avant la differenciation polaire de la maladie de Hansen. The authors put the case of three patient starting together a leprosy in the same family (two sisters and one of their brothers in a family of four children non particularly exposed to leprosy).They are three cases indeterminate leprosy in process of tuberculoid differenciation. In French Polynesia the tuberculoid type is not frequent and the prevalence of leprosy is not important. These three observations plead in favour of a genetic predisposition about the evolution from the infection phase to the polar phase of leprosy. Moreover they emphasy the transition through and indeterminate phase before reaching a polar type of Hansen disease. %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Int Oceanog Med %D 1976 %T Distribution anatomique de la toxicit %A Chungue, E %A Bagnis, R %P 99-104 %V 61-62 %X Les auteurs proc %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Med Mal Infect %D 1976 %T Dengue et cytolyse h %A Kaeuffer, H %A Lejan, J %A Bronstein, J A %N 9 %P 335-336 %V 6 %X Un m %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Med Mal Infect %D 1976 %T Evaluation du r %A Pichon, G %N 10 %P 378-381 %V 6 %X La tres lente propagation du virus dengue de type 1 a Tahiti en 1975, qui contraste avec les epidemies explosives enregistrees aux Fidji ou aux Tonga, pourrait etre imputee, d'apres Kaeuffer et al., a un phenomene d'interference virale. A la lumiere des donnees viro-, sero- et entomologiques dont on dispose, cette hypothese est discutee. Il para %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1976 %T Eosinophilie et filariose lymphatique en Polynesie francaise. %A Carme, B %A Kaeuffer, H %A Laigret, J %N 5 %P 438-445 %V 69 %X Une hypereosinophilie importante est habituellement consideree comme un argument d'orientation interessant dans le cadre de la filariose lymphatique. Cette presente etude porte sur pres de 300 Polynesiens parasites par Wuchereria bancrofti variete pacifica. Differents groupes sont analyses : sujets porteurs de microfilaires dans le sang circulant, elephantiasiques, lymphangitiques, nouveaux infectes, filariens recemment traites par diethylcarbamazine ainsi que 100 sujets temoins. Les resultats observes varient sur certains points d'une facon notable par rapport aux donnees classiquement admises.An important hypereosinophilia is usually regarded as an interesting argument of presumption in lymphatic filariasis. This present report concerns 278 Polynesians people infected with Wuchereria bancrofti pacifica. Six kinds of patients were analysed: carriers of microfilarias, patients with elephantiasis, with lymphangitis attacks, new infections, carriers of microfilariasis recently treated with Diethylcarbamazine and, at least, 100 fellows without filariasis. The results which were observed differ, in some aspects, from the usually admitted ideas. %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Feuillets de Biologie %D 1976 %T Etude comparative de trois methodes de mise en evidence des microfilaires sanguicoles, appliquees a la filariose lymphatique. %A Kaeuffer, H %A Carme, B %A Merlin, M %N 92 %P 65-69 %V XVII %X Les auteurs comparent trois groupes de methode de mise en evidence de microfilaires sanguicoles (gouttes epaisses calibrees de 20 mm3, filtration sur membrane, hemoconcentration) interessant uniquement un groupe de patients susceptibles d'etre faiblement porteurs de microfilaires de Wuchereria bancrofti variete pacifica. Ils concluent qu'en matiere de depistage individuel l'hemoconcentration s'avere la technique la plus rentable a utiliser. En revanche, si elle reste la plus sensible en depistage systematique, son application sur le terrain est malaisee ainsi, qu'a un moindre degre, la filtration sur membrane.The authors are doing a comparative study about three kinds of method for showing up microfilarias in peripheral blood (20 cm3 blood films, membrane filtration, hemoconcentartion), concerning only a group of patients liable to be low carriers of microfilarias Wuchereria bancrofti pacifica. The authors come to the conclusion that about individual survey hemoconcentration gives the best output. In return, if it remains the most sensitive method for systematic blood surveys, its extensive use on the ground is difficult those, at a lower degree, of the membrane filtration. %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1976 %T Evolution en matiere de filariose des anticorps hemagglutinants un an apres une dose unique de diethylcarbamazine. %A Kaeuffer, H %A Pichon, G %A Carme, B %A Merlin, M %N 4 %P 342-347 %V 69 %X Les auteurs comparent les resultats serologiques obtenus avant et un an apres une dose unique de diethylcarbamazine (6 mg/kg) sur une population homogene, hautement parasitee par Wuchereria bancrofti variete pacifica. Ils constatent une diminution statistiquement significative du taux des anticorps hemagglutinants chez les filariens confirmes.The authors compare the serological results obtained before and after a single dose with diethylcarbamazine (6 mg./kg.) in a homogeneous and strongly infected with Wuchereria bancrofti var, pacifica population. They point out a statistically significant decrease of the hemagglutining antibody titres of filarian patients. %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Med Mal Infect %D 1976 %T Evaluation du r %A Pichon, G %N 10 %P 378-381 %V 6 %X La tr %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Biochimie %D 1976 %T Fractionnement d'extraits lipidiques ciguatoxiques en milieu alcalin. %A Vernoux, J-P %A Bagnis, R %N 4 %P 479-484 %V 58 %X Lors de l'extraction de produits ciguatoxiques a partir de tissus de divers poissons de recifs, l'application d'un traitement alcalin rapide a des residus obtenus a un stade precoce est efficace pour separer la fraction ciguatoxique des impuretes toxiques qui faussent souvent la valeur des tests pharmacologiques. Un dosage biologique plus precis est alors possible. Un tel traitement n'affecte ni l'activite physiologique chez le chat et la souris, ni le comportement chromatographique en couche mince preparative dans un systeme benzene-butanol (75 : 25) des molecules ciguatoxiques.A modification of the extraction procedure for obtaining ciguatoxic substances from the tissues of various poisonous reef fish has been developed. Rapid alkali treatment of the residue obtained at an early stage is efficient in separating the ciguatoxic fraction from toxic impurities which interfere with pharmacological tests. It is thus possibles to carry out a more precise dosage of the material separated in this way. Alkali treatment does not affect either the physiological activity in cats and mice of the ciguatoxic substances nor their behaviour in a preparative thin layer chromatography in a benzene-butanol system. %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Cah Pacif %D 1976 %T Faune ichtyologique du lagon de Taiaro. %A Bagnis, R %N 19 %P 283-288 %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Biochimie %D 1976 %T Fractionnement d'extraits lipidiques ciguatoxiques en milieu alcalin. %A Vernoux, J-P %A Bagnis, R %N 4 %P 479-484 %V 58 %X Lors de l'extraction de produits ciguatoxiques %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Cah Pacif %D 1976 %T Faune ichtyologique du lagon de Taiaro. %A Bagnis, R %N 19 %P 283-288 %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1976 %T Isolation of two toxins from a parrotfish Scarus gibbus. %A Chungue, E %A Bagnis, R %A Fusetani, N %A Hashimoto, Y %N 1 %P 89-93 %V 15 %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1976 %T Interet de l'hemagglutination passive et perspectives en matiere de filariose lymphatique. %A Kaeuffer, H %A Carme, B %A Laigret, J %N 3 %P 244-257 %V 69 %X En Polynesie francaise, region d'endemie filarienne a Wuchereria bancrofti (variete pacifica), les auteurs analysent les resultats obtenus a partir de 219 serums testes en hemagglutination passive, utilisant comme antigene un extrait proteique de Dirofilaria immitis. Malgre son manque de sensibilite qui semble la condamner au profit d'autres tests immunologiques, cette methode s'est revelee interessante puisqu'elle a permis :- d'une part de montrer que la distribution de frequence des resultats retrouves aux differentes dilutions, tant chez les filariens que chez les non-filariens est gaussienne ce qui permet de considerer cette distribution comme un parametre fiable et pratique pour l'evaluation de l'intensite de la transmission filarienne dans differentes populations ; - et d'autre part de retrouver l'existance d'un rapport inverse entre la presence de microfilaires dans le sang et l'intensite de la reaction immunitaire, ou tout au moins de la reaction d'hemagglutination passive, dans la filariose lymphatique. The authors analyze the data concerning 219 sera, that they have tested in passive hemagglutination, with as antigen a Dirofilaria immitis proteic extract, in French Polynesia. Besides its light sensitivity, this method does appear very interesting. It points out: --First, that there is a gaussian distribution of the results found at various dilutions, both by 'filarian' and 'non filarian' people. Therefore, this distribution is a feasible and practical parameter for evaluation of the Filariasis transmission in different populations. --On the other hand, that there is an inverse correlation between the presence of microfilaria in the blood and the level of immunological response for lymphatic Filariasis. %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1976 %T Impact de la modification profonde des structures d'une societe sur l'evolution d'une maladie endemique : la lepre en Polynesie francaise. %A Merlin, M %A Carme, B %A Laigret, J %N 5 %P 422-433 %V 69 %X En Polynesie, la lepre revet un aspect grave au plan individuel mais l'endemie est restee dans des limites modestes. Depuis 25 ans, l'usage intensif de therapeutiques modernes permettaient d'envisager une eradication possible de la maladie dans les decennies a venir. Cependant l'explosion demographique, le bouleversement profond de la societe et des migrations importantes ont amene la creation d'un nouveau foyer de lepre dans une zone urbaine en pleine gestation. Il semble en resulter une relance de l'endemie dans le Territoire.In French Polynesia the cases of leprosy are individually severe but the endemy itself always stood in low limits. The intensive use of modern treatments since 1950 have been making the eredication reasonably possible in the future. However the brutal demographic increase, the deep upsetting of the society and the important migrations made propitious conditions in the urbanized area for the advent of a new centre of infection. The result seems to be an increase of leprosy in the territory. %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Toxicon %D 1976 %T Isolation of two toxins from a parrotfish Scarus gibbus. %A Chungue, E %A Bagnis, R %A Fusetani, N %A Hashimoto, Y %N 1 %P 89-93 %V 15 %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1976 %T L'hypersensibilite dans l'ichtyosarcotoxisme de type ciguaterique : modele experimental. %A Kaeuffer, H %A Bagnis, R %A Chanteau, S %A Chungue, E %A Drollet, J H %A Vernoux, J-P %N 5 %P 446-449 %V 69 %X A partir d'un modele experimental en anaphylaxie passive locale cutanee, les auteurs montrent que l'hypersensibilisation represente un des mecanismes physiopathologique du syndrome ciguaterique.Using an experimental pattern for testing reverse passive anaphylaxis the authors point out that hypersensitivity is one of the physiopathological mechanisms in the ciguateric syndrom. %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Med Ocean %D 1976 %T Le projet M.A.B. en Polynesie francaise. %A Laigret, J %N 5 %P 44-52 %X Le projet l'"Homme et la Biosphere" a ete concu par l'UNESCO dans le but de susciter et de coordonner les recherches concernant les relations reciproques de l'homme et de son environnement. Leurs resultats permettront de preciser les consequences indesirables de ces relations et de determiner les moyens de les prevenir. Un des aspects des recherches concerne la sante de l'homme en fonction des modifications de son milieu. Parmi les themes proposes, le theme 7 est intitule "Ecologie et utilisation rationnelle des ecosystemes insulaires". Il est particulierement adapte au Pacifique. La France a choisi pour l'appliquer la Polynesie francaise du fait des moyens scientifiques qui s'y trouvent reunis. Dans ce territoire, les chercheurs concentrent leurs activites sur une %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1976 %T L'hypersensibilit %A Kaeuffer, H %A Bagnis, R %A Chanteau, S %A Chungue, E %A Drollet, J H %A Vernoux, J-P %N 5 %P 446-449 %V 69 %X A partir d'un mod %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Med Ocean %D 1976 %T Le projet M.A.B. en Polyn %A Laigret, J %N 5 %P 44-52 %X Le projet l'"Homme et la Biosph %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1976 %T Morbidite ciguaterique et alimentation monotone en poissons de recifs. %A Bagnis, R %N 3 %P 283 %V 36 %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1976 %T Morbidit %A Bagnis, R %N 3 %P 283 %V 36 %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Biochimie %D 1976 %T Purification de la ciguatoxine de la loche Epinephelus microdon (Bleeker). %A Chanteau, S %A Bagnis, R %A Yasumoto, T %N 9 %P 1149-1151 %V 58 %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Biochimie %D 1976 %T Purification de la ciguatoxine de la loche Epinephelus microdon (Bleeker). %A Chanteau, S %A Bagnis, R %A Yasumoto, T %N 9 %P 1149-1151 %V 58 %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Jap Soc Sci Fish %D 1976 %T Toxicity of the surgeonfishes. II - Properties of the principal water-soluble toxin. %A Yasumoto, T %A Bagnis, R %A Vernoux, J-P %N 3 %P 359-365 %V 42 %X Specimens of surgeonfish Ctenochaetus striatus collected in Tahiti contained a water-soluble toxin in addition to ciguatoxin. The water-soluble toxin was tentatively named maitotoxin (MT) after the tahitian name for surgeonfish maito. Purification of MT was achievable by the standard purification procedures for polar lipids. The toxin was eluted from a silicic acid column chloroform-methanol (6 : 4) and from a cellulose column with chloroform-methanol-water (5 : 15 : 1). Upon gel-filtration through Sephadex G-25, it appeared in the fractions near void volume. Acid hydrolysis of the toxin afforded fatty acids, glucose and galactose, and 15 amino acids. The minimum lethal dose to mice by ip injection was estimated to be 15 ~ 20 mg/kg. Guppies put in 40 ppm solution of MT died within 150 min. These chemical and physiological properties indicated a close similarity of MT to the ichthyotoxin produced by the phytoflagellate Prymnesium parvum. %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Jap Soc Sci Fish %D 1976 %T Toxicity of the surgeonfishes. II - Properties of the principal water-soluble toxin. %A Yasumoto, T %A Bagnis, R %A Vernoux, J-P %N 3 %P 359-365 %V 42 %X Specimens of surgeonfish Ctenochaetus striatus collected in Tahiti contained a water-soluble toxin in addition to ciguatoxin. The water-soluble toxin was tentatively named maitotoxin (MT) after the tahitian name for surgeonfish maito. Purification of MT was achievable by the standard purification procedures for polar lipids. The toxin was eluted from a silicic acid column chloroform-methanol (6 : 4) and from a cellulose column with chloroform-methanol-water (5 : 15 : 1). Upon gel-filtration through Sephadex G-25, it appeared in the fractions near void volume. Acid hydrolysis of the toxin afforded fatty acids, glucose and galactose, and 15 amino acids. The minimum lethal dose to mice by ip injection was estimated to be 15 ~ 20 mg/kg. Guppies put in 40 ppm solution of MT died within 150 min. These chemical and physiological properties indicated a close similarity of MT to the ichthyotoxin produced by the phytoflagellate Prymnesium parvum. %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1976 %T Une consequence indirecte de la pollution marine en milieu insulaire tropical : la ciguatera. %A Bagnis, R %A Vernoux, J-P %N 3 %P 280-282 %V 36 %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1976 %T Une cons %A Bagnis, R %A Vernoux, J-P %N 3 %P 280-282 %V 36 %8 1976 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1975 %T A propos de l'absence du virus sindbis en Polynesie francaise. %A Kaeuffer, H %A Vernoux, J-P %N 3 %P 259-262 %V 68 %X Les auteurs presentent les resultats d'une enquete portant sur 2032 serums traites en inhibition de l'hemagglutination (I.H.A.), qui se sont tous averes negatifs vis-a-vis de l'antigene Sindbis. Ils concluent qu'en Polynesie francaise, l'utilisation de cet antigene, temoin du serodiagnostic de la rubeole en IHA est un excellent critere de specificite.The authors report, In French Polynesia that Sindbis antigen is good control for rubella serodiagnosis. Data are presented on Hemagglutination Inhibition from 2,032 sera, showing no evidence of any Sindbis antigen circulation. %8 1975 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1975 %T Activite du levamisole dans la filariose de bancroft. Evolution de la microfilaremie au cours d'une cure de 12 jours apres un recul de 45 jours. %A Moreau, J-P %A Radanielina, R %A Barbier, P %N 6 %P 451-455 %V 35 %X 27 carriers of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae received gradual doses of Levamisole during 4 days then 3 mg/kg by day during 8 days. The microfilaraemia fell very quickly for all patients. This count reached down to zero for 21 of them the last day of the cure. The rate of microfilaraemia reduction was 98.5%. 45 days after this rate was 93.11. This activity is interesting because Levamisole is a polyvalent drug and polyparasitism is very frequent in filariasis endemic areas. For mass treatment, shorter cures may be suggested with a monthly single dose later. %8 1975 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1975 %T Ciguatoxine et poissons de recifs comestibles. %A Bagnis, R %A Vernoux, J-P %N 3 %P 320-325 %V 68 %X Se referant a la variabilite des reponses cliniques de l'homme et de l'animal d'experience a l'ingestion de poissons de recifs, les auteurs precisent l'importance de la dose de chair absorbee et le r %8 1975 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1975 %T Ciguatera : mise en evidence neurophysiologique de la toxicite de diverses fractions ciguatoxiques. %A Faucomprez, C %A Ferezou, J P %A Bagnis, R %A Chanfour, B %A Niaussat, P M %A Drouet, J %N 1 %P 105-115 %V 68 %X Des extraits bruts d'un poisson frequemment ciguatogene, provenant de Polynesie, ont ete soumis a un fractionnement par chromatographie sur colonne d'acide silicique.Sur les 7 fractions ainsi separees, 3 revelent soit des proprietes anticholinesterasiques, soit des proprietes toxiques directes au niveau de la cellule musculaire : la fraction 5, non antagonisee par l'atropine, est sans doute responsable de cette action directe par competitivite vis-a-vis du calcium sur les sites membranaires. La fraction 6 semble surtout responsable de l'action anticholinesterasique. Elle possede, sur sa sous-fraction 6-2, un ion ammonium quaternaire. La fraction 7 possede, attenuees, les memes proprietes que la fraction 6. Raw extracts from one polynesian frequently ciguatera-inducing fish were submitted to fractional distillation by means of a chromatographic process using a silicic acid column. Three out of the seven fractions split this way exhibited either anticholinesterasic properties, or directly toxic properties at the muscle-cell level : fraction 5, which is not antagonized by atropine, presumably accounts for this direct action, as it competes with calcium at membrane sites. Fraction 6 appears to be more specially responsible for the anticholinesterasic action. It revealed a quaternary ammonium ion in its 6-2 sub-fraction. Fraction 7 shows the same properties as fraction 6, but on a smaller seale. %8 1975 %0 Journal Article %J CR Soc Biol %D 1975 %T Ciguatera : etudes neurophysiologique et histoenzymologique de diverses fractions d'extraits ciguatoxiques. %A Niaussat, P M %A Drouet, J %A Bagnis, R %A Deloince, R %A Chanfour, B %N 4 %P 912-920 %V 169 %X Deux fractions d'extraits ciguatoxiques ont ete isolees par chromatographie. L'une possede des proprietes anticholinesterasiques, l'autre une action directe sur la fibre musculaire. Ces resultats sont confirmes histoenzymologiquement. Des contr %8 1975 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1975 %T Ciguatoxine et poissons de r %A Bagnis, R %A Vernoux, J-P %N 3 %P 320-325 %V 68 %X Se r %8 1975 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1975 %T Ciguat %A Faucomprez, C %A Ferezou, J P %A Bagnis, R %A Chanfour, B %A Niaussat, P M %A Drouet, J %N 1 %P 105-115 %V 68 %X Des extraits bruts d'un poisson fr %8 1975 %0 Journal Article %J CR Soc Biol %D 1975 %T Ciguat %A Niaussat, P M %A Drouet, J %A Bagnis, R %A Deloince, R %A Chanfour, B %N 4 %P 912-920 %V 169 %X Deux fractions d'extraits ciguatoxiques ont %8 1975 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1975 %T Etude immunologique comparee d'extraits proteiques de poissons veneneux et non veneneux. %A Kaeuffer, H %A Bagnis, R %A Claverie, A %A Vernoux, J-P %N 4 %P 426-431 %V 68 %X Suspectant une participation immunologique dans la pathogenie du syndrome ciguaterique, les auteurs preparent un antigene proteique a partir de la chair de poissons veneneux et comestibles de la meme espece. Ils montrent qu'il existe une communaute antigenique totale entre les extraits toxiques et atoxiques. Ils proposent une nouvelle approche immunologique en matiere d'intoxication par les poissons veneneux.Suggesting an immunologic participation in the pathogeny of the ciguateric syndroms, the authors have prepared a proteic antigen from the flesh of poisonous and edible fish of the same species. They have shown that there is a total common antigenicity between toxic and non toxic extracts. They suggest a new immunologic approach, in the matter of intoxication by ciguateric fish. %8 1975 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1975 %T Etude histo-enzymologique de l'activite anticholinesterasique d'extraits ciguatoxiques de Ctenochaetus striatus (Gunther) et Plectropomus leopardus. %A Moricart, Y %A Deloince, R %A Niaussat, P M %A Drouet, J %A Bagnis, R %A Faucomprez, C %A Neveux, Y %N 2 %P 221-228 %V 68 %X L'utilisation des techniques histo-enzymologiques de visualisation des sites cholinesterasiques de la plaque motrice est mise a profit par les auteurs pour mettre en evidence l'inhibition, par certaines des ciguatoxines, des processus cholinesterasiques au niveau de la synapse neuro-musculaire. Les resultats observes confirment, d'une part, l'efficacite de la methode pour tester l'activite anti-cholinesterasique de certaines fractions des extraits ciguateriques, et, d'autre part, permettent de constater que meme des individus cliniquement non toxiques d'especes pisciaires, h %8 1975 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1975 %T Effet d'une dose unique de mebendazole sur la microfilaremie de 50 porteurs de micro-fialires de Wuchereria bancrofti, variete Pacifica. %A L., Chautin %A Merlin, M %A Laigret, J %N 2 %P 198-204 %V 68 %X Le Mebendazole a ete prescrit a 50 porteurs de microfilaires de Wuchereria bancrofti (var. pacifica) a la dose unique d'abord de 200 et 300 mg, puis de 400 mg. Les effets secondaires sont negligeables. L'action sur la microfilaremie est retardee mais nette, cependant tres inferieure a celle de ma diethylcarbamazine. Il y a lieu de poursuivre les essais avec des doses plus elevees ou repetees.Treatment by Mebendazol were given to 50 patients divided in 3 groups, the first on having s single dose of 200 mg., the second one a single dose of 300 mg. and the last one a single dose of 400 mg. There was practically no unpleasant side effect. We noticed a delayed but notable effect on microfilaremia sensibly lower than diethylcarbamazine action in similar conditions. It would be interesting to try heavier doses or iterative doses. %8 1975 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1975 %T Etude immunologique compar %A Kaeuffer, H %A Bagnis, R %A Claverie, A %A Vernoux, J-P %N 4 %P 426-431 %V 68 %X Suspectant une participation immunologique dans la pathog %8 1975 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1975 %T Etude histo-enzymologique de l'activit %A Moricart, Y %A Deloince, R %A Niaussat, P M %A Drouet, J %A Bagnis, R %A Faucomprez, C %A Neveux, Y %N 2 %P 221-228 %V 68 %X L'utilisation des techniques histo-enzymologiques de visualisation des sites cholinest %8 1975 %0 Journal Article %J Med Mal Infect %D 1975 %T La rubeole en Polynesie francaise. %A Kaeuffer, H %A Bagnis, R %N 5 %P 277-278 %V 5 %X Les auteurs analysent les resultats de 979 serodiagnostics de la rubeole en inhibition de l'hemagglutination pratiques chez des Polynesiennes. A l'evidence le degre d'immunite est important (96%) dans la partie de la population feminine la plus exposee, ce qui signe une libre circulation du virus sauvage. Il semble des lors raisonnable de proposer non pas une vaccination systematique mais la protection des femmes en %8 1975 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Med Vet %D 1975 %T Prelevements de sang chez le chat. %A Vernoux, J-P %A Bagnis, R %N 3 %P 351-355 %V 126 %X La presente note rapporte avec details la technique de ponction cardiaque du chat adulte et du jeune chat. Cette technique est du plus haut interet pour l'etude de la pathogenie de l'affection feline provoquee par la ciguatera experimentale (empoisonnement par le poisson).This note relates in detail the technique of cardiac puncture of adult cat and young cat. This technics is most interesting to study pathogeny of cat's affection caused by experimental ciguatera (fish poisoning). %8 1975 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1975 %T Quelques observations de piq %A Lagraulet, J %N 6 %P 608-614 %V 68 %X Analysant sept observations de piq %8 1975 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1975 %T Reflexions cliniques a propos des empoisonnements par animaux marins aux Iles Marquises. %A Dambielle, B %A Lagraulet, J %N 2 %P 228-234 %V 68 %X Les empoisonnements par animaux marins aux Iles Marquises paraissent relativement recents, dans un archipel dont les habitants ne consomment qu'exceptionnellement de poisson frais et sain, et dont l'environnement est depourvu de recifs coralliens. Les conditions rarement realisees de consommation favorable, ne provoquent pas d'empoisonnement par les poissons. Bien que les statistiques soient assez aleatoires dans les parages polynesiens, les phenomenes paraissent evoluer d'Est en Ouest, cycliquement en phase regressive fin 1973.Deux syndromes complementaires ont ete isoles : - L'un, primaire et neuro-sensoriel, predomine lors de la consommation de crustaces, mollusques ou echinides toxiques. Les signes hemorragiques sont parfois observes a l'occasion de la consommation de poissons qui provoquent une toxi-infection habituelle. La specificite des especes toxiques n'est pas apparue a l'evidence. - L'autre, secondaire, presente les caracteristiques myalgies transitoires et le tableau curieux d'allure nevropathique de la 'contamine' de Ua Pou. Intoxications due to sea animals in the Marquesas seem to be relatively frequent in this archipelago. Fish consumption under rarely realized favorable conditions does not induce intoxications. Although statistics are hazardous in Polynesia, the phenomena seem to progress from East to West, and to be cyclic, with a regression phase at the end of 1973. Two complementary syndromes have been isolated: -- one is primary, neuro-sensory, and is prevalent in the case of toxic crustaceans, molluscs or echinoderms consumption. Hemorragic signs are sometimes observed in the case of consumption of fish provoking an unusual toxi-infection. The specificity of the toxic species has not been demonstrated. -- the other one is secondary and presents the characteristics of transistory myalgiae and the strange neuropathic picture of 'la Contamine' of Ua-Pou. %8 1975 %0 Journal Article %J CR Acad Sc Paris Serie D %D 1975 %T Recherche d'une loi de distribution des microfilaires ingerees par des moustiques piquant un filarien. Premiers resultats. %A Pichon, G %A Prod'hon, J %A Riviere, F %P 717-719 %V 280 %X La distribution de microfilaires ingerees chez deux especes de moustiques piquant des volontaires filariens n'est ni poissonienne, ni log-normale. Elle para %8 1975 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1975 %T R %A Dambielle, B %A Lagraulet, J %N 2 %P 228-234 %V 68 %X Les empoisonnements par animaux marins aux Iles Marquises paraissent relativement r %8 1975 %0 Journal Article %J Med Mal Infect %D 1975 %T Surveillance sero-epidemiologique de la dengue a Tahiti. %A Kaeuffer, H %A Rosen, L %A Laigret, J %N 11 %P 549-550 %V 5 %8 1975 %0 Journal Article %J Med Mal Infect %D 1975 %T Surveillance s %A Kaeuffer, H %A Rosen, L %A Laigret, J %N 11 %P 549-550 %V 5 %8 1975 %0 Journal Article %J Southeast Asian J Trop Med Pub Hlth %D 1974 %T A comparison of the prevalences of toxoplasma antibodies in Tahitians and Chinese living in Tahiti. %A Wallace, G D %A Laigret, J %A Kaeuffer, H %N 3 %P 350-352 %V 5 %X To provide additional information on differences in the prevalences of Toxoplasma antibody among certain ethnic groups, particularly in relation to the relatively low prevalences noted in Chinese in Southeast Asia, Toxoplasma antibody prevalence was compared in Chinese and Tahitians living in Tahiti, where the prevalence of Toxoplasma antibody in Tahitians was known to be high. Of 23 Tahitians and 21 Chinese (mostly young adults) tested, Toxoplasma dye-test antibody ( %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Int Oceanog Med %D 1974 %T Biotopes ciguaterigenes en Polynesie francaise. %A Bagnis, R %A Denizot, M %A Drollet, J H %A Laigret, J %P 213-223 %V 35-36 %X Les auteurs dressent une liste des agressions naturelles et provoquees par l'homme sur les fonds marins de la Polynesie francaise. Ils signalent certains facteurs biotiques attestant de cette deterioration. Les auteurs essaient de trouver une relation entre les differentes donnees et les flambees de ciguatera resultant de la consommation de poissons veneneux dans diverses regions. Ils essaient par ailleurs de donner une nouvelle explication des causes de la ciguatera en tenant compte plus particulierement des bacteries et des champignons.The authors list different natural and man-made agressions on marine bottoms in French Polynesia. They point out some biotic factors attesting the deterioration. They attempt to correlate the various data with outbreaks of ciguatera due to the consumption of poisonous fish in several areas and to give a new explanation of its cause paying more attention to bacteria and fungus. %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Int Oceanog Med %D 1974 %T Biotopes ciguat %A Bagnis, R %A Denizot, M %A Drollet, J H %A Laigret, J %P 213-223 %V 35-36 %X Les auteurs dressent une liste des agressions naturelles et provoqu %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J Medecine et Armees %D 1974 %T Evolution d'une flambee de ciguatera aux Iles Marquises. %A Bagnis, R %N 2 %P 115-122 %V 2 %X Les Iles Marquises, situees au nord-est de la Polynesie francaise, sont actuellement soumises a une flambee de ciguatera. L'archipel dans sa presque totalite est touche. D'une etude epidemiologique effectuee en 1972, il ressort que le taux de morbidite annuel dans plusieurs %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J CR Acad Sc Paris Serie D %D 1974 %T Etude de la reduction parasitaire chez differents vecteurs naturels ou experimentaux de filarioses. %A Pichon, G %N Serie D %P 3095-3097 %V 278 %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1974 %T Enquete sur l'elephantiasis dans l' %A Lagraulet, J %N 1 %P 73-77 %V 67 %X Dans l' %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1974 %T Etude disc-electrophoretique comparative du venin de quelques scorpaenidae ("Synanceja verrucosa", "Scorpaena gibbosa", "Pterois volitans" et "Pterois radiata"). %A Cuzon, G %A Lagraulet, J %A Toudic, A %A Tapu, J %N 2 %P 226-230 %V 67 %X Les venins de Synanceja, Scorpaena et Pterois se differencient par le nombre et la mobilite de leurs constituants proteiques. 18 fractions sont reperables par electrophorese du venin de Synanceja. Quelques proteines du venin de Scorpaena, Pterois et Synanceja migrent a des positions identiques dans le gel. La toxicite des venins du poisson-pierre resulte d'un effet combine de composants divers bien isoles, mais les composants proteiques non identifies par cette methode pourraient etre toxiques egalement. La comparaison des trois electrophoregrammes permet de considerer les fractions 10 et 13 comme pouvant etre letales. D'un point de vue taxonomique les venins des deux especes de Pterois presentent des differences electrophoretiques. L'isolement des proteines letales et la separation des proteines basiques a l'aide des gels a forte concentration en acrylamide apparaissent interessants. Les manifestations cliniques par piq %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J M %D 1974 %T Evolution d'une flamb %A Bagnis, R %N 2 %P 115-122 %V 2 %X Les Iles Marquises, situ %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J Am J Trop Med Hyg %D 1974 %T Fatal hemorrhagic disease and shock associated with primary dengue infection on a Pacific island. %A Barnes, W J %A Rosen, L %N 3 %P 495-506 %V 23 %X

An epidemic of dengue type 2 occurred on Niue Island during the first half of 1972 involved approximately 90% of the population of 4.600 persons and affected all age groups equally. Serologic data indicated that this was the first occurrence of any dengue virus on the island for at least 25 years. Many persons had minor hemorrhages associated with febrile illnesses during the outbreak and a few had severe hemorrhages or shock. Twelve deaths occurred which may have been caused by dengue. The clinical features of the fatal illnesses among children were very similar to those described previously for dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome. It is concluded that at least some deaths among children were caused by dengue virus and were, consequently, the result of primary infection with that virus.

%8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J Am J Trop Med Hyg %D 1974 %T Fatal hemorrhagic disease and shock associated with primary dengue infection on a Pacific island. %A Barnes, W J %A Rosen, L %N 3 %P 495-506 %V 23 %X An epidemic of dengue type 2 occurred on Niue Island during the first half of 1972 involved approximately 90% of the population of 4.600 persons and affected all age groups equally. Serologic data indicated that this was the first occurrence of any dengue virus on the island for at least 25 years. Many persons had minor hemorrhages associated with febrile illnesses during the outbreak and a few had severe hemorrhages or shock. Twelve deaths occurred which may have been caused by dengue. The clinical features of the fatal illnesses among children were very similar to those described previously for dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome. It is concluded that at least some deaths among children were caused by dengue virus and were, consequently, the result of primary infection with that virus. %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1974 %T Les intoxications par poissons perroquets aux Iles Gambier. %A Bagnis, R %A Loussan, E %A Thevenin, S %N 4 %P 523-527 %V 34 %X The authors report on a cerebellar syndrom by people of Gambier Islands, poisoned with parrot-fishes Scarus gibbus. The troubles may be in correlation with the presence in the flesh of the fish of a new fat-soluble toxic compound, different from ciguatoxin. %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J Med Ocean %D 1974 %T La ciguatera et le medecin praticien. %A Bagnis, R %N 2 %P 32-37 %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Phycol France %D 1974 %T Le probleme de la repartition des recifs a algues en Polynesie francaise. Essai d'explications ecologiques. %A Denizot, M %A Bagnis, R %N 19 %P 168-170 %X Les constructions recifales jouent un r %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Epidemiol Sante publ %D 1974 %T La poliomyelite a Tahiti. Approche epidemiologique : etat pre-immunitaire et seroconversions post-vaccinales. %A Segonne, J %A Stanghellini, A %A Bernard, F %A Casteran, M %N 8 %P 627-635 %V 22 %X L'archipel polynesien presente un aspect epidemiologique particulier en ce qui concerne la poliomyelite. Apres une unique epidemie (virus de type 1), la poliomyelite a evolue sur le mode sporadique donnant une idee fausse de l'etat immunitaire de la population. Lorsqu'en 1971, survinrent cinq cas de poliomyelite a forme paralytique (virus de type 2), se posa le probleme de la protection des sujets exposes aux formes graves de la maladie. Sur les conseils du Service de Sante, l'Assemblee territoriale rendit obligatoire la vaccination des jeunes de 0 a 16 ans. A l'occasion d'une campagne preliminaire (3180 sujets vaccines avec le vaccin trivalent a virus attenue), une enquete serologique a ete realisee par titrage des anticorps neutralisants. L'examen des serums de cinquante jeunes de 9 a 19 ans demontra un etat pre-immunitaire insuffisant a cet %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1974 %T Les intoxications par poissons perroquets aux Iles Gambier. %A Bagnis, R %A Loussan, E %A Th %N 4 %P 523-527 %V 34 %X The authors report on a cerebellar syndrom by people of Gambier Islands, poisoned with parrot-fishes Scarus gibbus. The troubles may be in correlation with the presence in the flesh of the fish of a new fat-soluble toxic compound, different from ciguatoxin. %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J Med Ocean %D 1974 %T La ciguat %A Bagnis, R %N 2 %P 32-37 %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Phycol France %D 1974 %T Le probl %A Denizot, M %A Bagnis, R %N 19 %P 168-170 %X Les constructions r %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1974 %T Perspectives immunologiques en matiere de ciguatera. %A Bagnis, R %A Kaeuffer, H %N 1 %P 25-27 %V 34 %X Les auteurs, a propos d'une etude epidemiologique doublee d'une enquete serologique aux %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1974 %T Perspectives immunologiques en mati %A Bagnis, R %A Kaeuffer, H %N 1 %P 25-27 %V 34 %X Les auteurs, %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Int Oceanog Med %D 1974 %T Quelques aspects biochimiques des intoxications par poissons veneneux a Tahiti. %A Bagnis, R %A Letourneux, M %A Thevenin, S %P 225-236 %V 35-36 %X Les auteurs mettent en evidence le fait que les poissons veneneux de niveaux trophiques differents comme les lutjans, merous, perroquets, chirurgiens peuvent emmagasiner dans leur chair une meme toxine, chromatographiquement semblable a la ciguatoxine isolee dans une murene. Ils montrent egalement que la concentration en toxine dans les poissons carnivores est superieure a celle notee dans les poissons microphages.The authors point out that poisonous fish from different trophic levels and habits, like snapper, grouper, parrot-fish and jack can stock in their flesh a same toxin, chromatographically similar to the ciguatoxin previously isolated in a moray eel. They show that the level of toxicity is increasing in the carnivorous fish comparatively to microphagous fish. %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J Rev Int Oceanog Med %D 1974 %T Quelques aspects biochimiques des intoxications par poissons v %A Bagnis, R %A Letourneux, M %A Th %P 225-236 %V 35-36 %X Les auteurs mettent en %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Wld Hlth Org %D 1974 %T Rendement parasitaire chez les vecteurs de filarioses. %A Pichon, G %A Perrault, G %A Laigret, J %P 517-524 %V 51 %X Le rendement parasitaire (c'est-a-dire la proportion de microfilaires ingerees qui parviennent au stade infectant, le principal 'barrage' etant generalement situe au niveau de la traversee de la paroi stomacale du vecteur) varie en fonction du nombre de microfilaires ingerees, suivant deux types : limitation chez Aedes, Culex et simulies, facilitation chez les anopheles (Bain, 1971 ; Brengues & Bain, 1972). Une formule mathematique permet de relier une souche de parasite a une souche de vecteur a l'aide de deux parametres. La presentation en annexe d'un modele mathematique theorique illustre comment les phenomenes de limitation et de facilitation permettent de rendre compte des particularites epidemiologiques de la filariose de Bancroft en Polynesie et en Afrique occidentale. Les perspectives de lutte sont discutees en fonction du type fondamentalement different de regulation chez les populations naturelles de parasites.It is well known that, in the biological cycle of the Filariidae, the parasite does not multiply in the vector host. On the contrary, in a given intermediate host the infective larvae are always fewer than the microfilariae ingested : this reduction in the number of parasites during their life in the vector is termed parasite reduction, and the ratio between the number of infective larvae and the number of microfilariae ingested is known as the parasite yield. The parasite reduction seems to occur mainly on passing the stomach wall, and two types of parasite reduction have been observed : (a) in most cases (Aedes, Culex and Simulium) 'limitation' occurs : the viability of the microfilariae, or the parasite yield, drops as the number of parasites increases ; (b) in the Anopheles gambiae A/Wuchereria bancrofti partnership, the parasite yield increases when the number of ingested microfilariae increases : this is 'facilitation'. A mathematical formula for the quantitative analysis of these two phenomena is presented and their possible influence on the control of W. bancrofti populations is discussed. The Annex presents a theoretical mathematical model showing how a parasite population would develop in an isolated individual surrounded by a stable vector population, depending on wether the vectors give rise to facilitation or limitation. In conclusion, the facilitation mechanism seems to be a factor beneficial to the control of filariasis in areas where this disease is transmitted by anopheline mosquitos, such as West Africa. The viability of the microfilariae in the vector is in fact lower where the microfilarial density is reduced, which occurs as a result of mass chemoprophylaxis ; once a certain threshold is crossed eradication can theoretically be archieved spontaneously and become a permanent state. On the other hand, the presence of the limitation phenomenon in Aedes means that when the number of microfilariae is reduced the parasite yield increases towards unity. Thus the fact that it was not possible to eradicate filariasis in a polynesian island where transmission is due to Aedes polynesiensis is not necessarily attributable to inadequacies in the application of mass diethylcarbamazine treatment. In such cases it will generally be possible to obtain the best results only by a combination of mass treatment and vector control. However, even if eradication is archieved the risks of reintroduction will make the situation unstable if the vector population is not kept at a low density. %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J Cah ORSTOM Ser Ent Med Parasitol %D 1974 %T Relations mathematiques entre le nombre des microfilaires ingerees et le nombre de parasites chez differents vecteurs naturels et experimentaux de filariose. %A Pichon, G %N 4 %P 199-216 %V 12 %X Une etude mathematique des donnees publiees par divers auteurs sur differents couples parasites-vecteurs a ete realisee.Si x est le nombre moyen de microfilaires ingerees, et y est le nombre moyen de parasites traversant l'hemocele ou parvenant au stade infectant, l'inverse de la probabilite de reussite y/x semble varier de facon lineaire avec x. Il s'ensuit que le nombre de parasites transformes peut etre considere comme une fonction hyperbolique du nombre de microfilaires ingerees. Les relations parasite-vecteur peuvent etre numeriquement evaluees gr %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J Cah Pacif %D 1974 %T Situation de l'endemicite ciguaterique aux Iles Gambier. %A Bagnis, R %N 2 %P 585-599 %V 18 %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J Cah Pacif %D 1974 %T Situation de l'end %A Bagnis, R %N 2 %P 585-599 %V 18 %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1974 %T Une ciguatoxine commune a divers poissons des milieux coralliens. %A Bagnis, R %A Letourneux, M %N 2 %P 209-217 %V 67 %X The authors point out that poisonous fishes from different trophic levels and habits, like some snapper, grouper parrot-fish, surgeon-fish and Jacks can stock in their flesh a same toxin, chromatographically similar to the ciguatoxin in previously isolated in a moray eel. They show that the level of toxicity is increasing in the carnivorous fish comparatively to microphagous fish. %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1974 %T Une ciguatoxine commune %A Bagnis, R %A Letourneux, M %N 2 %P 209-217 %V 67 %X The authors point out that poisonous fishes from different trophic levels and habits, like some snapper, grouper parrot-fish, surgeon-fish and Jacks can stock in their flesh a same toxin, chromatographically similar to the ciguatoxin in previously isolated in a moray eel. They show that the level of toxicity is increasing in the carnivorous fish comparatively to microphagous fish. %8 1974 %0 Journal Article %J Am J Trop Med Hyg %D 1973 %T An epidemic of dengue on Tahiti associated with hemorrhagic manifestations. %A Moreau, J-P %A Rosen, L %A Saugrain, J %A Lagraulet, J %N 2 %P 237-241 %V 22 %X During the course of an outbreak of dengue type 2 on the island of Tahiti, French Polynesia, severe hemorrhagic disease was onserved in an unusual number of patients shortly after the onset of a febrile illness. In at least 33 instances, these hemorrhages were severe enough to require hospitalization and 3 patients died. Gastrointestinal bleeding was the most common type of severe hemorrhage observed and gross hematuria was next most common. The available data suggested that most of the hemorrhagic episodes were etiologically related to dengue virus. %8 1973 %0 Journal Article %J Am J Trop Med Hyg %D 1973 %T An epidemic of dengue on Tahiti associated with hemorrhagic manifestations. %A Moreau, J-P %A Rosen, L %A Saugrain, J %A Lagraulet, J %N 2 %P 237-241 %V 22 %X During the course of an outbreak of dengue type 2 on the island of Tahiti, French Polynesia, severe hemorrhagic disease was onserved in an unusual number of patients shortly after the onset of a febrile illness. In at least 33 instances, these hemorrhages were severe enough to require hospitalization and 3 patients died. Gastrointestinal bleeding was the most common type of severe hemorrhage observed and gross hematuria was next most common. The available data suggested that most of the hemorrhagic episodes were etiologically related to dengue virus. %8 1973 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1973 %T Etude comparative des acides gras extraits de poissons Ctenochaetus striatus provenant de zones toxicogenes et non toxicogenes du lagon de Tahiti. %A Lagraulet, J %A Bereziat, G %A Cuzon, G %A Polonovski, J %N 1 %P 235-239 %V 66 %X L'etude par chromatographie gazeuse d'acides gras extraits de poissons C. striatus provenant d'une zone toxique, et de poissons provenant d'une zone indemne met en evidence des differences importantes entre les deux profils.A gas chromatography study of acids extracted from the C. striatus fish issued from a toxic area, and from fish issued from an intact zone, shows significant differences between the two profiles. %8 1973 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1973 %T Etat actuel de la filariose aux Marquises. Differents aspects epidemiologiques. %A Lagraulet, J %A Barsinas, M %A Fagneaux, G %A Teahui, M %N 1 %P 139-155 %V 66 %X Les auteurs donnent les resultats d'une enquete hematologique effectuee aux Iles Marquises, ainsi que l'analyse d'une enquete clinique portant sur 10% de la population. Il semble exister plusieurs aspects epidemiologiques dont les differences sont souvent difficiles a interpreter.The authors reports the results of a hematologic survey carried out in the Marquesas, and an analysis of a clinical survey of 10% of the population. Several epidemiologic aspects seem to exist, the differences being difficult to interpret. %8 1973 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1973 %T Etude comparative des acides gras extraits de poissons Ctenochaetus striatus provenant de zones toxicog %A Lagraulet, J %A Bereziat, G %A Cuzon, G %A Polonovski, J %N 1 %P 235-239 %V 66 %X L' %8 1973 %0 Book %D 1973 %T In : Ed. du Pacifique (Papeete), 368 p. %A %8 1973 %0 Journal Article %J CR Soc Biol %D 1973 %T Les proteines seriques de Ctenochaetus striatus. Modifications du schema electrophoretique chez les poissons ciguaterigenes. %A Cuzon, G %A Bagnis, R %A Moreau, J-P %A Lagraulet, J %A Thevenin, S %A Bennett, J %A Nanai, F %N 1 %P 79-85 %V 167 %8 1973 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1973 %T L'electrocardiogramme au cours des intoxications par la chair de poissons veneneux. %A Renambot, J %A Bagnis, R %N 3 %P 322-330 %V 67 %X a) L'etude de 105 traces enregistres au cours de 79 intoxications par ingestion de chair de poisson toxique permet de degager un aspect electrocardiographique de la ciguatera :- bradycardie sinusale relative a 55 en moyenne (63% des traces) contrastant avec un etat de choc frequemment associe ; - aspect de la phase de repolarisation semblable a celui rencontre dans les vagotonies (40%) : %8 1973 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Wld Hlth Org %D 1973 %T La ciguatera aux %A Bagnis, R %N 1 %P 67-73 %V 49 %X Aucune etude statistique veritable du phenomene ciguaterique dans un ensemble geographique homogene n'a jamais ete publiee. Les %8 1973 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1973 %T L'epidemie de dengue de Tahiti en 1971. Evolution de la tendance hemorragique et comparaisons avec les epidemies precedentes. %A Saugrain, J %A Moreau, J-P %A Rosen, L %N 3 %P 381-385 %V 66 %X En 1971, une epidemie de dengue a virus 2 a atteint l' %8 1973 %0 Journal Article %J CR Soc Biol %D 1973 %T Les prot %A Cuzon, G %A Bagnis, R %A Moreau, J-P %A Lagraulet, J %A Th %N 1 %P 79-85 %V 167 %8 1973 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1973 %T L' %A Renambot, J %A Bagnis, R %N 3 %P 322-330 %V 67 %X a) L' %8 1973 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Wld Hlth Org %D 1973 %T La ciguat %A Bagnis, R %N 1 %P 67-73 %V 49 %X Aucune %8 1973 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1973 %T L' %A Saugrain, J %A Moreau, J-P %A Rosen, L %N 3 %P 381-385 %V 66 %X En 1971, une %8 1973 %0 Journal Article %J Biochimie %D 1973 %T Mise en evidence d'une toxine de nature lipidique dans le muscle d'un poisson perroquet de l'espece Scarops rubroviolaceus. %A Letourneux, M %A Bagnis, R %P 1499-1502 %V 55 %8 1973 %0 Journal Article %J Biochimie %D 1973 %T Mise en %A Letourneux, M %A Bagnis, R %P 1499-1502 %V 55 %8 1973 %0 Journal Article %J Helgol %D 1973 %T Observations sur le metabolisme d'un poisson veneneux des eaux tropicales : ctenochaetus striatus. %A Cuzon, G %A Bagnis, R %A Lagraulet, J %P 327-332 %V 24 %X 1. La toxicite des poissons est contr %8 1973 %0 Journal Article %J Helgol %D 1973 %T Observations sur le m %A Cuzon, G %A Bagnis, R %A Lagraulet, J %P 327-332 %V 24 %X 1. La toxicit %8 1973 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1973 %T Prophylaxie et traitement de la filariose en Polynesie francaise. %A Lagraulet, J %N 2 %P 311-320 %V 66 %X L'auteur passe en revue les differents types de traitements employes dans la chimioprophylaxie de la filariose en Polynesie. Il donne un apercu de la situation actuelle et des resultats obtenus, qu'il estime satisfaisants. La lutte contre le vecteur ne para %8 1973 %0 Journal Article %J Nouvelle presse medicale %D 1973 %T Piq %A Lagraulet, J %A Tapu, J %A Cuzon, G %A Fouques, M %N 28 %P 1893-1897 %V 2 %X En Polynesie francaise, existent de nombreux poissons venimeux. parmi ceux-ci :Les synancees (stone fish) sont responsables de la majorite des accidents, mais ceux que l'on observe sont beaucoup moins graves qu'en Australie. Aucun cas mortel n'a ete releve en Polynesie francaise depuis de tres nombreuses annees ; Les scorpenes provoquent de nombreuses blessures, mais les reactions sont beaucoup moins violentes qu'avec les synancees ; Les pterois piquent presqu'exclusivement les baigneurs imprudents, et malgre la grande toxicite du venin, les phenomenes observes sont d'une intensite moyenne ; Les raies, elles, ne provoquent que de tres rares blessures, et l'on a pu observer en Polynesie francaise que des cas benins. In French Polynesia, there are numerous poisonous fishes. Among the latter, one may note stone fishes which are responsible for most accidents, but those observed are less serious than those in Australia. There have been no fatal cases in French Polynesia for a number of years. Scorpion-fish produce numerous wounds, but the reactions are less violent than with the stone fish. The pterois almost exclusively bite careless bathers and, in spite of the toxicity of the venom, the phenomena observed are of moderate intensity. Skate-fish produce only rare wounds, and in French Polynesia we have observed only benign cases. %8 1973 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1973 %T Un empoisonnement mortel par tortue marine. %A Bagnis, R %A Bourligueux, G %N 1 %P 91-96 %V 32 %X Les auteurs rapportent une intoxication familiale par la tortue marine E. Imbricata dans les %8 1973 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1973 %T Un empoisonnement mortel par tortue marine. %A Bagnis, R %A Bourligueux, G %N 1 %P 91-96 %V 32 %X Les auteurs rapportent une intoxication familiale par la tortue marine E. Imbricata dans les %8 1973 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1972 %T A propos de l'intoxication par les poissons 'becs de cane'. %A Lagraulet, J %A Tapu, J %A Cuzon, G %A Fabre-Teste, R %N 5 %P 733-737 %V 65 %X Les auteurs attirent l'attention sur le fait que l'intoxication par les Lethrinides 'becs de cane' presente, d'apres les observations citees, quelques caracteres particuliers: les malades sont principalement intoxiques par la tete et la region thoraco-abdominale du poisson, et l'empoisonnement est relativement grave, avec comme particularites : un temps d'incubation assez long, une legere bradycardie et la rarete de la presence du prurit.The author draws attention to the fact that, according to the observations reported, intoxication by Lethrinides 'duck beak' present some peculiar characteristics : the patients are mainly intoxicated by the head and thoraco-abdominal regions of the fish, the poisoning is relatively severe, with a short incubation time, a slight bradycardia, and the rarity of prurit. %8 1972 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1972 %T Activite in vitro du L. Tetramisole sur les larves infestantes de Necator americanus. %A Moreau, J-P %N 2 %P 309-313 %V 64 %X L'activite du L. tetramisole a ete testee in vitro sur des larves infestantes de Necator americanus maintenues en survie dans le milieu NCTC 109 additionne de 10% de serum humain decomplemente. La survie est significativement differente a partir d'une concentration de 0,5 microgramme par ml. Le taux sanguin du L. tetramisole apres une prise unique orale de 6 mg/kg est six fois superieur. On peut donc admettre que le L. tetramisole est actif sur les larves infestantes au cours de leur migration tissulaire.The activity of L. tetramisole has been tried in vitro against the Necator americanus infective larvae, kept in survival in the NCTC 109 medium plus 10% inactivated human serum. The survival is significantly different from a concentration of 0,5 microgram per ml. The L. tetramisole blood level after a single dose per os of 6 mg/kg is six fold higher. We can then think that the L. tetramisole is efficient against the infective larvae during their tissular migration. %8 1972 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1972 %T Aspects de la lepre en Polynesie francaise. %A Saugrain, J %A Stanghellini, A %N 6 %P 735-741 %V 32 %X The origins of leprosy in Oceania are debated. One thing looks certain, i.e., from the second half of the 19th Century, shortly after the arrival of chinese imported cases, the disease evolved and spread quickly.First medical records date from 1784. At this time, 7 Chinese and 1 European lepers were counted in Tahiti. When an anti hansenian center was created in 1914, 168 lepers were known, 40 p. 100 of whom were lepromatous. On 1971, 329 patients were known for a population of 100,000 (3.35 p. 100). The evolution of incidence by 5 years cross sections shows a clear decrease since 1958 for it went from 0.26 p. 1.000 to 0.09 p. 1.000. Children are very seldom affected. Among 329 patients, 317 are Polynesians, 11 Chinese and one European. Lepromatous constitute 38.5 p.e 100, indifferentiated 28.8 p. 100, tuberculoid, 32.7 p. 100. So, in French Polynesia, leprosy is similar to Asian leprosy, with a high percentage of lepromatous cases, and it differs from African leprosy. Leprosy in Polynesia is not very prevalent and apparently slightly communicable, but it is a severe disease. The anti hansenian Orofara Center houses permanently about 60 patients, one fifth of the known cases, and almost all the detected cases have stayed for long periods. The patients are liable to relapses or reactions and most of them have incurable disabilities. Therapeutic balance is generally bad. The treatment patterns which have been codified elsewhere can be severely disappointing here, and sulfons as long acting sulfamids must be used carefully and progressively. %8 1972 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1972 %T A propos de l'intoxication par les poissons 'becs de cane'. %A Lagraulet, J %A Tapu, J %A Cuzon, G %A Fabre-Teste, R %N 5 %P 733-737 %V 65 %X Les auteurs attirent l'attention sur le fait que l'intoxication par les L %8 1972 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Wld Hlth Org %D 1972 %T Bilan de vingt annees de lutte contre la filariose subperiodique de Bancroft en Polynesie francaise. %A Saugrain, J %A Outin-Fabre, D %N 2 %P 249-252 %V 46 %X En 1949, la filariose de Bancroft posait un important probleme de sante publique a Tahiti : les indices microfilariens etaient de l'ordre de 30% et l'elephantiasis tres frequent. Differents schemas de prophylaxie, bases essentiellement sur l'emploi de la diethylcarbamazine, ont ete essayes apres qu'on eut recense la population et evalue les indices dans les differents groupes d' %8 1972 %0 Journal Article %J Marine pollution and sea life. FAO Fishing News %D 1972 %T Ciguatera et intervention humaine sur les ecosystemes coralliens en Polynesie francaise. %A Bagnis, R %P 597-600 %8 1972 %0 Journal Article %J Marine pollution and sea life. FAO Fishing News %D 1972 %T Ciguat %A Bagnis, R %P 597-600 %8 1972 %0 Journal Article %J Bulletin de la societe des etudes oceaniennes %D 1972 %T Des nono et des hommes. %A Lavondes, H %A Pichon, G %N 6 %P 150-179 %V XV %8 1972 %0 Journal Article %J Cah ORSTOM, Ser Ent Med Parasitol %D 1972 %T Differenciation interspecifique de l'hemolymphe des larves d'Aedes (Stegomyia) polynesiensis Marks et d'Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti Linne. I- Etudes immunologiques. %A Moreau, J-P %A Lagraulet, J %A Pichon, G %A Cuzon, G %V X %X La double diffusion en gelose d'Ouchterlony met en evidence quatre arcs de precipitation communs entre l'hemolymphe des larves de quatrieme stade d'Aedes polynesiensis et Aedes aegypti. L'analyse immunoelectrophoretique revele douze arcs communs. Sur le plan immunologique l'identite semble etre complete entre l'hemolymphe de ces deux especes, qui appartiennent au meme sous-genre.The Ouchterlony double diffusion test shows four common lines of precipitation between hemolymph of fourth stage arvae of Aedes polynesiensis and Aedes aegypti. The immunoelectrophoretic study reveals twelve common lines. The identity between the components of hemolymph of these species seems to be complete by immonologic study. %8 1972 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1972 %T Enquete epidemiologique sur la filariose lymphatique aux Marquises. %A Lagraulet, J %A Pichon, G %A Outin-Fabre, D %A Stanghellini, A %A Moreau, J-P %N 3 %P 447-455 %V 65 %X Les auteurs ont effectue une enquete sur la filariose aux Iles Marquises. 18,4% des sujets presentant une microfilaremie positive. Une goutte epaisse prelevee a l'oreille a permis de depister des malades qui n'avaient pas ete depistes par un prelevement effectue au doigt. Sur 2706 habitants 49 etaient porteurs d'elephantiasis (2,8%), la localisation la plus frequente etait le membre inferieur (81,7%). Les elephantiasis etant plus frequents chez les sujets d'origine europeenne ou tres fortement metisses d'Europeen. 3,6% de la population a presente des poussees de lymphangite en 1971, les hydroceles, adenolymphoceles et chyluries ont ete rarement observees.The authors have carried out a survey on filariosis in the Marquesas. 18.4% of the individuals had a positive microfilaremia. A thick drop carried out from the ear allowed to demonstrate patients who had not been demonstrated by a sample taken from the finger. Out of 2706 inhabitants, 49 were carriers of elephantiasis (2.8%), the most frequent location being the inferior member (81.7%). Elephantiasis was more frequent in European people or in markedly European crossed individuals. In 1971, 3.6% of the population presented lymphangitis attacks. Hydrceles, adenolymphoceles and chyluria were very rare. %8 1972 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1972 %T Essais in vitro de la diethylcarbamazine. I. Activite sur les microfilaires de Wuchereria bancrofti variete pacifica. %A Moreau, J-P %A Outin-Fabre, D %N 1 %P 93-98 %V 65 %X L'activite de la diethylcarbamazine a ete testee in vitro sur des microfilaires de Wuchereria bancrofti variete pacifica, maintenues en survie dans le milieu 199 de Parker en solution de Hanks additionne de 10% de serum de poulain. Le temps de survie n'est significativement different qu'a partir d'une concentration de diethylcarbamazine de 100 mg par millilitre, soit un taux 20 fois superieur au taux sanguin trouve chez l'homme apres une prise orale de 10 mg par kilo de poids. Il est etabli que la diethylcarbamazine fait dispara %8 1972 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1972 %T Essais in vitro de la diethylcarbamazine. II. Activite sur les larves infestantes de W. bancrofti var. pacifica. %A Moreau, J-P %A Outin-Fabre, D %N 1 %P 98-103 %V 65 %X L'activite de la DEC in vitro sur les larves infestantes de W. bancrofti est inexistante pour des concentrations bien superieures aux taux seriques obtenus chez l'homme apres des prises orales de doses qui ne sauraient etre depassees sans entra %8 1972 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1972 %T Heterogeneite de la repartition des microfilaires dans le sang peripherique chez les malades atteints de filariose de Bancroft et apercu general sur la filariose aux Marquises. %A Lagraulet, J %A Barsinas, M %A Fagneaux, G %N 5 %P 698-703 %V 65 %X L'auteur donne un bref apercu sur les problemes de la filariose aux Marquises ou il a decele 5% d'elephantiasis chez les adultes, et un nombre important d'autres lesions cliniques, qui donnent a cette endemie une allure grave. Il a pratique chez 22 malades, 5 prelevements de 20 mm3 de sang, en differents endroits du corps et il a pu noter que la plus grande concentration de microfilaires se trouvait dans les prelevements effectues au doigt. Par ailleurs, il insiste sur l'interet qu'il y a a faire en plus, un prelevement a l'oreille, car ce type de prelevement lui a permis de depister 9,5% de porteurs qui n'avaient pas ete depistes par une goutte epaisse effectuee seulement au doigt.Brief review of the filariosis problem in the Marquesas, where the author has demonstrated 5% elephantiasis in adults and a high number of other clinical lesions, which confer to this endemic a severe character. He has taken blood from 22 patients (5 times 20 mm3 at different places of the body) ; the highest filaria concentration is in the finger blood. On the other hand, the author emphasizes the importance of taking blood from the ear : this technique allowed to demonstrate 9.5% of carriers who had not been detected by a thick drop from the finger blood. %8 1972 %0 Journal Article %J Concours medical %D 1972 %T Les empoisonnements par les poissons en pays tropicaux. %A Lagraulet, J %A Cuzon, G %N 7 %P 5282-5293 %V 8 %X Alors que l'on envisage d'intensifier au maximum la distribution dans le monde de proteines animales venant de la mer on s'apercoit que les poissons tropicaux deviennent de plus en plus toxiques. Les auteurs donnent un apercu sur les problemes recents poses par l'ichtyosarcotoxisme et rapportent l'analyse de 50 cas cliniques. Ils pensent que, bien que la formule chimique des principales toxines soit maintenant etablie, il y a encore un tres grand pas a franchir avant de parvenir au contr %8 1972 %0 Journal Article %J Medecine d'Afrique Noire %D 1972 %T La ciguatera : un probleme original d'oceanographie medicale. Nouvelle tentative d'explication de sa cause. %A Bagnis, R %N 1 %P 27-34 %V 19 %8 1972 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1972 %T L'elephantiasis aux Iles Marquises. %A Lagraulet, J %A Pichon, G %A Cuzon, G %N 3 %P 437-447 %V 65 %X Dans les %8 1972 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1972 %T Les proteines seriques du filarien lymphatique a Wuchereria bancrofti variete pacifica. Etude electrophoretique et dosage immunologique des immunoglobules a M, G, E. %A Moreau, J-P %A Cuzon, G %A Pichon, G %A Outin-Fabre, D %A Lagraulet, J %N 3 %P 456-463 %V 65 %X L'etude electrophoretique du serum des filariens lymphatiques a Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica a microfilaremie positive, indemnes de lesions chroniques et avant tout traitement revele une augmentation tres nette des gamma globulines. Le dosage des immunoglobulines met en evidence l'augmentation des IgG et des IgE.The study by electrophoresis of sera of people who had a lymphatic filariasis by Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica, shows an incontestable increase of gamma globulins. These patients were carriers of microfilariae but had no chronic lesions and did not receive any treatments previously. The dosage of immunoglobulins reveals an increase of IgG and IgE. %8 1972 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1972 %T Les morsures par requins en Polynesie francaise. %A Lagraulet, J %A Tapu, J %A Vidal, R %A Fouques, M %N 4 %P 592-605 %V 65 %X Les auteurs donnent quelques indications sur le comportement des requins en Polynesie francaise et relatent 14 observations de personnes blessees. Sept furent provoquees par Carcharhinus menissorah. Les requins de petite taille sont les plus agressifs et sont responsables de la majorite des accidents. Ils attaquent brutalement et directement. Les blessures mortelles sont absolument exceptionnelles et les blessures graves representent seulement la moitie des cas.The authors describe the shark's behaviour in French Polynesia and 14 observations on wounded individuals. Seven wounds were caused by Carcharhinus menissorah. Small size sharks are the most aggressive and are responsible for the greatest number of accidents : they brutally and directly attack ; lethal injuries are exceptional and severe injuries represent only half of the cases. %8 1972 %0 Journal Article %J Concours m %D 1972 %T Les empoisonnements par les poissons en pays tropicaux. %A Lagraulet, J %A Cuzon, G %N 7 %P 5282-5293 %V 8 %X Alors que l'on envisage d'intensifier au maximum la distribution dans le monde de prot %8 1972 %0 Journal Article %J Medecine d'Afrique Noire %D 1972 %T La ciguatera : un probl %A Bagnis, R %N 1 %P 27-34 %V 19 %8 1972 %0 Journal Article %J Cah ORSTOM, Ser Ent Med Parasitol %D 1972 %T Note technique : Confection de tubes grillages pour la manipulation individuelle de moustiques adultes. %A Pichon, G %A Perrault, G %A Cuzon, G %A Lagraulet, J %N 4 %P 327-330 %V X %8 1972 %0 Journal Article %J Med Afrique Noire %D 1972 %T Physionomie actuelle de l'endemie filarienne en Polynesie et son contr %A Outin-Fabre, D %A Moreau, J-P %A Stanghellini, A %N 2 %P 89-92 %V 19 %8 1972 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Soc Pathol Exot %D 1972 %T Quelques observations recentes sur les piq %A Lagraulet, J %A Tapu, J %A Cuzon, G %A Fabre-Teste, R %A Toudic, A %N 4 %P 605-621 %V 65 %X Les auteurs donnent un apercu sur la biologie et le comportement des synancees qui piquent chaque annee plus de 60 personnes en Polynesie francaise. Ils relatent onze observations, d'apres lesquelles, il ressort que les malades sont generalement piques aux pieds, et dans des eaux peu profondes a fonds vasards. Une douleur extremement vive et l'apparition d'un oedeme important sont de regle. Ils disparaissent generalement en quelques jours, mais des complications peuvent appara %8 1972 %0 Journal Article %J Ann Parasitol %D 1972 %T Survie in vitro des larves de troisieme stade d'Angiostrongylus cantonenesis. Etude de l'activite du L. Tetramisole dans le milieu NCTC 109. %A Moreau, J-P %A Lagraulet, J %N 4 %P 525-529 %V XLVII %X La survie des larves de troisieme stade d'Angiostrongylus cantonensis a ete testee in vitro dans differents milieux. A 37 %8 1972 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Wld Hlth Org %D 1972 %T Une experience pilote de campagne antifilarienne en milieu insulaire (Moorea, Polynesie francaise). %A Outin-Fabre, D %A Saugrain, J %A Stanghellini, A %A Pichon, G %N 2 %P 253-256 %V 46 %X L'experience pilote de Moorea a permis d'approcher l'interruption de la transmission de la filariose subperiodique de Bancroft en Polynesie francaise. La methode preconisee a la suite de ses conclusions, methode valable dans le contexte insulaire particulier de cette zone geographique, associe le traitement a doses curatives des porteurs de microfilaires a une prophylaxie de masse touchant l'ensemble de la population de plus d'un an d' %8 1972 %0 Journal Article %J Med Trop %D 1971 %T Activite humaine en milieu corallien et ciguatera. %A Bagnis, R %N 3 %P 285-292 %V 31 %X In many atolls of French Polynesia, outbreaks of ciguatera fish poisoning have been reported few months or years after stresses had been observed on limited areas of coral reefs or lagoons. The author gives some results of a study concerning the conditions in which the disease has appeared and developed after important agression on atoll benthos. In the light of this information he considers ciguatera fish poisoning as one aspect of the reaction of coral reef biota to different types of stress to which it has been submitted. %8 1971 %0 Journal Article %J Bull Wld Hlth Org %D 1971 %T A review of the filariasis control programme in Tahiti from November 1967 to January 1968. %A Kessel, J-F %P 783-794 %V 44 %X Des enquetes sur la filariose menees a Tahiti peu de temps apres la deuxieme guerre mondiale ont montre le taux de prevalence le plus eleve du Pacifique sud : l'indice microfilarien atteignait 25 a 44%, l